Newspaper Page Text
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Making Market Dutter.
The churn should always ho Beallled
find cooled before lining used , If tUls
Is neglected once the churn IR dllll1'
aged beyond 1'f'11It1J' . The tellllomturo )
used In churning should bo Rill'll tint
the hllttel' cOllies III about Lit roe ! IIUI1I"
tera of 1111 hO\1l' \ The churn Hhollld he
IItOJlllcd while the granules 111'0 still
quite lunutl A few small particles oC
butter may : ho lost III the buttermilk ,
but wllh flue huller granules It Is poss
slide to hold 3 : : ! per cent more 1I10lH'
tare III the butter III 11 very finely di
vided condition , giving the butter 11
much drier III'Jlelln\lwc. ' III washlllg
lJ11Uol' II quantity of wilier equal to
the . buttermilk removed ! should housed
' ' ' ' of the wash
used The temperature )
water should he much its will lead e
the butter neither " too hard nor too
HuH for wOI'lilnHllttm' / should ! 1J0
salted In the churn whether the com
limned churn In In use or 1I0t An
easily soluble salt not too Ono grained
should he I1scd 1l should be : o 1111'
plied ns to he thoroughlY mixed
through the butler with the mlnlmnm
amount of worldng From three ' quay .
tern to one and one . hitif ounces will
he required according to he I condition -
tlon and amount of moisture In butter
and the demands of the marlet. After .
or being salted and worked lightly the
butter should stand until the Ball has
dissolved when it should tic rework d
anti packed OJ' 11rlnted.
Paclmges Hhoultl bo prepared by '
steaming and soaking 111 brine con
taming 1 per cent of Cormall11 Lin
err should ! : ! he oC the best qualIty of
parchment and should be soaked , In
the salllo ! ; oh tlon , The finish should
' lIe neat and the packages ) clcan.-J
W. Hart ,
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The Debt.Maklng Cow.
There arc a good many cows In
the country that are making debts ] for
their rather than
thcm ur dcM ! : ! , The worst thing about
It Is that these debt makers arc not
known to he debt malwrs They arc
tolerated and accepted on their fat o.
A man wIth a good large herd of debt
makers : always finds a lot of ' \'ol'k to
do hut somehow 01' other his family
are always lacking the things they
n/Juk they should lawo 'rho only
good ; thing to bo said about these
cows Is that their milt swells the
volume of the milk \ that goes to the
cities and so keeps down the twice the
poor people have to pay' So far as
the farmer Is concerned the quicker
these , debt makers are sent to the beet 1
barrel oi' the butcher's block the het' i
Butter Melds. -
The spores that develop Into butter
i i molds arc said to be everywhere pres
ent and to requite only the proper
conditions to send : forth the plant lIfe
S that wo know us mold. The required -
Qulred conditions are warmth and
damlll1css These conditions happen
In many creameries and butter rooms
In summer , when the Ice has run lower
or disappeared altogethcr. The ship ,
1 lCrS of butter say that too frequently
the cars that carr ) ' the butter are aI ,
_ lo\yed to run out at ice anti become
both damp and warm with the result
that the butter arrives at Its destiny ,
tiOIl In R moldy condition.
A New Milk Preservative.
The French are experimenting if1 i
the making of a milk preserver from
which they hope great things. It If i
to have antiseptic properties and ye st
be harmless to the human stomach
If they are able to bring this abort
. great things may result. They cal
the substance' oxygenated water. 11 I
hills the microbes In the milk , bit :
by the end at six hours it bas Itst'l :
disappeared , having changed Inte
oxcgeu aptl water.
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Some Guinea Hens.
Guinea fowls have been raised on
American farms fur a 10llg time hill
- ' ' ' received
they : probably have never
more 1It11'1I11011 thllll they arc today
rt'l'l'I\'llIg. : tlllllt'/1 / fowls are easily
and . cheaply raised when they are
given their liberty , its they lire great
foragers and prefer to hunt their own
support ! If IIJI ! > lblt' , The females are
quite III'ollllt' layers ) : , llld ! it Is reasonable .
able 10 BUllpOHO that at Home time I
their t'ggs111 sell well In the marwt. )
Their HlIIIlIlI1tSS ! 111111 brown color ml1i.
late somewhat against hem I at the
present time , as the buyers do not
Jmow the eggs well enough to demand
thelll. It mar well bo believed however .
ever that If they went so : common
that they were constantly obtainable
In the market they wOllld soon bo In
demand Where there Is a flock oC
these I Cowls the housewives soon learn
to use their eggs for hIgh quality
The liens try to hide their nests
which are simply little holes In the
11'0111111. In these hey t lay numerous
eggs. The birds however have the
habit of the common ' hen In pnbtlsh'
mug abroad the fact that they have
laid nn egg CIS soon HS that act Is per
tOl'1ned. The result Is that It Is not
at all dlO1cl1lt for the owner of the
bird to find out her laying l11ace
gvery poultry fancier should have
11 copy of the American Standard of ,
Perfection and learn to judge his own ,
hlt ds. Then he is tittle lildely to send I
f Ih . . . . , . . . . , . . . . , . _ . . , _ . . . .11' , . _ _ _ _
w u.c " "UH auk 1111 ua : IlJitt Will : : > I.vn : : :
Opportunities for Poultry Raiser
1'0 the farmers lIvlllg within twenty
01' thIrty miles oC the large clUes
there arc always opportunities that
Ahoulll prove ) vel' ' profitable. Great
hotels are always : ready to take con'
lgl1ments of poultry and eggs pro'
skied thc consignments ! : ! can be made
every day the year round One Chi-
cage hotel was for some line t trying
to find a fnrlUm' that would furnish
25 dozen eggs a day' at 25 cents a .
dozen. The contract was too big for
any one of them to talie. There were
farmers that would agree to furnish
25 : ; dozen of eggs a liar through the I
laying season , hut they could not
promise to keep It 1111 throughout the
yem' The knowledge or how to produce -
duce winter eggs ! ; Is so lacking gemi
ntll ) ' that few have the temerity to
base contract on the ability to do so.
Few American farms have the equipment '
ment necessary to produce 300 eggs
a day , even If the laying habits of the
I Cowls are e\'lI' 80 well apportioned as
to season. It will \ ' '
pay our farmers to
EO equip their farms that they can
take advantage of the very profltablo
opportunities that so frequently pass
by In the old mythology Father
Time hat ; a lock oC hair on the front
part of his head tn signify that whoever .
ever would make the most oC time
must be able to seize the opportunity
as It comes and not ns it gocs. The
farmer that Is ready for the opportunity .
Ity before It comes will \ generally find )
the opportunity coming his way.
Cotton Seed Meal and Pigs.
It is well for swine raisers to ro ;
slow In the feeding of cotton seed
meal' to swine. There Is much In the
bulletins about It from time to time ,
and new men are trying to find out
how to feed It to the pigs and not kit \ 1
them. 'fbe experiment stations can I
better afford to lose pigs than can the
farmers. It Is safe also not to take
t stock In the assertion of the wIse fol
, low who can tell you Just how to fee c
It successfully. He thinks he knows ;
1 but It Is just as well \ to let him try It I
t on his own pigs. When the stations
t have found sure a way ot feeding It I t
t successfully will be time enough to r
o the common farmer to rIsk killing bls
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The Yield to Expect.
A farmer should have some fairly
wl'lI.fixer ! idea of how much crop he
should get from a certain piece of land
and hen t hunt about for the reason if 1
his expectations lire not l'eaHzed. It
docs not pay to be too easy with Na-
tUl'e. The exacting mun Is the one
that gets most from her. Wo have
been ? 'III'Jrlse ) to see certain men sat'
Isfled with the very meager returns
they ! I'ecelved frolll laud. The returns
were seldom more than enough to pay
the expenses of growing ! : the crop. Yet
they were satisfied / apparently and
merely l'ell1lI'lccd : , "Oh , well , that land
never docs ( hotter than that. " 'fho
men In question belong to that group
known as "hnnd farmers. " That Is ,
they farm by the use of their hands
and not by the use oC their heads. We
know of a place where some of this
kind reside. A 'man that farms with
his brains came along and said , "How
much corn did yeti get this year ? "
"Ahout twenty bushels. " "Why don't
you get more ? " "I don't know ; the
land never does better than that
amount herc. " The man that farms
with hIs head thought it worth while I .
to find out for the sake ot these farmers .
ers what was the trouble. As the land
was rich In humus be asked one of
them If ho would use some potassium
It he supplied It. He replied he would
and he did. On the piece treated wIth
potassium the yield : the next season
was at the rate of 65 bushels of corn
to the acre. That showed that . - the
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land lacked potassium , Jet the men
that farmed with theIr bands had
never tried to find out whether It
lacked any thing or not. Why could
not they have done the work or find-
lug out ?
Some people are helpless in circumstances .
stances and others try to control the
circumstances. Those that try to control .
trol the circumstances are wise , for
the circumstances \ can generally qe >
controlled In a remarkable degree ,
when a man sets himself about It.
A farmer should not be contented with
any yield , less than a good yield : , as
the average yield Is usually a monc ) . '
'l'hel'e arc few farms where the
yields oC crops cannot be greatly increased .
creased except those farms under the
management or our most advanced
farmers. The problem should be not '
how to Increase the number of acres
JJroduclllg poor crops but how to produce .
duce a greatly Increased yield on the
acres already under tmage.
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How One Thing Changes Many.
A recent writer at ArgentIne agriculture -
culture says that were It not for alfalfa -
fa Argentina would occupy an unimportant .
portaut place In the list of beet producing -
clueing nations , at least so far as ex ,
port beef Is concerned The people ot '
the United States supposed that they
had gained control of the English
market and could bold It for all time
But along came the alfalfa plant and
the South American was at once able
to send ] beef to Europe to compete
with American beef. One lIttle thing
like that changes the '
course of com
merce even at agricultural commerce.
Up to the present time nations have
been so careless of each other that
one hardly cared to Inquire what the
other was doing. But the nation that
finds a sharp competition arising
where there was no competition he-
fore Is forced to Inquire what the
changed conditIons are that make It
possible. We must henceforth com'
pete with alfalfa In ArgenUna. That
Is 1 the real fact. The beef Is merely
the way of marketing the alfalfa. But
as a result of that one thing enterIng
into the problem we may have to
change our methods in ! several ways
Cows on pasture should ; be fed some
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Beds. . .
Covering Strawberry ' . - I
Material : should be laid aside for the ,
coverIng of the strawberry bcd , which t
work should be accomplished as soon f
as the ground Is frozen hard enough to 1
hold a wagon. CautIon should he used I
against coverIng too earl ' . Some seem
to have the Impression that strawberries .
berries are covered to protect them
from the col/l. This Is not the case ;
for Il must be patent to every one that
six Inches of straw 01' cornstalks will
not keep out very much cold. If a
thcrmometer were placed above the
straw and below It 011 a winter day the
two would ho found to register about
or exactly the same. The covering
Is put on to keep out the heat In lat6
fall and winter when the plants are
not covered with snow. The freezing
and thawing of the ground Is the
thing to be guarded ] against.
If the covering Is put on too early
the plants may be smothered and ,
killed , for growth is still going on and 11 1
evaporation is taking place from the _
leRYcs. While this Is the case , cov- -
ering would kill the leaves in some
cases and in others would encourage
the growing on them of mIJdews.
When the leaves arc frozen later on Is
the time to cover Then all growth
Is arrested and the covering cannot
smother them. For the same reason
the straw must be removed quite early
In the sprIng before growth bas Bet in
lt Is not desirable to use for cover-
ing any kind -o-i- material - - that packs I
very closel ' . The keeping ] out of the
all' Is not desirable , but the protection
of the ground from the direct rays ot
the sun. Coarse straw held down by
boards is good , and corn stalks are I
also used. Sometimes It may be round
advisable to use a little straw below . : .JE .
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low and cornstalks above , the latter ' +
holding the straw from blowing.
As to the advisability of covering \1 \ ,
there Is a dispute , but it Is doubtless l i
true that the man that covers his
strawberries is sure at a crop of ber-
rIes the coming year ; while the man
that docs not cover is not sure of one.
Wo know of people In the latitude of
Northern Illinois who never cover
their vines at all and usually gel fair
crops , but we also know that on occasional .
caslonal 'ears their beds in the spring
are very sickly looking and the resultant -
sultant crop Is small
Further north In the latitude of Wisconsin -
consln , there can be no question of the
ad\'lsabl1Jt of covering if a crop is to
be expected every J'ear. The oldest
growers there declare that they would . - - / .
not try to grow strawberrIes without T
coverIng. In fact , a good many people
In past years gave ul strawberry
growing there because they so Ire- e
quentl lost their beds In winter. But
since coverIng has become general
the result has been far otherwIse. I
As we go south the need for COY' I
eying decreases but the practice in .
each ) locality will have to depend on
expC1lence : , The locality that has for ,
a long time grown stmwberrIes. without . c
out winter protection will continue - : ; ; ,
grow them that wa ) . But there are ,
always Iocf1lltlcs' where ; the vines are
not covered but should be. It Is some I
work to do the coverIng , and for this
reason the growers arc likely to take
the risk of not covering it that rIsk
Is not too great. Where protection
Is needed It pays to covers
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The Maturity of the Apple.
Some oC our horticulturists are malting .
lug It difference between the mature
apple and the ripe apple , though the .
general pUblic recognizes no such de-
stinction.- We will let our horticui .
focal friends have their way bowever.
The apple i3 mature when It bas at.
tamped Its full growth. It Is not ripe
un It has become mellow with the
operations or sunlight , heat and time
The mature apple Is in the best shape
I Cor- plckln . If'lt be left on the tree ---y-