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An Imuiftr.sfct'avln ! ; of Co.il , and Labor Ac-
comiillshcil Uy n , New Discovery.
Tho expenditure of ingenuity , time ,
and money which has been going
on for many years past in the endeav
or to iililr/.o 113 dro carbons as fuel
under boilers for ra sing steam testi
fies to the importance ot the subject ,
while the persistency with which it
continues to be pursued bears witness
to itKjv'icinatiou and to the valuable
char&fter of the results which are ex-
pecteu vlo follow practical success.
Thnl success would mean : tu enormous
saving in our solid fuel coal while
our steamships would he relieved of
sonic 6U per cent of their fuel weight ,
which could either be assigned to
cargo or , on long voyages , u double
supply of liquid luel could be carried.
So long ago , as 1880 Mr. H. Pinkus
claimed to have used hydro carbons
in conjunct on with streams of vapors
for steam-raising purposes and Iroui
that t.uic down "to the present en
gineers and inventors have not for
any length of time , ceased to labor in
the same direction , Richardson's pe
troleum funiacu. as well as that of
Bridges Adams , was for many years
under the constant notice of the
ollicials in Woolwich dockyard , and in
1868 the government permitted Wise ,
lield , and Aydon's system of using
petroleum by the aid of an induced
current to be applied to a marine boil
er on board a steam yatcli. The same
system had been previously applied to
a Cornish boiler at some largo works
in London. The admiral also tried at
Shccrncss a somewhat similar plan ,
invented by Sir. S. E. Crew , but , as in
the Woolwich trials , without anything
practical resulting. In the same year
which appears to have been marked
by a siuldeu outbreak of inventive
activity in connection with the subject
of liquid fuel , Dorsett's petroleum
furnace was littcd under the boiler of
the steamship Retriever , of 91) horse
power and 500 tons burden , and some
very successful runs were made with
her. But as far sis the use of the sys
tem in England went nothing lurther
appears to have resulted , the reason
boinjr , wo believe , that directly a de
mand was created for the class of
Jiquia luol used , and which at that
time was a drug on the market , the
price went up to a prohibitive extent.
Jn France corresponding attention
was paid to the same subject and in
the same year , one system tried there
being that of M. Verstraot , a chemist.
It was applied to a locomotive on the
Eastern of France railway , and upon
the occasion of the emperor visitin
the camp at Chalons the train was
drawn by the engine thus fitted. His
' the of the
majesty roi'e on foot-plate
engine in company with MM. Sauvage ,
Dieudonnc , and s'ainte-Claire-Deville.
In the same year his majesty also
made a run in the Puebla , a steamer
in which mineral oil was employed to
raise the steam for the engines. Jn
America liquid fuel has been used
both on locomotives and in steamer' ,
at oue time , we believe , to a consider
able extent. But , notwithstanding the
advantages offered in the way of cheap
and plenteous liquid fuel , it would
seem to havo but a very limited ap
plication in practice for steam-raising
V purposes. In liussia a very diil'ercut
condition of matters exists , inasmuch
as for some years past petroleum re
fuse has been used as fuel in the loco
motives on the Grazi and Tsaritsin
railway in southeast Russia , the iirst
trials on that lino having been made
in 1874. Beside this numbers of
steamers are now running on the Cap-
sian sea wliich are using liquid fuel.
Moreover , in consequence of the com
parative scarcity ami clearness of pe
troleum in .this country , a ileet of
large tank steamers is being built by
the .Russian Black Sea .Navigation
company to bring the Russian oil to
Europe in bulk.
In view of the undoubted import
ance of the liquid fuel question , it
will be interest'ii : now to notice its
latest phase as brought under our no-
t ce on Wednesday m the steamship
Himalaya. This is a trading vessel of
100-horse power , nominal , and 800
tons burden. She is 210 feet long ,
with 28 leet beam , and is lilted with
.compound engines , driving a screw
propeller. The boilers have three
furnaces , each of which has a tire-
brick lining with apertures on the
principle of the S. emeus regenerative
svttem. At the end of each furnace
is a. tire-brick bailie having an opening
through which Llie heat passes to the
tubes from the furnace , or , as it may
more correctly be called , the combus
tion chamber. lu this chamber is a
coil of iron pipe , one end of which is
connected with the steam space of
the boiler and the other opens out at
the door of the chamber , ih is coil is
for the purpose of superheating steam
taken from the boiler , and by which
an induced current is set up which
carries the petroleum forward into the
combustion chamber. In order to en
able it to do this the petroleum nozzle
is placed within the steam pipe at the
opening where it delivers 'its jet , so
that an annular space is formed ,
through which the steam rushes , and ,
combining with the small but regular
How of the oil , produces a large body
of Jlanie within the chamber. The oil
is stored in tanks on the main deck ,
whence it Hows by gravity to the de
livery nozzles at the furnaces. Tho
whole apparatus is very simple and
eas ly adjustable ; one important feat
ure is that in the event of oil not being
obtainable in any pori where fuel is
required it cau be removed , and the
lirc-b.irs for burning coal be replaced
mi very short t me. Another import
ant feature of the system which we
should mention , is the invention of
Mr. Percy F. Tarbutt , in the method
of starting the furnace , which is efieet-
ed by a very simple jjrraugemeut ,
whereby sufficient steam is quickly
raised to start and maintain combus
tion until the steam pressure in the
boiler i suflic'eut for that purpose.
Tho Himalaya- purchased by the
Marahu Petroleum and Oil Pro'duco
com pain' , and by them has been fitted
with the apparatus we have described
in order to practically and commer
cially test the system. "She will , how
ever , eventually bo renamed the Mar
ahu , after her owners , the Marahu
company. The coal-carrying capacity
of this vessel is stated to"be 2tu tons ,
and her consumption o that fuel is
put at 9 tons per day. She will now
carry 90 tons of oil , her consumptior
of liquid fluid being put at 3Atons pel
day , thus giving , as we havo already
observed , a great increase of cargc
capacity. A largo party of engineer *
and other gentlemen "interested in the
present question visited the Himalaya
on Wednesday and inspected the fur
naccs and oil equipment of that vessel.
Although ouly that morning complet
ed , the apparatus worked very well ,
combustion being nearly perfect , as
evidenced by that very small amount
of smoke that issued from her funnel.
A fairly steady steam pressure of fifty-
live pounds per square inch was main
tained , the steam , of course , being
blown off as made. The demonstra-
tiou , in fact , was perfectly successful.
The ship will start to-morrow upon a
trial trip to Leith and back. She will
bo accompanied on the trip by a board
of trade surveyor , as well as by oue of
Lloyd's surveyors , both of which de
partments are evincing great interest
in the trial. After that she will pro
ceed to Glasgow to take in a cargo
which she will carry to Brazil. It"is
then intended to employ her for trad
ing purposes along the coast of Brazil ,
her supply of liquid fuel being ob
tained there from the works of the
company to whom she belongs.
Such is the latest phase of the liquid
fuel question , which appears to be
nearing solution as regards steam
ships. It appears to bo clearly de
monstrated that petroleum can be used
as fuel. Tho only disturbing element
as regards commercial success here is
the uncertainty and the cost of the
supply. This diiliculty surmounted
and it would seem that Russian enter
prise is about to make an attempt to
surmount it and prejudice and con-
tlicting interests overcome , there
would appear to be a hopeful future
for liquid fuel in this country. In fact ,
Wednesday's demonstration looks like
the beginning of the end. London
Hydrophobia in Its Earlier Stages.
I wish to diminish the terrible ef
fects of hydrophobia by pointing out
how the disease may easily bo noted
in its.earlier . stages , and preventive
measures at once bo taken. If an ani
mal slabbers from the mouth , and has
a hanging of the lower jaw , accompa
nied by a peculiar change in the bark ,
it is a clear case of dumb rabies , quite
as contagious as the other form. Tho
other form of rabies is more dangerous ,
because the dog knows his master and
is even more friendly than usual , but
exhibits a strange nervousness , snap
ping at anything that offends him and
having that peculiar rabid bark which ,
once heard , can never bo forgotten.
If there is the slightest alteration in
the bark of a dog it should at once be
put in quarantine.
If any one has the misfortune to be
bitten by a mad dog the best thins : to
do is to sucfc the wound at oncedraw
ing as much blood as possible. This
is far better than cauterization. Po
lice ollicors or other officials should be
empowered to destroy all dogs , wheth
er under the control of their owners
or not , who are in a rabid vstate ,
and also all dogs whuh may have
been bitten by a rabid annual. By
that means I should hope ultimately
io exterminate that terrible disease ,
which , without syme check , may de
velop itself into a real epidemic.
Cor. London Telegraph.
Hadn't Long to Wait.
A gentleman living at Auburn , 111. ,
until quite recently was the very un
happy owner of a cat whose happiness
was never complete save when steal
ing something to eat from off the din
ner table. Ho tried coaxing and then
beating , but all to no purpose. Final
ly in an evil moment the idea came to
him that perhaps a little sudden sur
prise would tend to make the feline
nicnd her ways ; and the more he
thought of it the more he became con
vinced that that was what she needed.
At last , after carrying out several
schemes in his mindhe decided to put
some dynamite into a saucer of milk ,
which he did , leaving it on the dinner
table. He then stepped out on the
porch where he could see ' the fun front
a distance , and waited. He had not
long to wait , for no sooner had pussy
been left to herself than she sprang
up on the table and began to get on
the outside of the milk. Softly the
man laughed to himself , but his joy
was of short duration , for suddenly
something burst and he knew no more.
When he regained his senses a few
hours later he found himself about a
quarter of a mile from homo in a corn
iield.with only a rock on to cover his
nakedness. He tried to remember
what had happened , but couldn't un
til he arrived at the gate where hi ?
home once stood. All there was left
to tell the tale was a large hole in tho
ground , and a piece of cat skin stick
ing to a tree near by. Z ecfc's Sun.
Couldn't Stand It
"Are your parents living ? " an Ar-
kansaw school teacher asked of a boy.
"Mur is , but pap ain't. "
"That's bad. "
"What's bad ? That imtr's livin' 01
that pap's dead ? "
"It's bad that your father is dead. "
"Yas , tho man that had a. mortgage
on the crap said so. "
"What was tho matter with your
father ? "
"He couldn't stand prosperity. " .
"Why , how did prosperity kill
him ? "
"Wall , ole Bill Simmons give pap a
whole jug o' whisky an' it was mor'n
he could stan : . He done his best , but
she downed him. * ' Arkansaw Trav
A Sure Thinir of It.
"What interest can you have in
reading the 1 st of prizes in the Ha
vana lottery ? Yon never buy any tick
ets , " asked Ivosciusko Murphy , on
seeing Col. Yerger pursuing a paper.
"I know that I never buy a ticket ,
but I have more real enjoyment than
if I did , " replied Col. Yerger.
"How is that ? "
"You see , I pick out a number. If
it wins I am as much tickled as a man
can be , and eo on a tear. If my num
ber don't win. then I have saved the
price of the ticket , and I celebrate my
escape with the money J'vo saved. I
am bound to win either way. I can't
bo beat.1' 'lexas Siflings.
Keepiner Clerks Honest.
Clason Graham drew the money on
a check for § 26,000 , signed by his em
ployers , Spencer , Trask & Co. , oil
brokers , and took a train for Canada ,
but was stopped on tho way only foul
hours later , both man and money be
ing back in town next day. The
quickness of suspicion and action in
the case of a man whose reputation
had been good , Writes a New York
correspondent to T/te Philadelphia
News , was duo to the fact that ho had
given bonds to tho firm for honesty ,
and his bondsmen were one of the
several guarantee and fidelity com
panies that havo lately come into use
here in New York. These concerns
insure employers airainst loss through
the thefts of employes , and relievo the
latter of the often difficult task of find
ing available friends to take tho risics.
Not loss than six thousand men are
already bonded in this way by tho
companies , among whom brisk rivalry
has already arisen. Visits to their
ofliees show large premises and numei-
ous clerks , indicating far more labor
than would be requisite for merely
making out the papers and dealing
with tho customers up to lha point of
completing the bonds. Tho explana
tion is that the most elaborate syserns
of watching the insured men , and re
gistering their habits , is in operation ,
and already tho extent and thorough
ness of the espionage has become an
acute nuisance to its subjects. To
feel that his actions may be under
surveillance by a spy is annoying in
many cases wherein tho man is well-
behaved , and much dislike of the new
order of things has developed , but
there is no escape , because the ex
istence of tho companies provides so
reasonable an excuse for individuals
to decline to be boudsmen that there
is no escape.
Railroad employes , bank clerks ,
court ollicers , and all sorts of financial
officials are chiefly tho men involved.
Before making the bonds tho persons'
characters are investigated as fully as
possible , but that is no complete
protection , for one com
pany has already lost 810,000
through Paying Teller Charles
A. Hinckley , of tho West Side bank ,
and Teller" . J. DIeterichs , of the
Laclede bank , St. Louis , both of whom
were above reproach , and one seeming
ly pious. The preference is for em
ployes of institutions subject to state
investigation annually rather than tho
handlers of money for private firms.
Nearly all tho men in the New York
postofiice and over half of those in
municipal ollices of nuance are now
included in the risks. The charges
range from a half to 1 per cent , on tho
amount of insurance.
The principal business is detective.
Every insured person is watched , and
very closely , too , if the slightest
looseness of conduct is observed. In
tho instance of Clason Graham a de
tective reported that he was becoming
a lounger about town at night , and
apparently was spending more money
than his salary could provide. At the
moment when he cached the big check
a spy had him in sight and did not
quifhim until he took the cars. Then
tho detective telegraphed to the com-
panv that he wa s jroing to go to and
would look for orders at Springfield ,
where tho train would make its first
stop. Hasty inquiry of Spencer ,
Trask & Co. , brought out the fact that
Graham was absconding with § 26,000 ,
and word was wired to Springfield to
A feature of the new business is a
registry called the "List of Unrolia-
bles. " in which the particulars of
every obtainable case of probable or
actual misdoing by an insured man
are noted. The books of one establish
ment contain about twenty thousand
names , another lourteen thousand ,
and there arc not less than fifty thou
sand altogether thus "recorded , com
prising railroaders , bankers public
officials , and other fiduciaries. Tho
amount of money stolen by trusted
employes is not dreamed of by tho
public , as proved by the aggregate of
nearly § 300,000 paid from one office.
But the bonded men are aware of their
positions , and a consciousness of be
ing under scrutiny has becdme one of
the common sensations of their lives.
Low Water m the Wabash.
A rural schoolmaster in Indiana
asked a pupil named William Scott ,
the orther day , which was the longest
river in tho world , and William per
sisted in crediting that honor to tho
Wabash. As a result , he went home
with a taned jacket. As another re
sult , a stranger appeared and knocked
on the door.
"Is this the skulo teacher ? " ho
"He ar ! "
"Are you the critter as licked Bill
Scott fur sticking up fur the Wa
bash ? "
"The same , sir. "
"Wall , Bill happens to be my son ,
and I've come lur to gin you tho
autullest whalin' over you writ down
in geography. "
"Can you wait until I am through
with the class in spelling ? " asked the
"Oh ! I s'pose so , but under the cir
cumstances I hope yo'll cut it as short
as possible. Haven't got iny corn
husked , ye know. "
"Certainly. I never keep a gentle
man waiting when I can help it. Sit
down on the wood pile , Mr. Scott
I'll come out and pulverize you in just
nine minutes. "
At the end of the appointed time tho
teacher reappeared and at once rush
ed upon the waiting Mr. Scott and
blacked his eyes , broke his jaw and
flattened his nose. By and by Mr.
Scott said he had all he wanted , and
"Which is the longest river in the
world ? "
"The Amazon , sir. "
"Am-a-zon. Please write it down
for me. You've licked it into me in
fust-class style , and when I git home
and git my paws onto my son Bill he'll
come to believe that there hain't nuff
water in the Wabash to wash mother's
feet with ! Am-a-zon ! Good by , crit
ter ! "
Mex'co has under way a srlie-nc for import
ing Chinese labor for tha development of licr
Agricultural ami minerjl resources , native
labor being Inefficient
in Aged ilun Fulfills a Predlctlgn and Dropi
Dead Ills Autobiography His Meth
odical Life His Will.
Early last spring an aged man walk
ed brfskly into tho Enquirer office ,
and , with a very brief , preliminary
stated that he wished to leave ic
charge of the editor his autobigraphy ,
to bo published after his death , whicli
would probably occur some time this
fall. He also"wished to leave the
names of friends to whom papers con
taining an account of his death were
to bo sent. The old man was 17xk-
ard Bissell , a naturalist. His pr' Vi-
tion was fulfilled yesterday moromjj
at the Hummel House , where , iiTthe
office of the hotel , while walking , he
threw up his hands , and , with no othci
sign , fell to tho lloor a corpse. He
had been exceptionally cheerful all
tho morning , and at the. breakfast
table hud eaten heartily.
lie hail confidently predicted that
he would die this fall , and , as the
orthodox people say , "had his lamp
trimmed and burning. " In his pock
et was found a sealed envelope ad
dressed to the editor of the Enquirer ,
and on it was written , "Drop this
letter in the letter box at my death. "
The following was found enclosed :
"CINCINNATI , 1885. DKAK EDITOR
When you get ths I'll be dead at
the Hummel House. I left in yout
absence with Mr. a letter for
publication at my death. Please do
not forget it , as Mr. said he would
look it up and publish it at tho proper
time. Yours confidingly ,
RICH'AUD BISSELL ,
"Eighty-live years. "
The following directions were also
found on his person : '
CINCINNATI , September 2 , 1885.
N. B. : I have a letter in the hands of
the editor of tho Enquirer for publica
tion. Please"call on him and give
particulars of my death , etc. I am
very feeble in mind and body , and can
not live but a short time.
R. BISSELL , 85 years.
To Mr. J. Coplock , Esq. , Sr. : I have
about § 90 in my trunk to pay board
while I live. R. BISSELL.
In addition to other arrangements
for his last sleep , which will bo read
further along , this methodical old
gentleman recently purchased a hand
some monument , paying for the same
§ 250 , and had it ali inscribed , even to
the year 1885 , leaving only in blank
the month and the day of the month.
His last will ami testament was not
forgotten , and here it is :
CINCINNATI. O. , October 15 , 1885.
MY DUAIC ALICE WHEELER. : I send
you in another envelope my Pomcrov
National Bank stock for § 2,000 , and
my Norton Iron stock for § 1,000. and
my Ohio Machine Company stock for
§ 750 , all of which I present to you as
a free gift ; also , I give you my house
you live in in Middleport , and the
money I have nlacc-d to 30111credit in
tho Pomeroy National Bank , all to
be used for the benefit of SaliieNellie ,
Carbon and yourself , childien of my
nephew. Carbon Wheeler , deceased.
1 advise 3011 to choose Samuel Brad
bury 3'our trusteeto do your business ,
b\r all means , and keep under his con
trol , and the whole of my gift as still
as poss.ble. Yours conlindiugl3r ,
The autobiography for which the old
gentleman expressed a good deal of
solic.tude is herewith inserted as it
came to the editor's hands :
AUTOGRAPH OBI t'UARY.
EICHAUD BISSELL , NATUKAUST , OF CINCIN
NATI , 13 DEAD. I DIED , AS I HAD LIVED , IX
LOVU WITH ALL XATUKD.
"When tliese lines are rea-1
I'll be confllned wiih no tears diel ,
Bccau-e no kit drcd In the West
To lay me lonely at rest.
Adieu. 1 ve ivorl I of sinners ;
I go where gr.ives are winners.
Pay no young priest to pretend to
pray me o'ut of my grave for money ,
They come and dance the jigs of
life ; away they go like shadows play
ing before moving objects. Time
brings all on a lev el , tho king with
the beggar , and all-sleep together in
the great womb of Nature.
M3 * turn has come when I must join
the innumerable throne : of billions of
dead and sleep with them the sleep
that knows no wakins : in that vast
graveyard covering the whole earth.
Every step taken on so 1 presses on
what was once vegetable and animal
Fall and winter arc the rijrht seasons
of the 3ear to die , when other things
decay and arc locked up in the 103 *
embrace of winter , but vernal spring
ami summer arc the ri ht times to
live , when birds in earlv spring their
sweetest love sonjrs sing and all na
ture bursts into new life , and in sum
mer the green earth is coveredvith
The great drawback on dying is
that one does not wake up" morn
ings to greet friends and to read
the daily papers , thereby losing all
that transpires in this live world of
If life was a thing to buy , the"rich
would live and the poor would die at
once. But life is like a "snowllake on
the river a moment white , then gone
forever. " It brings a pang to know
life comes not again to the same indi
vidual , but out of its sad decay other
creations of lives arise spontaneously ,
as matter never dies , but lives on in
other forms , like the leaflets that fall
to tho ground all sere and brown ere
Irtng mingle with the soil and buds
arise , giving births to new-born llow-
2rs. The elements of bones and feath-
srs are in the new-born egg , and the
nature , too , making the strutting fiow-
Lite is a struggle full of c.iro and
trouble ; its jireateE-t pleasures are of
shortest duration. Yet if 1 was asked
cvhat I most desired I would say give
me back my youth.
It should be considered a sin and a
: lisgrace to die prematurely , proving
violations of natural laws.'but to die
ivith old age should be regarded as
: he most honorable of all deaths.
Myr philosophical religion enabled
TIC to ive alone with myself and to die
xlone * tthout a murmer. I am nftt
like the Irishman , who , when he
thought ho was dying , became alarm-
id and sent for his priest , who said :
"Pat , I hope 3'ou are not afraid of
rour God ? "
"No , your Holiness ; it is theBother
2-entleman I'm afraid of. "
As I Iiave none here to linger by my
grave , I invite pass'ug friends to cul
'at ' my lot. No. 141 , section 110 , hipriui
Grove Cemoter3 % where I can bpfounil
at home by my monument at all Umcs
sincn none move out of the city of the
lamented dead of over 40,000 inhabi
SKETCH OF MY LIFE.
I made my first yell in my mother's
bed-room without a shirt on Januarv
1 , 1801. Life left mo , 1885.
I have lived in Cincinnati s'nco 1860.
I grow up on a farm in Connecticut. J
am of French-Huguenot stock anil
English origin. My ancestors came
over 235 years ag'o and settled on n
farm in Massachusetts. I never had a
doctor nor took any drug-store poisons
in my life , and thereby dicd-a.natural
dcatlt in my 85th year. 1 was self-
raised and educated Irom 4 years old.
when 1 was loft on the stormy sea of
life without compass or rudder to
steer through a long voyage.
At 171 was a school teacher and
taught bo\s of 18 years how to think
Subsequently I practiced the huni-
bug rer3 * of medicine , whicli is expe
rimenting and guess-work , like a half-
blind man going out to shoot birds or
rats. 1 icier to doctors , not surgeons.
Then I was a traveler and stood upon
the banks of tho Rio Grande ; visited
the tombs of the Presidents and saw
some of the renowned people of our
country and tho nobility within the
I havo now gone where lodgings are
free , into my house the grave-di * ger
made for me ; to play hermit for my
own amusement , tiU'Cabi-icl calls for
saints and sinners to arise and put on
their running clothes.
Thus ends my eventful life in my
85th year , yet my evil deeds will live
in voices , while my virtues will bo
written in sand. I gave my * assets to
relative orphans and otherwise before
my death. 1 have many distant rela
tives liv.ng in New England and York
State , but my near ones have gone to
kingdom come , or where the "wood
bine twineth. " RICHARD BISSELL ,
Coroner Carrick held an inquest
on the body of the eccentric and pro
phetic old gentleman and found that
death was irom exhaustion consequent
on old a _ C. Cincinnati Eqnttirer.
History or' tho .Match.
[ From an Adlress by Pre Ident P.ayfair , of
the I'ritish Association. ]
"Let me take a single example of
how even a petty manufacture , im
proved by the teachings of science ,
affects the comforts and enlarges tho
resources of mankind. When I was
a bo3 * , the only way - of obtaining a
light was b3 * the tinderbo < c , with its
quadruple materials , Hint and steel ,
burnt rags or tinder , and a sulphur
match. If everything Avent well , if
the box could bo found and the air was
dry , a light could be obtained in two
minutes , but very often the time occu
pied was much longer , and the pro
cess became a great trial to the seren
ity * of temper. Tho consequence of
this was that a fire or a burning lamp
was kept a ight through tho cJay. Old
Gerard , in his herbal , tells us how
certain fungi were used to carry lire
from one part of the country * to tha
other. The tinderbox long held its
position as a great discovery in tho
arts. The pyxulicula iguiaria of tho
Romans appears to have been much
the same implement , though a little
ruder than the Hint and steel which
Philip the Good put into the collar of
the golden Fleeco in 1429 as tho repre
sentation of high knowledge in the
progress of tho arts. It continued to
prevail till 183" ? , when phosphorus
matches were introduced , though I
have been amused to find that there
are a few venerable ancients in London
who still stick to tho tinaer-box , and
for whom a few shops keep a small
supply. Phosphorus was no new dis
covery , for it had boon obtained by an
Arabian called Bcchtcl in tho eighth
centur3 * . However , it was forgotten ,
and was rediscovered by Br.indt , who
made it out of very stinking materials ,
in 1609. Other discoveries had , iiow
ever , to be made before it could be
used for lucifer matches. The science
of combustion was only developed on
the discovery of oxygen a century later.
Time had to elapse before chemical
analysis showed the kind of bodies
which could be added to phosphorus
to make it ignite re.idily. So ! t was
not till 1833 that matches became a
partial success. Intolerable they then
were , dangerous * inilammable , h rri-
bh poisonous to the makers , and
injurious to the lungs of the consum
ers. It required another discovery
by Schrotter in 1845 to change poi
sonous waxy into innocuous red brick
phosphorus iu order that these defects
might be re mo lied , and to give us the
safety match of the present day. Now ,
what have these successive discoveries
in science done for the nation in this
single manufacture , by an econoni3' of
time ? If before 1833 wo had made tho
same demands for light that we do
now. when wa consume eight matches
per head of tho population , the tinder-
box could have supplied the demand
under the most favorable conditions
by an expenditure of one-quarter of
an hour. The Jucifer match supplies
a light in fifteen seconds on each oc-
cas.on , or in two minutes for the
whole day. Putting these differences
into a year , tho venerable ancient who
still sticks to his tinder-box would re
quire to spend ninety hours yearly in
tho production of light , while"the user
of lucifer matches spends twelve
hours , so that the latter has an econ
omy of spventy-cight hours 3'early , or
about ten working days. "Measured
by cost of production at Is. Gd. daily ,
the economy of time represented in
money to our population is 26,000-
(00 ( annually. This is a curious in
stance of tlie manner in which science
leads to economy of time and wealth
even in a sinali'manufacture. "
A Quick Response.
A New London boy , with a mlk
pitcher in hand , fell "headlong down
the back stairs. He had regained his
feet and was brushinir the dirt trom his
clothes when his mother appeared at
the head of tho stairs and asked :
"Did you break the pitcherNo , I
didn't ; but I will , " was the quick re
sponse. And he did. Hartford Times.
A new cliapel to costJ50.003 . Is in process
of election at Lehigh Un'.vcrs'.tr.
PERSONAL AND IMPERSONAL.
A BILL , to prohibit prizo-fightini ; 5
ponding before tho Oregon legisla
THE new Philadelphia postiaastoif ! . *
Mr. Harrity , has 790 appointments ii
SULPHOK is deposited on tho top ol
Mount Popocatapotl at tho rate of t
ton a dav.
A HEAVY shower of nugle-wormi
fell upon the snow at Trucked , Gal. ,
THE latest list of American beetle !
describes 9,490 species on this couti
THE four sons of Lieut. Kisliugbury . ! I
of Arctic fame , receive a pension oi
$10 per mouth.
THE rector of a fashionable churcl
in Utah is spoken of as tho ' * 'Apostl
of the Gonleels. "
JOEL CHANDLEU HAKKIS is credited
with $7,500 as tho annual product o ;
his humorous pen.
SENOK.V. QUESADA , tho Argcntini
Confederation's minister at Washing
ton , is at homo a writer of cmiuonci
on legal topics.
ARCHBISHOP GIBBONS , of Baltimore ,
is now taking his annual vacation , and
is visiting his sister , Mrs. Swarbrick
in New Orleans.
J. B. Do"\\"NS and wife , of tho Isle ol
Shoals , both nearly 80 years old , pro
pose to spend the cold weather thii
season in Portsmouth , which will hi
their first winter on tho main land.
A YOUNG bridal couple of South Car
olina are on their bridal tour in a wagon
with ten bushels of apples and om
bushel of chestnuts. They are saio
to bo quite young and to appear ex
REV. EDWAUD BICKEUSTETII , a son
of tho bishop of Exeter , who worked
so hard as head of tho Cambridge
mission at Delhi , has resigned one o !
the best livings in Suffolk , England ,
for the missionary bishopric of Japan.
Tut : supply of coal on tho globe * is
not likely to bo exhausted veiy soon.
Enormous deposits havo been discov
ered in China , the area including a dis
trict larger than the coal fields of Penn
sylvania , yielding the best anthracite.
EXAMINATIONS of tho painted wm <
dows of tho ancjeut cathedrals of Eng
land and continental Europe sh&w
that their superiority consists reallj
in the imperfection of the glass. Tin
waves and threads and blisters refract
and reilcct the light , thus giving the
window panes an added beauty.
IT may be said that one-half tht
world does not know what the othot
half eats. At a large bakeiy in Nevi
York tho bread that is two da3s old
and hard as a rock is sold to Italians
for almost nothing. After they soal
the dry bread in stale lager and partlj
rcbake it they sell it for the nourish
ment of other Italians.
A riiOJECT is on foot for introducing
in London a new stylo of four-whoa
cab with many improvements on tin
existing vehicle , an important modifi
cation being that the cab can be read
ily used as an open one. The new cabi
will be well-horsed and well-driven bj
men in uniform. Improved hansoms
are also contemplated , and it is pro
posed that for both descriptions ot
vehicio the fare shall be sixpence pet
JTiiE Indians of Guiana have onlj
four numbers in their system of nu
meration. They count by the hand
and its fingers. Thus , when they read
Jive , instead of saying so they call it t
hand. Six is , therefore , a "hand anc
first finger , " seven "a hand and sec
ond finger , " and ten is "two hands : "
but twenty , instead of being "foul
hands , " is a man. " Forty is "twc
men , " and thus they go on 03' twen
ties. Forty-six is expressed as "tw <
men , a hand , and first finger. "
THE pass on. for relics has curiom
phases. Sticks and stones , grass anc
weeds are common forms of gratifica
tion of the relic-hunters ; articles o !
personal apparel , furniture , and chips
are other means enjoyed. A cat-o'-
nine-tails is certainly unique and
would not bo supposedly a desired
relic , but after the sheriff at Chester ,
Del. , had performed his duty of chas
Using two offenders at the whipping
post , 2. New York gentleman pur-
chased the cat-o'-ninc-tails for $5 anc
carried it off with him as a memonU
of tho occasion.
MANY of the old railroads in tin
south in existence in 1880 have beei
purchased since by syndicates anc
vastly improved and extended so a :
to develop new territory or make ne\i
connections. Besides , this , however ,
man3 * millions of dollars havo beei
expended in build ng new roads , auc
a wonderful impetus has been given t <
tho development of the resources a
the south. The increase in mileagt
alone in five years has been 9,32 , '
miles. The smallest increase of am
state has been in Maryland 1 :
miles and South Carolina conies next
in smallness with 136 miles. Virginii
shows an increase of 794 miles , whicl
is exceeded by only two states Toxa ;