Newspaper Page Text
IN THEIR HOMES.
They Earn lint Little More Than
Enough to Meet (he Land
LSEARY, LONESOME BUSINESS.
■ . There Is but Little Romance About
the Crofter's Every-Day and
Home Life- Girls Who Have
■ to Join the Herring - Curer's
■Crew: During : the Summer
Months— What a Crofter's Home
Special to Tax Sunday Cali.
. .- " . -.
' tT - — 1 ' "', -BEWICK (Shetland), Oct 2,
J. [ . Whatever may be the
r. -S average tourist's Impressions
. V f f~l from passing glimpses of croft
' J'l J ( * ers' communities, crofters'
t__ -A homes and the crofters them
* selves, 1 believe l-ne who passes some timo
' among them cannot turn from them to his
own world of brightness ar.d i regress with
•' out a genuine sense of sadness fur their
permanent, hopeless condition. It is un
questionably true that ihe "Crofters' Act"
• of 1886 was a just and benefi ent measure.
. "Fair rents" have been almost universally
fixed; arrears impossible .of liquidation
• have been either wholly canceled or largely
: reduced; and personal freedom as a man,
subject and Voter has been established.
. .The . Crofters' Commission has already
■righted countless wrongs to which tlie
crofter had been subjected for nearly a
century aud a half; and it may be truthfully
■ said that all has been done for this High
l.-.nd . groundling that ever can be d.no
• under the present land system of Great
Britain, individual owners are so few,
* such vast tract?, especially ir the north and
* west of of Scotland, have been permanently
transformed into game preserves, such
' insignificant' and ir adequate holdings are iv
• the crofters' lossessibn under Hip new* order
' * of things; and communities of these people
. are.so lew*," and these so meager iv numbers,
-that betterment to these Highlanders as a
class 3c(-ms Impossible.
As stated in a previous article, the process
of 'thinning them out of, or their actual ex
.' tinction from, tremendous area* had been
. so,tho. ou2h by the owners of lff*hland es
. tates, that lew crofters were lelt to receive
'..'benefits. I'he tenacity with which, despite
.' ail sacrifice and terror, these fe* clung to
■ ' their mountain homes, is a woudeiful tribute
.. ; : . '■ LOVE OF HOME-I.ANn,
• "which, in. a hardy race like the Highland
:.• crolt.< could have been turned to infinitely
■'..better account by Scotland, and even Scot
tish landlords, than could the rentals from
■sportsmen tenants. . This sentiment is so
" strong and deep a ono to-day among Scottish
people of ail .sections that here is a notice
. . able .growing and stubborn demand for
: "land division," "kind reform," and even in
some quarters for "nationalization .• of
the: lanu." .Many intelligent crofters seem
. confident that some form of legislation
. will s- me time give them adequately large
. holdings. An idea is certainly gaining
" ground that at least sportsmen will go out
and Hieep-iaiiing return. ' Sentiment is not
•■wholly responsible for this. The first ex
periment by. the great highland land-hold
ers, after the barbarous clearances of the
Highlanders, was in sheep-raising. This
..• was successful, and, in consequence, the
clearances were. largely condoned by a most
'. important class in Scotland; men 'who assist
-. in making and unmaking Parliament. These
• ., were the Lowland farmers. Countless thou
sands of Highland sheep, reared in the north,
. were annually driven through the Gram
.. pian passes, l and before reaching the
. shamble's wintered- by Lowland .farmers,
.-.who tnus secured profitable disposal of
•': immense quantities of produce. Since the
.- British sportsmen got possession of the
• northern and western glens, Highland
* sheep lave become practically extinct.
• - Therefore -what the Highland estate owners
* have gained by game the Lowland farmers
have immeasurably more than lost. ■' The
',' latter have .no pity. fur the crofter on his
own. account, but ■ they know in a direct,.
•_ hard-headed nay th it he aud his collie dog
are the .best shepherds In. the world. So
'.'these and some other pressing . economic
**: forces are gradually bl tiding the "crofter
■ question " and the " land .question" in Scot
.land,. and providing an ec< nomic.question
. •; which may at least reach that form of legis
. : lation which will break down 'the now 7 in
■ visible jet inflexible walls of these great
Highland*, estates, and.cause the repeopling
of tin ir grand mountain sides and glens.
But that can hardly come to the "grave, sad
• eyes of the crofter who now lives. And it is
*:' this tnftn whose condition,- environment .and'
. .bome.-liffe.l have set out to describe. . *
" • Whether he lives in the same cabin where
: his forefathers lived 'before : him, or is one
•who has been "removed" from the old
. home-to' some new and* worthless patch
* ground for the larger liberty of deer, he' is
- never the possessor, as tenant, of more than
,' thirty' acres of land, while nine-tenths of
.. the entire class do not occupy more than
five. In some instances be has an "outrun".
. or "common grazing" • with,, others, where
..from twenty to ' thirty sheen and two or
. three cows may be grazed, and when this is
...so, be Is -considered very well.off. ;
• •* TO FIXD HIM is THIS CONDITION
fl Is the rarest exception; and ordinarily his
• miserable patch of soil, of from say two to
six acres, scarcely affords him' the barest
■ means of- livelihood. For this tiny croft he
• pays au average rental of £6 under the new
•''fair rent" system, and under the old "rack
rent" regime he tried to pay, -but never
* paid, from £10 to £15 and £20. With the
■ certain uncertainties of Highland climate In
.mimi, no one can for a moment believe it
possible/ for a crofter to pay even the' re
duced rent, and sustain himself and family
•irom- the results of his labor upon the soil
• sb ne, - 1 believe It would be a truthful asser
• tion that the croft in no single instance ever
.sustained the crofter. It will not sustain
him under the "fair rent" system of to-day.
The landlord now gets nearly the utmost
limit of what' the soil it-elf can produce.
'•• The salvation of the crofter can only be at
tained by providing him with larger crofts,
so that the labor of himself and family may
.-* be concentrated where most profitable re
sults can obtain.; or rentals for the beggnrly
. putijh he is foiced to exist upon must be re
duced t-i almost a nominal sum. A prosper
. ous peasantry is impossible where the ener
. gies ol the family are dissipated In a half
' dozen different vocations to -simply pay rent
• that a thatch may be' kept over the beads of
• the very old and very young of the family.
Briefly, that is tbeconditiuuof the crofter,
and it is all that is, or ever has been, the
'matter. with him.'. To merely exist he has
• been forced into becoming fisher, kelp-gath
erer,'poacher; anything to live., Ills wife
. becomes fisher, : "gutter,"or dresser of her
rings at the seaside, mussel-gatherer, or does
any tortuous labor possible to add pound or
• * shilling to tfie store for meeting the inexora
'. ble demand of the rent. The daughters are
forced from home into service, and their al
tered condition and needs deprive them of
'•■both their love of the. Highland home and the
power to bestow more than a pittance upon
its keeping. The sons become gillies 1 1
Highland sportsmen* with a few weeks of
demoralizing luxury and ten months of
idleness and unrest; or better, though still
• bad, are crowded to the towns to further im
poverish labor there; or perhaps in the end,
best, reach Canada or the States, where for
yeais the little saved beyond a bare living
finds its. way back to the crofter father and
eventually to the landlord for rent. As a
rule the oldest eon marries and remains at
. home. He seldom has the inclination or the
means to "hive off" and set up housekeep
. . log on another croft, and besides it is the in
flexible policy of Highland landlords to re
strict, rather than increase croft holdings..
. This leads to. a subdivision of the already
• Inadequate home-croft and two families, in
stead one, repeat an intensified struggle
. INCREASING the EVIL* ,
And giving warrant for the ever-recurring
landlord cry of "congested crofter dis
tricts," while millions of acres of land, idle
• save for its use to sportsmen, are sweeping
away Into almost impenetrable wildernesses
around them. . ■■-
, ■ .In-all the, crofter settlements, established
at the different occasions of "clearance","
there is little of interest save the unvarying
desolation of environment and every-day
* life. -■ This class of. critters are* the most'
mulch..-.-, voiceless people that I've. ■ Fring
ing the entire.- northeastern, northern. and
• northwestern . coasts _of Scotland may be.
■-', found hamlets of this class. There is not
the sound of mirth, the tone of content or
the look., of hope to be. heard or seen in
one. _ The land is barren," the sea-coast is
grewsome and dreary, the habitations are
" wretched,' fishing is ? : precarious and " the
entire life of tliese people Is a ceaseless,
sunless effort to live. *: It is' only in. the
glens, on the mountain-sides, within* the
Bl ._«■« itiifiiiflimrii Siriimir • ■airtriimrii nirTHir—tfmr'i
straths, clustered in the upland cor
ries or hollows, or here and there nes
tled bj the side cf mountain lochs and
rivers, "a here the "removals" nnd "clear
ances," like some wild mountain tempest,
swept over the old Highlanders without
annihilating all their homes, that the crofter
ol old, the crofter of song and story and
tourists' tales. . may yet be found. He is
grave and silent in his loneliness; but about
this child of the mist lingers nearly all that
remains of Highland tradition, folk-lore and
picturesqueness of environment. The sin
gle, lonely, isolated croft is too dreary for
winsomencss. But you will now and then
come upon an old "clachan," where three or
foor, or perhaps half a dozen, crofts nestle
in a corrie together, are huddled under the
friendly protection of some precipitous crag,
or are grouped like brown gypsy tents be
neath the strong arms of primeval trees;
and here life and customs are in many re
spects very primitive ihdeed.
The "auld clachan," aside from so uni
versally being tho hamlet-home of the
crofter, it is worthy of attention ou Its own
account. The word is occasionally a mis
nomer among Scottish people themselves,
as applied to any ancient and picturesque
hamlet of a hall-score or so quaint old
houses. Clachan has a more ancient aud
honorable signification, lt is a pure Gaelic
woul meaning "a circle of stones." The
clachau was the fane or place of worship of
the pagan Caledonians. When Christianity
was introduced the missionaries from lona
very wisely planted the cross within the
sacred clachan. In time little chapels, and
finally churches, followed. Houses grew up
around these, aud then the tiny church
place or hamlet itself took the name
of the spot where the old pagan rites
were ouce celebrated. It is interesting, too,
to note '.'ow exactly identical is the Gaelic of
the crofter Highlander of to-day with that
of his heathen ancestors of ISOO cr 2000
years ago. lustead of asking his neighbor
in Gaelic, "Are you going to church to
day?" he will ask,
"ABB rOU GOING TO TIIE STONES?"
(Am bheil thu'dol don clachan)? The
quaintest bits of primitive architecture in
all Scotland are to be found in these quaint
old nests. The pagan clachan is gone; the
chapels and churches— fcr they were of th
sort iconoclast Cromwell did not like— were
lons ago razed to the ground. But if you
have the archaeological instinct .you can find
bits of ciosses, cinerary urns and sacrificial
stones built into house- alls, just as you will
find at Bowness-on-Solway, Unman altars
and first-century Human inscriptions iguo
bly set in pig-sties and byres. A vitrified
fort will often he discovered near at hand.
Huge cromlechs and menhirs, marking
pagan burial-places, are never far away.
And there is always within,' or just witliout,
that clelt of rock whence has trickled for
centuries the crystal stream which in Co
liimb's days was ever blessed and sacred.
Because the clachan and croft have almost
always been inseparably connected tlvre is
little wonder thai the crofter clings lovingly
to these weird old places; that his manner
has become subdued and grave from endless
feeding upon the Gaelic lyric of a mystic
past; or ihat the forgivable superstitions
and wraiths which cling about these eerie
spots have wrought very many fantastic
fancies within the warp and woof of bis
There is little romance about the crofter's
every-day and borne Ufa .if. he can make
his rent partially from his land, lie tills it in
the hard old primitive way, with tho rudest
of tooN: and in Skye, the Hebrides, in re
mote parts of the North and here in Shet
land the cr poked wooden spade, or earth
fork, is still to be seen; If he cannot lie is
forced to leave lie croft to the care ot his
wife and . children and turn fisherman.
Often his wife and grown daughter leave
the croft aud join the ln-rritig-curers' crows
on the coast lor several months of the sum
mer. • His subsistence gained from the croft
is always precaiious; aud were it not that
his wants are few he could not live at all.
His principal crops are oats and potatoes; but
' often the variable nature of the climate ren
ders a steady return doubtful. Often the oats
fail to ripon. Again, when they mature, the
little crop is frequently destroyed by rain.
Potatoes of late year-, occasionally blight or
rot. When both the oats and potatoes fail,
actual famine comes. By the greatest vigi
lance enough grass may be cured for the
long winter supply for the few animals ; but
there is always peat to be had for the one
bright spot in all the crofter's life, the great,
open fire-place of his cal in. Alter the cows
are milked in the morning, the younger
children, accompanied by the collie "dog, set
out to herd them, for the crofts are seldom
inclosed. Old coats or. jackets are thrown
over their slioulders, nud they listlessly
move about like a bevy of automatic scare
crows, keeping the cattle* or sheep within
bounds the whole day lons. B"|
DREARY, LONESOME BUSINESS THIS,
In the old days or in these days, but of late
some of thesoddenness of this life is being
relieved by the books good folk have put in
the youthful herders' bunds, and the winter
school is gradually opening a new world to
their eacer, childish eyes.
It is customary where there are only one
or two beasts To "t«ther" them with chain
or rope. The horse or "sheitie." if the
crofter has me, is also "hobbled" Some
times half a dozen sheep will be. tethered by
day and put into the sheep-cot at night.
Such croft sheep are universally called pets.
The world has heard of the famous "pet
lamb case", between the great American
deer-stalker W. L..Winans, who controls a
gamepreserve of over 250,000 acres, ami the
shoemaker of Kintail. 'i ha shoemaker's
only lamb strayed from tin* highway, tres
passed on the great man's aire;., was
pounced upon and slaughtered by a game
keeper; and finally caused an action at law
that agitated the hole of Great Britain and
became the subject of many an* eloquent
outburst in and out of the liouse of Com
mons. The crofter's home is often a sod hut
with a sod thatch. More frequently it con
sists.of four low wniis of apparently un
cemented stones, with a thatch of straw or
fir-branchrs and straw, held In it- place by
stones anchored from the eaves by straw
ropes. The structure usually incloses but
one room. .There js a low. wide door, per
haps a window or two, but. in some cases
only a "boa!," or square ape:ature for ad
mitting light aod air, will be found, A bunk
answers for a bed for the old folks. The
children are disposed of in the loir. A few
rude benches or square blocks of stone uear
the fire-place answer for seats. A spinning
wheel, here- and there a hand-loom, more
or less fishing-gear, some iron pots, a
little earthenware, and often the square
wooden diinkin^-cups, or " mothers of
tho ancient Gaels will be found. A few of
the. more fortunate crofters may possess a
" but and ben" house, that is, a house with
two rooms, when "gancin' but" or "hen"
Is the aristocratic possibility. The crofter's
food almost universally comprises porridge
and milk, and perhaps bread and tea, for
breakfast. At dinner he may have a ban
nock of rye with an egg. The supper will
be the breakfast repeated without tea.
Sometimes the dinner is varied by herrings
and potatoes. He is a total stranger to fruit,
as wo know it, though there ore sometimes
a few wild mountti n berries to be got. He
is utterly devoid of amusements. The old
Highland camen have entirely disappeared
in the Highlands. In the old days the
"ceilidh" (pronounced "kailoy ") or gossip
ing party, occupied the hug winter even
ings, lt lingers still where the clergy's sharp
eyes do not too often come; and in it are
whisperingly preserved all the old tales of
clan and tartan, witch and warlock, and the
sweeter folk-lore of this tender-hearted,
long-suffering, hospitable, hopeless people.
Copyright.* Edgar 1.. Wakuiax.
SAVED ill BUI'S LIFE.
Then, %a Flagman McKigney I. raped, He
MVna Killed by the Locomotive.
Edward McKigney, a lineman at the
Grove-street cro.-sing of the Pennsylvania
Itailroad in Jersey City, was killed yester
day morning. Since the lailroad company
began to elevate the tracks iv the city there
have been no gates at the i rossings, but the
number of guards Ims been quadrupled to
prevent accident. McXigney wns one of the
new men. lie had been employed in a
foundry for twenty-five years, and had ac
cumulated sufficient property to live on for
the remainder of his life. He had also
raised a family, and their earnings made it
possible for him to give up his employment
in the foundry and take life easy. Thomas
Tennant, the trackmaster on the Jersey
City division of the road, an old friend of
McKigney, suggested that he might take the
place of flagman to occupy bis lime aud add
something to his income.
About 9:30 o'clock yesterday morning a
west-bound express train approached the
crossing at a moderate speed. McKigney
and his fellow flag-men stood on either side
of the crossing waving their flags. A boy
darted behind McKigney, and was on the
track before the latter saw him. A warn
ing shoutl from the other flagman attracted
the attention of both, and without a mo
ment's hesitation McKigney Jumped for
ward, seized the boy ami hurled hun out of
the way of the approaching train. As he
was in the act ot leaping from the track
himself the locomotive caught him. He was
dashed to one side and killed almost in
The boy escaped, and was probably so
badly frightened that he did not return to
learn either the name or the tale of ids
rescurer. | It was said that lie wore a mes
senger's uniform, but neither the Western
Union nor the American District Company,
the only concerns in Jersey City which em
ploy uniformed messengers, has been able
to learn that it was any of ils employes. Mc-
Klguey's body was * taken to his home, I'M
Itailroad avenue.-X. Y. Sun. * .-MBI
• The Richard Wagner Monument Commit
tee in Leipsic has accepted the design sub
mitted by Professor Schiller of Berlin, and
has received permission from the city au
; thorities to erect the statue ou * the Old
Theater place, a fe* step from Wagner's
old home.** "ou the Bruhl." 'lhe figure will
THE Morning call, san francisco, SUNDAY. November 30. 1890-SIXTEEN pages.
The Chicago Columbus Tower
to Be Finished ia 1893.
Ssorstiry Dickinson's Flan for a Military
Display— The True nature and Object
of Ths Great Exposition.
fSyniCAGO, Nov. 27, 1890.— Although
*yy| the past week [has been a busy and
I— ',' exciting one, progress has nut been
rapid. The Directors are troubled at pres
ent with the apportionment of the buildings.
The Lake Front is again the bone of conten
tion. Why it is not once for all abandoned
Is hard for outsiders to learn. Why it was
ever considered as part of the site is to mauy
a great puzzle. Several of the National
Commissioners areconcemed build
ings now mentioned for that place. How
ever, no trouble should be borrowed on that
account, as the fair proper will be placed at
Jackson and Washington parks, and the
agricultural and live-stock show will have
all the advantage of being placed alongside
of the greatest attractions.
Herewith is presented a picture of the
Chicago Columbus Tower, of which mention
was male In a recent letter. It will be com
pleted In 1893, and will be 1500 feet high by
480 feet at the base, joustructcd of steel and
iron, and supported by sixteen great arched
legs. The architecture is of modern Ratals
•ance style, and it was designed by Messrs.
Kinkel & Polk of Chicago. It will require
over 7000 tons of steel and 0000 tons of iron.
Its estimated cost is 52,000,000. In the cen
ter will be a large dome 200 feet wide and
200 feet high. This is calculated for con
cert and theatrical purposes, with a seating
capacity of 25,000 people. The walls and
canopy will be richly decorated in Oriental
style. Eighteen elevators, with a capacity of
fifty people ca h, will make twelve trips an
hour. Only two elevators will run a dis
tance of 1250 feet. Many will take ad
vantage of the trip. Here money will se
cure passage for at least a short journey in
the direction which all would like to travel.
At the landing willbe a large restaurant,
where the travelers can rest and lunch be-
fore returning to earth again. At the apex
will bs a great globe of 33 feet in diameter,
provided with 10 powerful electric lights,*
which will be obs?rvahlo fifty miles dis
tant Admission fee will be 25 cents, 00
cents to 400 feet and Sl to top. When com
pleted it will be 500 feet higher than the
Eiffel Tower In Paris, and the greatest
architectural construction erected in the
history of man. It will be the pi ide of the
American continent and one of the most at
tractive features of the great exposition. ■
Lieutenant H. A. Heed of Leavenworth, 7
Kans., Is strongly in favor of Secretary
Dickinson's plan for a military display at
tin- opening, and would extend the time to
about twenty days. He allots the time as
Presuming that as mnch of the United
States army as the President may permit, of
foreigners who may come and all the Na
tional Guard who may desire are assembled,
I should assign them to three distinct camps
of cavalry, artillery and infantry, irrespect
ive of Stales or nationalities, and would ar
range days aud exercises somewhat as fol
, First and second— Devoted to encampment
Destroying tho Pyramid*.
The Bosphore Egyptien announces a new
act of astounding vandalism, which that
amiable journal does not hesitate to insinu
ate is connived at by the Egyptian Govern
ment. Three gangs of workmen, under two
local sheiks, are daily extracting blocks
from the lower courses of the two largest
pyramids of Gizeh. These are broken up
on the spot and carried away on camel-back
for building purposes.: The sheiks allege
that they are doing this work of destruction
by permission of the Government; whereas
they have, it is said, obtained only a permit
authorizing them to -remove scattered
blocks. That these Arabs should exceed
their license is not surprising; but it is
surely, to say the least of It,* extraordinary
thata Government partly administered by
Europeans should have anted such powers
to native overseers, - unchecked . by the
presence of one of their own officials. '1 he
pyramids do not belong to the Khedive nor
to his Government; they do not even belong
to the Egyptians. They are the Inheritance
of the world.— London Times. •■:■':.
The Knights of Pythias are so well drilled
that they could • put an army of 50,000 men
Into the field at two weeks' notice. .
duties; all the duties incident to the estab
lishment of an army in bivouac in the field,
with guards, etc. -
Third— Company drills, separate parades
and guard mountings for each arm on its
own ground. :
Fourth— Battalion drills, grand parade and
guard mounting, all arms invited on the en
campment grounds; all will probably have
arrived by this time.
Fif th— Street parade.
Sixth— misli drills. This will fit the
National Guard lor what is to follow.
Seventh— formations for attack and
■ Kighth— Attack and defense of a position
with infantry and artillery only. Not a sham
battle as ordinarily conducted, but one on
Ninth— The same, of greater extent, and
with all arms. The troops will be in good
condition by this time.
Tenth— Grand review by the President or
Eleventh (Oct. 12th)— The formal dedica
tion of buildings and grand military ball.
Twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth —
Knights of Pythias a.id zouave drills, elec
tric light drills, etc.
- The forenoon, except on the first, second,
fifth, tenth and eleventh days, when all day
CHICAGO'S COLUMBUS TOWER.
is devoled to the special exercise, should be
occupied by competitive drills.
The committee appointed by the National
Congress to investigate the condition of
World's Fair matters are at present in the
city performing their task. As yet they re
fuse to express any opinion, but "apparently
arc very well satisfied.
At present the city Is full of strangers
gaining information to enable them to at
once begin preparations for the fair. The
officials are constantly interviewed. The
decisions of the present week aro anxiously
For the first time since the proposal of the
Columbian Exposition the true character
and object of the enterprise is beginning to
be fully understood. From Its first concep
tion the promulgator of the .scheme meant
it to he in the broadest sense of the term a
world's exposition, in which all nations of
the earth should equally participate, and as
far as possible become equally interested.
It is the celebration of the greatest discovery
in the history of the human family, and one
which has proves more or less beneficial to
all people. In view of that fact It was pro
posed that the exposition should bo com
mensurate with the occasion It commem
orates. Aside from that feature It affords
for the first time an opportunity for
the nations to amicably assemble, each
to bring forth and place for compar
ison tho productions of their skill and
handiwork, showing the point to which their
people have advanced, while the centuries
have come and gone, in a sense the Colum
bian Exposition will be a vast Cnsmpolitan
University, where the nations will become
voluntary pupils and the work of their han
dicraft serve as object lessons for the study
and benefit ot all. It will form a universal
society and reception, to which all the hu
man (amity are invited, regardless of caste,
creed or color. The children from the East
can meet these from the North, South and
West, and each can learn of the advancement
and progress which his fellow man lias made
on his respective portion of the globe.
Here will be achieved a peace conquest,
more potent in its influence, more beneficial
and far-reaching in its results, than all the
victories gained in the history of wars. The
occasion is opportune and will be a mighty
factor in bringing about that feeling of uni
versal brotherhood, which in time will result
in " the Parliament of man, the federation
of the world." It properly is an Interna
tional institution, in which all should par
ticipate. Its coming will be an Intellectual
banquet, from which all will depart to their
distant homes feeling it was good for them
to have been there. All national strife and
sectional lines should for the while at least
vanish, and that littleness of soul give place
to the more generous disposition of human
interest In humankind, j. b. Campbell
The life of Caroline Hersche', one would
imagine, was anything but favorable to long
lasting. Insufficient sleep, irregular and
hasty meals, long fasts, excessive toil, both
bodily and mental, were the conditions of
her life— at least during the fifteen years she
was her brother's housekeeper and astro
nomical assistant. A lady who devoted her
self to hard work, one of the necessities of
which was that she had to spend the whole
of every stairy night, covered with dew or
hoar frost, on a grass plat in the garden,
would not, one would think, lie likely to
make old bones. At the age of »>, however,
according to her nephew's account, 'she
skipped up two flights ol stairs and rail
about like a girl of 20. She died at the age
of 08.— All the Year Bound, y
• V. Suffering From Urown Ooltors.
., In : the county of Surry, or at least in a
i certain part of it, we have two remarkable
j diseases, to wit: "St Vipers, his dance,"
| and the "brown gaiters." The terms needs
I no explanation, but I may casually observe
that the "brown gaiters" aro known to or-
I dinary persons as "bronchitis.— and
1 Queries, yyfly flflflflfl
A Sage Disquisition on What lie.
comes of the Ballet-Girls.
TLt-y Have Been Known to Viv.* ecus Talk
of One Who Knows Lights and Ehvlcws.
Glimpses Behind Stage Tinsel.
T<_.':|^ nAT becomes of the ballet-girls?
rail/ ' iero is a superstition prevalent
Vmjm l;A among a certain class of old-timers
having a maximum of cheek and a minimum
of hair that the ballet-girl never dies, never
ceases to be a "girl," and never quits danc
ing. .They are ltd to this conclusion from
the close observation of years in the front
rows at the physical drama. But then this
is a biased judgment. | Certain it is that
nobody ever saw a dead ballet girl. But
who, except those who have been In tbe
army, where mules were sometimes killed,
ever saw a dead mule? What becomes of
mules? Do they gradually grow old and
wither away at a breath?'
It Ib true there is no parallel between a
ballet-dancer and a mule beyond the fact
that loth are well known as eccentric kick
ers and as tough as Joey B. II the induce
ment of assured perennial youth were not
sufficient this fact of never ceasing to exist
in the garish atmosphere of the footlights is
enough to attract the rising female genera
tion, it Is the fate of womanhood in the
ordinary walks of life to marry and become
old. if they do not marry they nr^soou old
anyhow, and are a neglected, if not a de
she's always admired.
Not so the ballet-girl. She may be mar
ried or not— and she frequently is lhe mother
of a family of young kickers— .-he may be 15
or 50, or anywhere along between those in
teresting extremes— she always ■ has her
share of admirers. * If fairly good looking
she has many of them. Why men wiii sac
rifice restful nights, money, sweethearts,
Wives, at the shrine of the ballet-girls is oue
of those mysterious -things to be decided
after this life. But it is a fact that they,
will, and do, and a fact quite well known to
the ballet-girl herself." Who has 1 not, for
that matter, at some period of his life lin
gered wistfully in the 'shadow of .the stage
The ballet-girl may be said to remind ns
of a mule in another respect — she is born
and not made. No woman born was ever
molded over into a ballet-girl. She may be-:
come a famous actress—she may be made
into a lay figure' for the spectacular, get a
job as a chorus-girl, or have a thinking
part in a modern farce comedy— become a
ballet-girl, never! You might as well talk
of taking a brakesman off the railroad and
turning him into a contortionist. .
ONE BEAUTY'S STORY. .
"My mother was a dancer before me,"
said one charming young ballet-girl the
other evening. She reierred to the fact
wlliasi,-h. Hie hart done a matinee and
evening turn at Palmer's iv tlie "Bed Hus
sar" and was polishing off a lunch of broiled
chicken and beer. . Her appetite is enough
to throw a sickly shade of green over the
worn-out men-of-the -world who can scarce
ly eat a single square meal a day.
"I began dancing when 1- was a mere
child. My mother was dancing with the
grown-up ballet as lam now. 1 danced in
children's parts. You might say I was a
born dancer, for my mother had been filling
an engagement, which she resumed as- soon
" Yes, mother is living now, but not danc
ing," she- laughingly retorted in answer to
the stereotyped joke, "so that disposes of
at least one blanch of the popular supersti
tion. She. is too Stout One of the evils of
the' many we have to contend with Is the
early tendency to stoutness. When you first
saw me I was a slender slip of IT; now look
at me 1".
She has undeniably broadened and thick
ened* during these six years, though the
change improves her personal appearance.
STOPS- AT TWENTY-TnREE.
. "If I keep on growing stouter I shall have
to diet myself, and that will break my heart.
I'm now 23— don't give it away. * I wish to
remain 23, see ?" "'
"What-- becomes of the girls? Oh; some
are with the Kiralfys. Emilia's with some
show in the West; -Kate is married, so is
Sophy, and— "
■ "No, no: : what becomes of them finally ?"
"Why, dear me! how do 1 know? Die and
fo to heaven? * Not if there's dancing there,
• hope, It is quite enough to be a balle.t
glll here all your life! Nearly all of the girls
I knew when a child dancer are still alive
and kicking. In fact, I don't actually know
if any of them are dead. They are about all
in the business, too."
"Yes, tliey have a good many offers of
marriage. Some marry*, but they nearly all
get back to the stage. The girls can't stand
the yoke very well, you see. The quietude
of married life would so, kill most of them.
We get awful tired of this, but from the ex
periences of those who have quit (he stage
to marry, I should say there are worse things.
If marriage is the thing it's cracked up to
lie, why do they all come back? Answer me
Her black eyes fairly snapped. Sho had
evidently been considering the matrimonial
problem on her own account. The next ob
servation of this philosophical maiden made
" The trouble is that the kind of a man I
would have is the kind who will probably
never ask me to nmrrv him, anil the kind
who docs ask 1 wouldn't have. That's it—
up to date! Having been born and bred to
this business, I scarcely know how I would
manage to live any other way. But, dear
me! There are two sides to this matter.
Look nt the kind of men we meet! What
sort of a hur.band is a man likely to make
who gets wild over the ballet? Why not
give us credit for some womanhood; with
some tastes, good desires, feelings, ambition,
the same as is accorded other girls who must
work for a living? These same girls, who
are spoken of contemptuously as only ballet
girls, are niacin of better stuff than most
women of good society. - Now, I do wish
yon would say a good word for us," plead
ingly. "There Is rarely anything printed
about us except slurs, insinuations ami con
temptuous sneers about our calling. Not
that it really makes any difference, because
it doesn't. Only it, would be refreshing to
read something different."
THE SALARY PART OF IT.
The ballet busiuess with tho ' Red llus
sar' is easy for us," went on the ballet girl;
" I mean compared with our work with the
Kiralfys. Tlv re is no danger of growing
over stout with the Kiralfys. When the
lumbers were at outs and fighting, each
other they used to bid for us to keep us
away from one another. But they made us
work hard, for the ballet was always the
principal feature. Good dancers In any con
siderable number are hard to get in this
country, and two big spectacular shows like
the ballet at the Madison-sqnnre Garden
and 'Nero' use up nearly all the material.
That is the reason you see In the front near
ly all of the samegirls.
"We have only two short dances here, and
it is considered a good engagement. - We
get $20 a week. The . chorus-girls get 815.
Any kind of a pretty girl can be -put in a
chorus. We never have anything to do with
them, on or off the stage! (This with some
snow of- pride.) They are probably very
nice girls, though. The managers know all
of us, and they make engage with us
the same as are made with actors and act
resses for the presentation of the regular
But what a life To those who must live
it the thing is a matter of course. To nine
tent lis of the mothers : and fathers of the
great world of quiet homes tlio spectacle of
these young girls amid such daily and
nightly associations would carry with it the
sentiments of profound sorrow . and com
miseration.— T. Murray, in Pitts
burg Dispatch. :
HENRY CLAY'S PICTURE.
A Painter Who Did Justice to
(he Great Orator's Mouth.
On one occasion he said :. to me: '. "Mr.
Healy, you are a capital portrait painter and
you are the first who has ever done justice
to my mouth, and It Is well pleased to ex
press ■ Its gratitude." : (.'lay's mouth was a
very peculiar one— thin-lipped and extend
ing from car to ear. : "But," be added, "you
are an Indifferent courtier; though you come
to us fiom the French King's presence, you
have not once spoken to me of my live stock.
Don't you know that I am prouder of my
cows and sheep than of my best speeches
I confessed my want of knowledge on the
subject, but I; willingly accompanied him
around the grounds and admired the superb
creatures, saying they .would do very well j
in a picture. / 1 fear that that was not : tim
sort of appreciation he expected, and that I
sank very low in his esteem from that mo
ment. -2* '• .* -"■ *. ■; ' ".- y :•• -"■.-■• . »:.'.*■: .-.v.
* But on another occasion I proved a worse
courtier still. His jealousy of * Jackson ;is
stilt known, and the t»o men formed a very
striking contrast."; During a long silting he
spoke of his old rival,' and, knowing that I
had just painted the dying man's portrait,
he said: • -
"You, who have lived so long abroad, far
from • our political contests and quarrels,
ought to bean impartial judge. : Jackson,
during bis lifetime, was held up as a sort of
hero; now that hois dead bis admirers
want to make him out a saint. Do you think
he was sincere?"
"1 bavo just come from his death-bed," I
answered, "and if General Jackson was not
sincere, then I do .not know the meaning of
the wcril.'iaSimßlWtffeWqgHP*-"- 11^
1 shall never forget the keen look shot at
me from under Mr. Clay's eyebrows; but he
merely observed :
. - "I see that you, liko all who approach that
man, were fascinated by him."
Another time a friend of Mr. Clay, Mr.
Davis, speaking of Jackson's provarbial ob
stinacy, said that ono day, looking at a
horse, Jackson remarked : "That horse is
seventeen feet high." "Seventeen hands
you mean, General.". "What did I say?"
"You said seventeen feet" "Then, by the
eternal, he Is seventeen feet high."
Clay would never have sworn to the sev
enteen feet. He knew how to make himself
loved as well as admired. . After his defeat
by Polk he refused to see any one. It was
with great difficulty that his friends obtained
his presence at a banquet given in his honor.
' When he entered the diniug-hall, where 200
guests were assembled, no one present was
able to restrain his tears, so popular was
Mr. Clay and sn great was the disappoint
ment at not having him for President.— G.
P. A. Healy, in the North American He
They Fill Their Customers' Hair
Witb Lime and Slack It.
Savage Heads Fairly Sizzle— Then tha Locks
Are Done Tip to Besemble Spiral Eteel
Shavings— Shaved in Sp?ts.
■f^yjEARDS and mustaches arc rare iv
J!^Y? the Pacific Islands. There is but a
.faJ scanty growth of hair upon the face,
and though the straggling hairs are rarely
pulled out they grow so slowly that shaving
is not resorted to more than three or four '
times a year. The barber's chief occupa
tion is in the dressing of the hair, and in
this branch of the business he finds enough
to do nnd ample scope for the exercise of
bis ingenuity' iu ways that would never
occur to his civilized rival. •
.One custom holds good throughout the
Island realm wherever hair is worn at all,
and that is the lime-shampoo, based upon
motives of comfort and convenience gener
ally, the same as led to the whitewashing of
coops and loosts on a , hen-ranch.' Tliese
things abound in the tropics, and must be
accepted as a distinctive feature of the life,
to be dealt with in the readiest • fashion. A
long and irritated cxpeiience finds its best
solution in lime, and lime, therefore, is used;
by all. .
jyvwA head sizzling DOT.
Having lime the savage combs all the kinks
out of the three, four or even six inches to
which he allows his hair to grow, sifts the
fine lime In among the hair, selects a com
fortable * place . in which to lie," gets the bar
ber to sprinkle water on the lime and shuts
his eyes, while admiring friends stand about
to watch him sizzle.* The water slakes the
lime with much blowing of bubbles and the
evolution of thick clouds of carbonic acid
gas, the subject submits Cheerfully to turn
his head into a mortar-bed until, the heat
becomes too much for him to bear, when a
dash of water waslie* away the steaming
lime, and the first step has been taken toward
dressing his hair. *• - '
Many are content to simply comb the hair
after the lime application is over' and so
leave it for a month to come, yet even this .
simple operation is a work of time and pa
tienre, for a man would be disgraced who.
should appear with the' hair lying. Hat and
smooth upon the head. . The comb consists
of ten or a dozen wooden skewers about
four inches long, run down fine and smooth
and secured by cords and gum side by side
at the. end bf a. long and. light piece of
carved wood, which served as a head orna
ment. With this comb the hair is carefully
raked 0ut,.60 that each hair will stand on
end, and together they will appear like a
light mop. .
WOMEN'S HAIR THE SHORTER. .
Between men and Women the only distinc- .
tion observed is that the men often wear the
hair six inches long all about the head, the
women seldom more than two inches, stand-
Ing out even on all sides, while men train
' the hair below the crown upward, so that it,
too, will grow parallel with, the hair on the
top of the head.* This Involves much comb
lug and much use of bandages before it will
answer all the requirements of fashion and
satisfy the wearer that he will look suffi
ciently grim to his enemies when they meet
Others prefer spiky ringlets which are
cither trained to stand erect or to fall away
from the ciown in all directions. These
ringlets are mane after the hair has been
limed and combed out stiff. Beginning with
the forehead, the barber grasps not more
than ten or a dozen hairs Blowing close to
gether, wraps them tightly around a single
spear of grass and covers the whole with a
layer of bread-fruit gum. In the end the
ornamented Islander will present much the
appearance of a blushing porcupine. Eor
fully a week the hair must remain in its
curl grasses, which are carefully bundled in
a cloth saturated with oil.
LIKE SPIRAL STEEL SHAVINGS.
At last the barber decides that his work
will do him credit, wipes oft from each wisp
of hair Its * abundance of gum, draws out
the core of grass nnd leaves the ringlet
standing erect and about as graceful as the
fine spiral shavings which one finds in a ma
chine shop where they have been planing
steel. The man who elects to wear his hair
in a mop or ringlets must conduct himself
with a single eye to preserving for fully a
month the simple beauty of his coiffure. lie
may not swim witliout first tying his hair in
oiled cloth, and the pattering of the rain
warns him lo bundle un his head. At night
he may not sleep with his head upon the
soft mats, but must rest Ins cheek upon a
wooden pillow. The simplest form of these
pillows Is a joint of bamboo supported on
crutches at each end and three or four inches
'1 be natural black color of the hair is sel
dom seen even in the children, and so al
most universal is the practice of liming the
head that the colors, ranging between straw
aud brick red, which result trom the use of
the lime, may also be taken to stand in
place ol the natural color. Some leave their
hair of the color to which it has been
burned, but many others elect to dye it
either of a .single body color, uniformity
laid on or in bars or blocks of gaudy hues.
A favorite device is to color the hair in two
contrasting hues along the line of the mid
dle, blue on ono side and red on the other,
red and greeu or yellow and black.
LIKE A TAINTED TARGET.
Others indulge in irregular patches of
dye, giving a marbled effect, and on ouo isl
and they have reached the artistic height
of concentric rings of bright colors, giving
to each head the appearance of an animated
target for the skill of opposing archers.
Among such as Shave the head of all bnt a
tion of the hair there is a multitude of
fashions,* and each consults his own taste or
the riper judgment of his barber. The
varied results are striking in the extreme.
Some are seen whose hair is confined to the
front of the . head, .- leaving all behind the
crowns as smooth as a ball ; and yet others
reverse the process, exteud their foreheads
tothe crown and carryall their docks be
hind.* Heads bare on one side are as com
mon as in a Siberian convict train, and one
never gives such an oddity a second glance.
The warrior's delight above all others, the
regular fighting clip, is a Cleanly shaven
head with a cie.st about two inches wide ex
tending from the forehe.id clear back to the
nape of the neck, and trimmed to such a
length as will best insure its standing erect.
The savage islander must know what be
comes of every particle ot hair which is
clipped from his head. He bikes the bunch
home, burns it, mixes the ashes with water
and drinks it. He believes that if any one
could get possession of a lock of his hair,
burn it and swallow the ashes that person
could draw all his strength away, and he
would weaken and die just In proportion as
the other waxedhearly. Therefore, he takes
the - dose himself.— William . Churchill ln
Pittsburg Dispatch. -
The Chid of an Evil Parent.
fl: Malvollo says In Shakespeare's comedy of Twelfth
Night, '-Some are born great, some achieve great-
ness, and some have greatness thrust upon them."
So it Is with nervousness. Some are born nervous,
some achieve nervousness by their own Impru-
dence and neglect,* and ; lomo ' have nervousness
tbrust upon thorn by disease. The basic starting
point or this aliment, which grows rapidly and as-
sumes alarming proportions when it roaches the
stago or hypochondria and chronic sleeplessness. is
weakness, the child of indigestion, parent or many
evils. - For the Incapacity' or tbe stomach to digest
food, and of the system to assimilate It after di-
gestion, Hostetter's Stomach Hitters has ever proved
a sovereign remedy, . Sleep becomes tranquil, appe-
I tite Improves, abnormal sensitiveness of ti.e nerves
Is succeeded by steadiness anil vgor in those deli-
cate tissues, bodily substance Increases when tbat
signal restorative of digestion la systematically
; used. : Conquer also with It malaria, rbenmat sm,
kidney Inactivity, ■ liver complaint and conslipv
'J_i___B_-_iß__^_SB_£ ! >'' :" «s
A Central-Arm Sofa That Will
Never Become Popular.
Portieres of Ling Eilken Cords— A Handsome
BaUroad Csr-The Craze for the Antique
Is Dead— A Clever Scheme.
[From tLe Cloisterer for November.]
A dear, sweet soul, whose folks . have
brought her up admirably, lends us a hump
backed sketch, showing a sofa which Is
lated family of girls there is always a back
parlor lounge, which seems perpetually kept
affluent and well dressed ou one tali, and
badly abused on the other.
The central-arm sofa seems eloquent of a
refined aud iceberg conversation, while our
lit I 2 " )%0) . mitpji O'l n/^J I Ji y 4 '
HIIHISSSt ill SS
• back-parlor friend has a purring appear
ance, and seems everlastingly lo threaten to
call ma. : , The propriety sketch is all right,
young lady; we are glad you sent it, for it is
very handsome,' and this book wants to look
just as pretty as lhe "after" cot in a com
.'plexion .ad.; but It will never expedite a
We have. had portieres of beads and bam
bcoj and portieres of stringed rice. We row
have portieres made by using plenty of long
silken cords, hanging over a back-ground of
any solid-colored fabric. The cord maybe
knotted at different points or caught into
strands, or it may lie In fish-net form, like
an over-dress. At the top of the fabric,
where it is attached, the cord is worked into
loops, fringe-like, so as to make a kind of
frieze. Tlie color harmonies are of course
left to one's own judgment, but the scheme
Is an admirable one, and open to many pleas
The handsomest railroad car in this coun
try is undoubtedly the one just finished by
the Pullman Car Company for Austin Cor
ban. All the fittings and furnishings are
gorgeous with brass— brass bedsteads, brass
chairs and brass tables. It is quite proba
ble that In the future no private or excur
sion car will be completed without its brass
bedsteads. The rage is started at all events.
Said one of the .best-known furniture
dealers the other day, a man who does only"
the very highest class of trade: " The craze
for the antique is dead. Of course there
are people who are judges and admire old
work for its Intrinsic value, but the average
woman who buys old stuff merely to give
her house an air of age and solidity is done
with it, simply because she has been sub
jected to many embarrassments and annoy
ances through the fad."
We heard a woman of social rank say to a
dealer recently: "Mr. X, 1 wish to get rid
of all my old furniture, if I can get any
where near what 1 paid for it. You see it
is so exasperating for me to answer ques
tions, and people will ask questions, if only
to show a polite interest in my treasures.
They say: 'What a magnificent cabinet!
Is it an heirloom ?' and when I reply in the
negative they lift their eyebrows | and say
'Oh!' in such a tantalizing way. ■ Then,
again, some folks, with that breezy ingenu
ousness which denotes a candid disposition,
say: .'What do you have this old piece for
if it's not a family-piece And I can't tell
the truth about It and say I bought it be
cause it lent eminent respectability to my
establishment."- _ y-x
On other occasions the presence of an oid
piece of furniture In a house sometimes
stalls a guest on reminiscences about chairs
that Mrs. Jones', great-grandfather left her
or Mrs. Smith's niece on her grandmother's
side possesses, aud it is calculated to make"
one leel stupid to just simply sit and listen
to all this and have _to confess to oneself
that ' one has not a single genuine family
piece in the whole house.
So the craze has .licit out. . .'
- One of tne cleverest schemes for a wide
window which we - have seen for some time
we herewith reproduce. We have shown as
a background an arch and fretwork arrange
ment, but iit can Ibe done In stained glass if
desired.* A * soft, opalesque i tint iof glass,
with quiet, gray tones, would look Well re
lieved ,by some contrasting colors in bric-a
brac on - the ' window-mantel. *? The window
can,' if * made up with care and good taste in
tne selection of colors, bo one of th" most
elaborately ornamental us well as original.
■ >■:' Some one Is out with the argument that
pillows give one wi inkles on the face,' and
that Japanese do not have wrinkles because
they do not use pillows. "Cuddle down to
sleep upon a feather pillow." says this - au- ;
thority, "and notice how it increases the .
furrows around the eyes. • On the ether
hand, see how beautifully. a block pillow
works. ! Place it comfortably under the neck
and you will enjoy the position very much,
and it is marvelous to note how little strain
is put upon the facial muscles and how
smoothly they lie in consequence."
.. An interesting combination, and one more
over which is very novel„sliows an arrange
ment whereby the festoon i 3 draped over a
deep fringe. * This Is an excellent treatment -
for a long window having a stained-glass
transom, as the light will show through tha
Lace curtains are of the utmost signifi
cance in interior decoration. Should tho cur
tains bo too long, as is usually the case, and
not too expensive, it is better to cut them
off, allowing about a quarter of a yard for
the hem and shrinking; but when tco valu
able to cut,* the surplus can bo left at the
bottom and the curtains caught up into fan
shaped plaits. To do this take the lower
back corner up to the tassel hooK and gather
tbo curtain into plaits.
Time was, only a short while ago, when a .
man in furnishing a room had the choice of
ebony, cherry, black walnut or brass cur- .
tain poles, and ono or the other had to do.
To-day, however, the wooden pole is stained
to match the wood-work or the furniture of
a room, and a brass pole is only used in
cases where the furniture is brass, or whero
there is a general prevalence of brass fur
Lace curtains are seldom used now alone
as a window treatment, but aro combined
with some soft-toned light silk festooned at
the top and down the side a little to break—
the harshness of the plain white color.
The demand among the wealthier classes
for genuine tapestries for wall hangings has
encouraged the manufacture iv this country
of hand-painted wall hangings and the work
is so cleverly done that the colors look ex- .
actly :-s if woven into the goods.
An old bedstead, very * handsome, was
offered at auction last month in Loudon.
Five shillings were bid for it, until someone
discovered that Gladstone had slept on it
every night for seven mouths and thereupon
the price ran Into a fabulous sum. It illus- -
trates the fact that people who hunt antique '*
furniture now-a-days place little value upon '*
it unless accompanied by history or an ."
Old Italian furniture of the sixteenth and .
seventeenth centuries is now being shown
by the extremists of the furnishing trade. . '.
'1 lie French schools are becoming passe and •
Sheraton and Chippendale are the fashion
able" periods iv vogue.
divided by a
never be |
and has a
about It, In
of us helped
to wear out
on one end,
for in every
well - regu-
FOR A WIDE WINDOW .
Th* Counterfeits nt French Picture's In'
the City or Carta.
The counterfeiters of French pictures, it
appears from the Paris journals, having be
come aware that the market is overstocked,
with false Corots, . Itousseaus and Dupres,
have begun to turn ■ their attention to Cour
bet. A cousin of the painter," M. Eugene
Cuurbet, lias lately been busy tracking them
out and has discovered no less than six
c lever painters « ho are making a dishonest
living In wholo or in part by imitating the
Communist painter. He was first attracted
to Geneva, where his cousin had taken
refuge after the fall of the Commune. While,
.there Courbet was oppressed by the fact
that he could not return to France until he
had paid for the Vendome Column, whose •
overthrow he had decreed. He accordingly
set to work with great industry, making uso
of some four or five of his pupils to push tho
work faster. Two of thu cleverest of thoso
caught so well his spirit of tricks and color
and handling as to readily palm off their
work fo. his. After his death they estab
lished themselves in Paris and forwarded
' their pictures to .Brussels to a dealer, who
charged himself with the task of adding
Courbet's signature and disposing of them.
Four other falsifiers, not so dangerous as
tliey and uot so clever, have since turned up.
These all keep themselves on the safe side
of the law by not signing Courbet's name to
their works, and the dealers who do sign it
are out of France. The Innocent " amateur,
however, who . buys of these dealers and
.afterward brings his pictures into France is
liable to have them confiscated.
. The story may serve as a warning to those
would-be connoisseurs of ours who really
care more for the possession of the name of
an artist than bis work. - It is safe to say
that more than half of Com bets to be found
ln private picture collections in this country
belong either to the classof pot-boilers which
were dashed off by this conscienceless
painter during bis sojourn in Switzerland,
or to that of tlio more or less clever counter
feits by his pm ils. Cuurbet is what is
called "a painter's painter." His rugged,
vigorous, almost brutal style must, even
when he is at his best, be "caviare to tbe
general, who richly deserve to be punished
or pretending to like whit they would not
think of buying hut f.ir -the fascination of
the signature on the canvas or panel. That
even the commissi may be deceived lit
judging of Courbet's work is proven by the
revelation that among the forgeries just de
tected was one of the- paintings passed by
the jury of experts and conspicuously hung
at the great Paris Exposition of last year.—
The Art Amateur. • . • • .
Mr. Stanley makes the length of the Nile
4100 miles. ' * '
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A ' * *'* is v^ ■ ■ ■
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Grubb, Burwellvllle, Va.
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PREPARED OT ' -" "
Dr. J. C. 'AYEE & CO., Lowell, Mass.
.- Sold by all Dealers In Medicine.'
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