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Carrizozo outlook. (Carrizozo, N.M.) 1910-1945, January 29, 1915, Image 2

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OARRIZOZO OUTLOOK.
4
si., -ir ,
STORY OF YEAR MARKED
BY SENSATIONAL EVENTS
Most Momentous Twelve Months of Modern Times
Roviewed-Great European War, Mexican
Troubles and Other World Happenings.
tUt year of our Uinl, 1!tt. I" unique
II íl6ísj not full lulu tin- procession of II'
yjqim with tho iievuslomed HlitR. That
wfitili h triinefnrmed It lulo n liormr
wUlffilll precedent III breath nnil mnllg.
titúr Id wnr wnr which U devastating the
,fiT world muí IIxIiib It sinister Impress
uij llio iitw.
II raine Hwirtly nri'l lili n terrino
i latli. On July M. tlii A.islrei-llungurlnn
lipwrnmeiit sent (in ulllinntum In Borvln
elfinatulliig I he punishment or the per
eon rfmcermd In tho iiMnhslnnllnn of
lilt' Arthdtike Frnnz Ferdinand mid In
tiMnl suppression of nil null-Austrian
pri'isignmla In Hint enuntry nml giving
4 hour fur toiuddrrullon. Tim llelgrndo
government ngrccd lo Hip Austrian do
mated Willi a nltiRto exception Hint which
would hnvti empowered Austrian ofllplnls
In tnko a Icoillne part n Ihu punishment
of dm inurdeirrn, nml naked for further
Intcrnintltin on Ihl point.
Tlia reply win not ntlsfaetnry tn Aus
tria, filio promptly declared wnr . I Ser
via nml began lo moví' t round toward
loider. Tho I'nlm liegnn active innb
f(lrnllon nnd removed Ihrlr cnpllnl from
Ilelgrnde lo Nlsh, In llio Interior. In
rlnnlly tho cyi-a of nil tin- civilized world
8H turned lownnl Itiinsln.
The lny after Austria declared wnr
on Kjrvla, Ilia Hussion mlnlstur or for
tali nffnlis warned the Or inn n nmbn.
Bllilor Hint If Hervía wero Invnded Hum.
din woiilil lint bo ahln In remain neutral.
(Irent llrllnln pronoun! lo Ucrmnny.
Kliini'i' nml llnly Hint n council iliouli!
IM" ntreinged In modlnte between Hip two
disputants, Clcrinniiy declined tn become
pnily In such mi arrangement. Tin czar
IIIiihI I he kaiser In lili" his Influence rvllli
Ihe AiiKlilan emperor According In llio
Herman ncrounl, llio kaiser e-oinpllcd
Willi IIiIh icqucst In llio lipHt of Ms nhll
t ty. When lio discovered, howi'ver, Hint
iiiohlllziHon wnH going on nrllii'ly In
Itlisstn, lio wired llio rznr Hint tils course
wax making mediation Impossllilp.
Tho ilit w lulrr Hip knlsor prorlnlmpd
innrllnl law Hiroucliout tho roiinlry nnd
i-riit n tiMiily.fuur hour iitllinntiiiii tn
Hip Mimrovlln Rovirntnput riPmnmllmr nil
llillinl iihnniloninpnt of nil wnr prip
uintliiii. At Hip pxiilriitlon of this ultl
milium. AukiikI 1, Hip Imlncr Kiivn Hip
onlpr for mnhlllintlnn to liPKln nml on
Ijif Hfiiup ilny Count on t'ourtnlps, Hio
(icrinnii niiilmssiiilor nt at. I'rtcrsiiurKi
lnrlpd lioiurwurd,
Mt'iinuhllp Ihp inolilllznllon of the pn
lire I'ri'iK'li nrmy wnH Iicruii. Mnrtlnl
:iu wno dpcliirrd nnd. Aiiituat 4, Hie Ur
innii miilmHHndor nnuotineeil Hint tlio wnr
lirlnofii his country nnd I rnnce wns on.
IJiirWiiiiI luid nuked lm(i Prnnre nnd
(Ipriniiuy. If they wiiiild rpsppct Hio lu-u
trullty of HrlKliim In casn of wnr. Tim
former hnd nnswrrpd In Hio ndlrmntlvp,
Tlif IntliT inndp nn dlrci't reply, nnd Del
clnii inolilllznllon hi'Knn nt once.
fin AiiRiist S a Cli-rnun nrmy miirchPil
Into Hio Clrnnil Duchy of I.uxpiiilmrR,
whitKi iiPUlrnllly Imd Imen RUiirnntPPil
dy Hip piHiiTs In 1SC7. A ilny Inter, tho
(Itriiinn Kuvcrnnipiit Kent a note to tho
llfluhin Koierninont dpuinuilliiir pnonnRp
for Ih'tiiiiiii troops HiroiiRli the counlry
mil ihoiiiIhIiik iiiupIp eniiippiisntlnn for
nil (Inmune nt llio ctoie of Hip wnr. Tills
wus In tho form of nn ultimatum nnd
t.pwllh'il twelve hours ns n time limit.
Til icply wns Hint Iklxlum would dp
Olid her neulrnllly hy force of nnns If
It Were neeessnry.
Great Britain Declares War.
At llila move of (Irrmtiiiy, Clrcnt Ilrlt
nln Iipriiii- nrtlve mohlllznllon of her
fort( mid nil Hio imvnl rpsorves wpro
cnllpil mil nt nncp. Wnr nRnlnst Oermnny
W(ID iltt'lnred on Aimust 4, n wnr liudRet
of lif'.li.io wns voted, nnd within n few
(IflyH a llrltlsh force of J2ii.rnl men hnd
hrrn In mlcd In Krnnrp. On AiiRUKt ft Am-Irtn-'liiiiKnry
dndnred wnr nn Itussln
nnd her troops crossed tho Ilumino iKir
ilrr. The MoutmicRrlns Joined tho Sorhs
niwllisl Austrln nml Hnxiilo, wus Invnded,
oh AiiRtist 10 the Trench Rnverninent
litoel'iliiied wnr nRnlnst Austrln, nnd two
iUyn Uler lCimliml followed her exnm
i)e. .lupiiii nnnnuiiced her Ititeiitlcn to
Mile Hllh her llrltlsh ally.
Hrni.illnnvl.i nnd Iloltaud nssertpn tlielr
iipiurnllty, hut nt once put nil their mlll
Inry lesounes Into re'iulslllon for dp
fi wo. I'l'iliuml nunnuiH-ed her Inten
tion tn fulfill her treaty obligations with
Omit llrllnln, hut she did not heeoma a
llllplTnt nt oneo. Rpnhi profpuMd Rh
Willlln liculrntlly. hill tu'Kun lininedlnlu
HiOtilllKllloii of lilt her foiees. Turkey dp
rlnrnl fm neulinlliy. hut lool.lllmsl her
uriliy nml htsnii to ndvnn' i tawnril liul
(Hrf. li '" not until the Iml or Ocln
lier Hint she misiIp hr Initial dimonalrii
Hon In the lllnili lea ngitlnsi Hussla.
(Irpppe. m well ns the minor TMk.m
Uli a. was In n enmllllnn of srnnil -H-ilnniy.
As fpr Italy, sworn hII of
(Irrilinn)' lllul Austrln In Hie so-i'alliil
jinpllond. she took advanlnire of the riot
Ihnt her imrliwr were not eimiiRi.1 In a
defensive war to remain neutral despite
leona itrrisuire tram llarlln nml Vletimi.
At Hie outbrwli of liMtllUlti. n ronor
fildp tlMek If tüo I0 elTectlw- ever
finown wus Mtilttllllid In nil the wnrrliiK
roiinlrtes. Alieul nil lliat was nrtiuilly
revralrd was that Hie kalaer's forcea
load, their war tlirouali ttalclum with u
Irt meiidoui log Of men ami property,
Mo- rdlalan dafemlrr of I he Hule IiIiir
ikim I'thlattlUR a power nf reilstnnre nnd
H tubhornnrM which ainauil the world
The forts at I.Iikp linllml the Oeritmii
legtera for a wk. Hut tho mhls were
Ion treat. Ily III end of AuriisI the ter
HkV norman war machine had lllernlly
mowed Its Way Ihrouuh liajaluin. ami hy
Mlt)siii!ir ( had rwtelied n point wllhln
Iwvntr rtillM "f Parla, which wns In nc
tU aWparaUon for u aleas The sen I nf
aovrrnmenl wns lemnv. I to llordMUX
BUaMrll, on (laptemher 4. Hie (lerman
rmr O' th ''at tnrned eaatwiird Hluee
i. Ilia kals't's forees have lsn
fSNIWiy, flRhlliia with n iwrsls
rT Whir noril.il In the his
inndtrt) wr
h mohlllutlon hy the middle of
Was iinullenllv romtdoled nnd
im Mri armies were in nip u ntivnnco
jawnni Ilia Herman nflü Ausirian iron
desnt foreM nppoae.1
Dio filarle
Mie aaxl mi ny. hiood'
contKiis reh
lowed In rnpld succession, until Inte In
Hie nutumn, I ho greally outniimhercd
Teutonlo allies bvsnn lo show slims of
ilcellnlnR olTonslve nhlllly.
Tho Jnpnneso confined their mil tnry
oprrnllons entirely to Asln They lin-
mcdlntciy proceeueii URninst ton Ucrmnn
forts nt Klmichmi, Chlnn, which were
taken hy assault nfter ten weoks' nttnrk.
llusslnn nml Turkish llects hnve hcen en.
RnKeil In tho Muck sea, Hiero has been
llnhtliiR on n sinnll aculo In Kirypt, unit
the roitiiuueio 111 Africa hnve mndo lev-
trill nltncks upon (lermnn colonists, In
dian troops limn heen ciiRUKcd with Tur
kish forces In nn effort to keep tho Buez
C'nnnl open,
! rom tho first, Hiero hns heen n prnc
tlc.il dendlork In tho nnvnl sllunllnn. Tho
llrltlsh licet sailed utulor senk-d orden Ail
Rtist 4, nnd a big nnvnl uitttlo In tho
North sen wns confidently expected hy
tho wnllliie world, It soon heenmo np
pnrent Hint Client Ilrltuln's purosc wm
to dwil n rntnl blow nt Clerman commerco,
Kiiti'Kiinrd thut of lictidum, rriinro nml Its
own nnd lender tho enemy's fleet luopera
tlvo by hnhllnir It In tho Ilnltle. A week
Inler. tho port nuthorlllea of New York
wero notified Hint Hio Atlantic lines wcro
unnbstrui'tcd, nnd a few iluys afterward
tho 1'ucllle lines wcro pronounced "open
mid snfe." Sixty llrltlsh war vessels
Riinrdcd tho exit of tho Kiel C'nnnl and
prevented tho thirty aermun battleships
anchored Hiero from comlnR out. Within
n few dnys, more than thirty of the Rrent
Oennnn ocenn liners wero Inlcrnod In
neutrnt waters nnd a number of Clermnn
inereiinnt ships were enptured or do
stroyed.
Ily tho middle of November mora Ihiin
four hundred wnr vessels nnd merchant
men on all sides hi. I oecn captured or In
tcrned In liculrnl porta, Tho Ilmden In
tho I'aclflo and tho Knrlsruho In tho
Hiiulli Atlnntlc, two flcriunn rnldcra,
preyed sueeessfully upon allied nnd neu
trnl commerco until tho former wns put
out of nctlon, DurlnR tho pnst three
months tho (lermnns have destroyed n
number or Jlrlllsh cruisers hy means or
lorpedoes, In nn action off tho const or
Chile, n squadron or llvo Herman wnr
ships snnk the Monmouth nnd flood Hope
with nil on hoard, On October 17 ill
thoiiRli It wns not known to tho public
fur u fiirlnlKht nflerwiird-tho llrltlsh
siipcr-drendnniiRlit Audacious was sunk
by n mino off tho const or Ireland, Hhott
ly nflcrward, tho llrltlsh admiralty do
clnrcd tho North sen a closed military
area,
On December II Hio Oermnn erulseri
Bchnrnhorst, anelsnu, IIpzIr nml Nuern-
norR, under Admlrnl von Hpce, were sunk
ny n llrltlsh squadron under Vlce-Ailmlra
Hlr Frederick Bturdeo, off tho Knlkhiud
Isinnda, Tho Oennnn cruiser Dresden es
caped, badly duninRed, December 10 n
Clermnn llert bombnidcd the KnHllsh ronst
towns of Hartlepool, Whitby nnd Hcnr
boroiiRli, 1(1 1 II ni; ISO and wnundliiR SCO citi
zens nml raushiR much property dnmiiHc.
Threo Ilrlllsh merchant vessels were sunk
by mines laid by tho bombnrdluir fleet.
At tho clono of tho year operations In
tho west seem practically nt n standstill.
December 17 tho Germans reported a vic
tory In I'oland.
As n result of Hit tiiimcdlntn pnrnlysls
In the lliianelal world due to tho sudden
embroilment of Hio Ktiropenn nations,
Americans nhrond wero subjected to
Rrent Imoiivenh'iice nml not a llttla actual
hardship. Much relief was atTordeil tho
Ilolrlin sufTcrirs mid Inrse sums of
money for llio purposo wero raised alt
over tho country.
Tho American Hed Cross sent llio relief
hip lied Cross to lhirnpeuu waters,
with a mil equipment or pliysh Inns
nurses nnd supplies, on Hcptember I.'.
Chaotic Condition! In Mexico.
Early In the yonr furelen nntlona lieunn
to bo critical nf tho iidintnlstralloirs
"hniids-ort" Mexlcnn policy nnd to Insist
Hint the Job of pnc!f)lnR Mexico belmmed
loRleally to the tTultvd Hlutes. Victo
riano Ilnerlii bad held the provisional
presidency for n year mid Imnstrd In Ids
dips that he Mould hold Ids ofltcu loimer
than I 'residen I Wllsor would remain In
the White limine. Meanwhile tho bnmlll
elder rancho Villa wns steadily KnlnhiR
Krouud In the north. The tlenost bntlh'
or the levohitlon, which was foiiitlit tor
nlmoai two weeks, onded In victory for
llio rebel foroiw
There was an npnallhiR low or lire In
this long continued flRht, nnd moro Hum
four thousand fUBlllviw eiussetl the llio
(Iranite and tmik re tuce In American ter
Ittory. Here they wero enred for by the
United Btatis authorities.
On I'ebninry 3 l'reildrnt Wilson re
yoked nn order by bis predecessor In of
fleo to put a slop to the shipment of arms
and mninunhlnn Into Mexico hy citizens
or the I'nltnl litotes. On Anrll II. l'resl
dent Wilson usti noted Beeretnry Daniels
to nsaemble an ImpnalnK naval force nt
THinn en. on the Mexlcnn const. This
was due lo th refusul or Hut Mexican
president and his mil I tnry nlds tn snlule
tho American IbiR us nn essential feature
of nil niKiloRy for an unwnrrnnled nrrest
ti ml Imprisonment or sene nil American
bluejackets who hnd landed on Mexican
soil to obtain n atintuy ut Rasniine.
Allhouuli the rnlsnde was Hie result or
a mlsumlrrstnndliiR In whlrh all the par
Hen concerned shared nbout counlly. It
was mnnlfest that Huerta was In no mood
to comply with nny renuest of Hie U'nsh
liiRton authorities, however politely mid
even dellcnlcly made. Ho I ef lined to or
der the salute, and tho naval demonstra
tion followed
Congress passed a resolution niistnlnlnu
the piesldent In the position which ho
hnd taken. On Aptll !! Admlrnl t'lelchcr
H'lsiil the custom hnuso nl Vera Cruz
The Mexican resisted the occupation or
the custom house nnd the reaiill was u
flRht, In whleti 10 Ameileans wre killed
nnd 71 wour-ied. Clenerul Man, tn rom
mmid or Hit. Rarrlann, withdrew und left
tho Americans In possession.
Nelson O'flhniiRnessy, tho American rep.
resentnllve, was Riven Ids pnsspoits and
rrnucs ed tu ivavi Hio country, un.
Otn. ltederlck Kunslon. lonimniidor or
tlin Atnerlcnn foicts nt Vera Cruz, wns
rend? to enter on a vigorous ontnpalgn
Ik foro hostilities were curried further
tho diplomatic representatives nt Wash
ington of Arffelitlna, llrazll and ChUvmnl
In to tho offlio of the department of alatn
a formal tender of Hu ir servici a na medí
aton. 1'rcsldonl Wilson iieei pli'd the or
fcr and laith Huerta and CnrrnlKU ac
cepted the prolTered medhitlon.
The mediatory con Ten mn was held nt
Niagara Tails, Cnunda, mid opened on
May CO. On June I.' Hie conference had
agreed upon n plan accepted IkiIIi by
President Wilson nnd Huerta. Then a
deadlock r. roso over the choice tor presi
dent the American delcRntcs declined to
accept His mimo of nny iinnconstltiitlonnt-
ist.
Meanwhile, Hie constitutionalists were
making unmlstnknhle Hilvanen toward th
capital, Their success wns so pionouncod
Hint It was c blent they would soon bo In
control or lh Ruvernmcnt,
On .Inly 1 the confcrincn ramo In nil
end without definite result, nnd four day
later Huerta wns re-elected president by
his partisans. On July 13 tho dictator ro
slRned the presidency nnd took pnssiiRn
for Kuropo, leavinK mo executivo nutlior-
Ity In Hio hnmls of n pioinlnent citizen,
Francisco Curbnjnl.
Tho now president nnd Cnrrnnzn eou d
not ngreo upon tho surivndei of tho rov-
rrnmcnl lo tho victorious runstituiloniil
Ist nrmy, nnd on AuRiist 10 Curbnjnl re
sinned and tho chamber of deputies dis
solved. Flvo dnys Inter, the coiistltullon
nllst nrmy entered the Clly or Mexico
without opposition. Vcnustlnnn Cnrrnnzn
Immedlntcty took upon himself tho otllco
of president, nllhnuRn ho soon nnnounied
his purposo or turnliiR over Hie executive
runcllnn In n provisional substituto and
hlmseir becoming u cnndldate,
on Hcntemiier 23 viliu declaren war up
on the provisional president. Thu consti
tutionalists held it meeting at Mexico
Clly on October 4 nnd refused to ncrept
their chief's reslRnntlon. At n cnnvin
Hon of tho nnrty held nt Amina Callentes
nn Octnber II, Cnrrnnzn ngnln presentid
Ills irslRiintlon nnd a few dnys Inter Vina
promised to support a provisional presi
dent named by tho convention, At that,
Cien, Kiilnlln Gutierrez wns nppolnteii by
tno convention, but Carranza rcruscd in
recoRiilzp him. Tho new president ap
pointed Villa commander In chief nf the
government forces and ordered him tn
proceed nt onco nRiilnst Carr nn. As
Villa and his men nenred the capital,
Carranza nnd his soldiers wllhdrow.
On November 3 tho American forcts
wcro withdrawn from Vera Cruz nnd
soo ' terwiird Cnrrnnzn mid his follow
ers look possession of tho seaport. Villa
nnd Zana I a united In support of tho
Oullerrei Interests, nnd the prospect of
penco In tho Immediate, futuro Is fur from
enrournRlnir,
On December 13, 3,000 I'nllcd Btntes
troops were sent to Nnro tn stop continuo!
filing by the Mexlcnn ructions Into United
Rlates territory. Tho stniRKto between
the (omhatnnts In northern Mexico con
tinues tinnhati'd.
Longest Congretelonnl Seiilon.
Tho first rrRiilar session of tho Klxly,
third rmiRrrs wus tho longest since Hint
Rrent Inw-mnkliiR body camo Into exist
ence rrom December 1. 1013, to October
:i, 1911. After Hio holiday recess both
branches wcro addressed by President
Wilson upon tho regulation of corpora
Hons. In Ida address Iho president recom
mended tho rormatlon of a trade commis
sion, Iho doing away with Interlocking dl
rectorales nnd holding companies, and nn
antitrust Inw. On January :l tho señalo
passed n bill authorizing Hio government
to construct n railroad In Alnskn. On
February 13 Hm house panned tho bill.
During this month, nlsn, tho adminis
tration Introduced a mensuro Into both
louses to establish n rural credit system
by menus or co-onerntlvc bunks. On Feb
runry 9 a hill was Intiodii-e.l Into both
branches which provided Hint the Rovern
ment might mino or lenso on a royully
basis certain eoul lands In Alaska.
On Mnrrh B Iho president delivered nil
other uddress to congress In the homo
chamber. In which he urged the repeal
or tho provision In Hip I'muium Canal net
or August, ini;, exempting vessel en
tinged in cnnslwlso trade rrom the pay
ment or tolls, Willi n actinic amendment
to the effect Hint the t'nltrd Btntes re-
lluniilshrd no rights under treaties will
CI rent llrltnlu mid Willi I'unainu, tho tolls
repeal bill becumo Inw.
On April VI tho president ngnln nil
dressed congress, Rllng tho facts In Hie
Himplen affair and asking nulhorlty k
use forro In compelling a settlement. Until
house panned the necessary mensuren
without delay. On Juno 5 tho Ihr
mensures pioinlnent In the president's nn
thrust leglslatlon-tho cieallon nf a trad"
commission, tho Clayton hill, nml thn mil
lond caplliillzallon hill -wero passed, bu
it wns not until August that the señalo
adopted Hip measure rronllug a frurrn
trade communion. The Clayton nntltrus
bill did lint become Inw until October.
August 4 both house iinnulinously
ndopled nn amendinent to tho federa
serve net. hy which Iho secn tnry of the
treasury wa glen power to Issiin addi
tional bnnk currency In such amount as
would be necessary tn protect the liusl
ne sltuntloii nml nioht llunnclnl panic.
On Hcptember 4 Iho president mice nmro
nildressed congress, pointing out tho need
or raising additional revenue to meet the
dtllelt cnusd by the decllui In Imports
duo tu tho Kuropeau war.
The closlnR dnya nr tho congress pnfsed
In nn uetlve effort conducted by members
rrom the rotton-grnulng state to obtain
legislation for the retail of tho grower
of the staple,
On October 31 thn first regular session
of tho Hlxly-thlrd congress cuino to an
end.
American Qovernment and Polltlct.
On J a nun r y 3 Hecrctary McAdon mid
Recietarv Houston began a series of
hearings to determine where Iho now fed
eral reservo bank wero to be established.
Tho federal reservo bank system went In
to ofToct NuveniliiT 10. on Jnnmiiy m
tho Wnshlngtnn nuthmltle nnd lh New
York, New Haven nnd Hartford railroad
ollli luí enmo tu nil imminent by which
tho railroad relinquished Its trolley Huns,
It control or tho Ilostou and Maine, mid
most of Its steiungilitp Hues, tu order la
nvnht further conflict with tho Rliermnn
antitrust Inw. President Wilson nomi
nated John Hkeltou Williams, then assis
tant secretary of the treasury, tn be
comptroller of Hie currency nnd cx-nfllclo
member of Iho new federal reservo board.
On Jnnunry !7 Iho president signed on
Important order whlrh established n per
manent civil Rnvernment In tho I'annma
Cnnnl Zone, tu go Into effect April 1. A
few days Inter ho nominated Col. Cleorge
W. nocthuls tn bo first governor. On
February It Ihe Rnvernment brought suit
nt Halt I.nko City to compel the Southern
Purine railroad to relinquish Its control
or the Central Pacinc.
In Mnrch government proceeding wero
begun ngninst two railroads: The inter
Into commerco commission aceuml thu
Chicago, Milwaukee and Kt. lMul road
with overstatement of Ineomo nnd other
Qnnnrhit Irregularities, and suit wus
brought ngulnst Iho Ililgli. Viilly rond
under tho charge Hint It wri indnopnllz
Ing Hie anthracite cnal Industry through
subsidiary companies. In this month, ntso,
Iho department nr Justice announced Hint
a pluii for breaking up tho transportation
monopoly practiced by Iho New York
New Haven nnd Hartford bad been nr
rn lined satisfactory to nil purl lis.
l;nriy In April the Rnvernment met wltn
efent In lit nltemnt to prove Hint tho
lie la ware. Iickawanna and Western road
ml the ronl-mlnlng company nf the same
name existed ns an Illegal nnd monopolis
tic combination. On April 2 the commit
tee Appointed for Iho purpose announced
that It hnd selected twelvo federal re.
servo districts, with th"lr central hank
ing cities, under Ihe new currency law.
On June a the Amerlcnn Thread com-
puny, which wns proven to no n combina
Hon nf manufacturen which practically
ontrnlted Iho output, forestalled iho ac
tion contemplated by tho department of
Justice by dissolving. In June, also, the
t'nlted Hlntes supremo court nfllrmed Hie
power of the Interstate commerce mm-
mission to nx rates, turn nciu inni pipo
lines nro common cnrrlers nnd must carry
pindurl nt rale fixed by the commission.
On June in tun president mnue punim
rhnrga thai big business Interests had
been trying tu forco congress to ndjniirn.
He dcclnrrd Hint bo should do everything
In hl power to keep congress In session
until the proper business legislation nau
iiccn enacted.
In July the commission round that the
former management or tho Now Haven
nnJ wns criminally wasteful nnd ncgll
gent. President Wilson directed the at
torney general. July ;i. to org n civil nml
cilmlnal proceedings ngninst the New
York, Now Haven nnd iinrtrord road, and
two dnys later the suit wn begun In tho
United Btntes district court at New Tork.
On tho first dny or August the Interstate
ommerco commission denied the petition
or tho eastern rallionds for n general in-
reuso or C per cent In freight rates, but
nllowcd ccrtnln Increnses In the inhhllo
West. On August 13 the dissolution nf the
International Harvester enmpnny, deslg-
nnlod ns a monopoly In restraint or trade,
wns ordered by tho Hulled Slates district
court nt Ht. rnui. Minn,
Tho Pnnnmn Canal was rormally opened
ror work! truffle on August 13. The steam
Ancon, belonging to the Pnnnmn rail
rond, pnssed rrom neenn to ocenn In ten
hours. In Benlenitier the railroad rnto
roso silo eil Increased nttlvlty. The rond
enst or the Mississippi nnd north or Ihe
rotomao nga u Petitioned (lie interstate
commerce commission ror permission to
ndvnnce freight rates S per rent, nnd the
cnmmlsslnn consented tn reopen the cue.
Tho commission grunted the lúcrense,
with certain excentlnns. on December 18
in October the court dismiss' u nil nut
ono of tho government' charges In Its
suit lo dlsHnlvo tho Atlantic stcamsiuii
trust. Final argument In Hie suit to ills
solve tho Hteel trust wns mnde nt Phila
delphla, nnd tho discussion or Increased
rcllrond freight rule was n sumen nvrorc
Hie Interstate commerco commission.
At Iho elections held on November 3 th
Democrntlo mainrltv In the house of rep
rrscntnllies was reduced from 117 lo 33,
although tho Democratic majority In the
senate was Increased rrom 10 to 10, con
stllutlonnl amendments Riving the sur
rrngo to women were carried In Nevada
nml Montuna nnd prohibition triumphed
In Washington. Oregon, Arizona, nnd
Colorado, In Missouri the so-called "full
crew" Inw pnssed by tho legislature wn
rejected,
Política in Other Lanai.
On Jnnunry 37 Michel Oreste, president
of Haiti, warned or Ihe approach or
large liody or revolutionists, nbdlrated has
tily nnd took refuge on n Clermnn cruiser.
On I'chrunry S Orestes Zamnr wa elected
president or Haiti, nnd on the same dny
Joso Vleento Conchr wn elected presi
dent or Colombia.
On Mnrch 17, ns Urn flnnlc tn a bitter
political nnd personal controversy, the
wlfo or tho French minister or finance.
Mine fnillnux, shot nml killed the editor
of Figaro, Oiislon Cnlmotte.' Her hus
band resigned his nfllco nt onco and n
new cabinet wns formed. The trial or
Mine, Cnlllaux resulted In her ucqultlal
on July It. On March H a treaty ot peace
between Tilikcy nml Servia wn signed nt
Constantinople, n sequel to the ltntknn
wnr. On Mny 1 the now Chinese consti
tution was published. It nbnllsheil tho
premiership nml Kino I m reused power to
the piisldent. On Mny C I'llnco Alexan
der of Teck. Queen Mary's brother, wu
appointed Rivtornnr-griicrul nf Canada.
On Muv 1 Colonel Deniable, leader
nf the Peruvian fnillon whlrh expelled
President Illtlhighurst, wn elected pro
visional president. Three day later a
group or senators nnd deputies declared
ltoberlo 1 .inula provisional president. The
Peruvian supremo court, however, recog
nized llcnnvldes. On July I Ahmed Mir
tn, sixteen year or nge. wns crowned
shah or Persln. On August CI the French
rnblnet wns reconstructed nn a commit
tee or nnllonnl defense basis, TIpiio VI
vlanl, Roclallsl, remained premier.
On Peplcniber ti the Albanian senate,
which hnd driven It recently dieted ruler
-Prlnre William of Wled-out of tho
counlry, chore a Turk for king Prince
Iliirlinn-Hddlii, son of the deposed Abdul
llnmld of Turkey, The Huropenn powers
plotested, hut their wishes were dlsie
gnrded, On Octnber 4, nfter fuir months'
exile, Kssnd Pnshii. accompanied by nn
nrmed foice. entered Albania and tnolt
possession or Iho government. On the
dny following the deulh or King Charles
or lloumnnln hi nephew, Ferdinand, took
tho oatll or nfllco ns sovereign.
Industrial Trials nnd Triumph.
The Ford Molor company ut the begin
ning or tho year adopted a prnlll-shnring
plan hy which ftO.WO.Coii Is to be dlslrlb
tiled annually among the M.onO wnge-enrn-cr
of that ronceiu. The great Couth Aftl
ran railroad strike came to nn end. On
January 19 n strike or the Delaware nnd
Hudson railroad men, ns a protest ngninst
the dlsehnrge or two employees, wns set
tled within sixteen hour hy the federal
board of mediation nnd conciliation.
Two Rrent labor conlroversle hnd been
left over from Iho preceding yenr ono In
the MIchlRnn copper mines, which began
July 33, 1313, and nnnther In the Colorado
coal fields, where H.'iO men linil been on
stitko since Hcptember S3 of the previous
year Violence ensued and federal a hi
wn demanded. On April 30 the striking
miner lushed with the slnto tnllllla near
Tllnhhiil. Colo, nml twenty-live eraooa
wem killed or burned to death In n fire
whl"h followed. President Wilson ordeied
redernl troops to the cene It wa not
until September 13 that tho striker and
their employer necepled President Wil
son offer ror n settlement or their dis
pute, but Ids pHn wns rejected. On the
Inst dny or November the president imtnod
a commission of three, headed by Still
Uiw. to dent Willi the strike. Shortly af
tl r tho strlkn wns declaras off.
On April I all the coiil iitiues of Ohio
wero closed down nn account nf lliifall
ur lo unite nn an agreement as to a
basis or payment to superadlo tho o
already In tisf. On tho following day Uiñ
Yntkshlre coal miners, lo tho number of
170,000 men, went on strike lo support
their demand for a minimum wnge. Juno
13 a strike among tho West Virginia coal
miners, whlrh hnd been on slneo Ilia pre
vious September, wa declared off, the
miner waiving recognition or tho union
In order to obtain other linpnrlnnt con
cessions. On July 17 the federal board
or mediation and conciliation ngnln proved
It nhlllly a a peacemaker. The engineer
and firemen of nlnoty-elght Western rail-
loads accepted Hie mediation or tho hoard.
uaiuaiuei on uana ana ue.
F.nrly In Jnnunry tho second nliennm-
eiml storm of the season added largely to
Iho destruction or property nlung tho
ocean rront or New Jersoy nnd Iong Is
land, on Jnnunry It, n Jnpnneso vol
enno on Hakurn Island burst amlnenty In
to activity and destruyed three town and
killed mote than a thousand persons. Dur
ing a perrormnnco at a moving picture
theater at Surabaya, Java, 73 women nnd
children wero burned tn death. Tho
stentner Monroe, from Norfolk to Now
York city, wn rntmned hy thn Nantucket
during a night fog off Cnpo Charles, Jnn
unry 34, nnd 41 person wero lost. On
Mnrch II more than n thousand persons
lost their live during a slorm which
Hooded several town in Bou them Hussla,
and nbout tho same time many persons
were killed by nn earthquake at Aklta,
Japan.
on March II the scaling steamer
Newfoundland stranded on nn Ico tloo
In the Rtralt of Hello Isle nnd 77 nf
her crew wcro frozen tn dent!:. Tho
amo day Ihe steamer H'Jtithern Cms
nnd her erow disappeared. On April
2 nn explosion In a tnlnn shaft nt
Fccles, W. Vn., caused Una death of 110
miner. Knrly In Mny Hlclly wn vl
Ited by n aerie of ahocica which did
great damn go nlong tho enatern const.
Tho steamship F.mprcs or Ireland wa
struck by tho Norweglnn collier Rtnr-
stnd in the Ht. IJtwrencu river, May 3,
and sanlt nlmost Immediately, moro
than a thousand passenger losing their
Uvea. Mny 30, Cnpt. Itobert A. Ilnrlett of
Ihe Stefonssnn nrctlo expedition returned
tn fit. Mhhael, Alaska, Willi tho now that
Ihe Karlule sank, January II, after having
been crushed by Ice, mid Hint her crew
was marooned nn Wrangel Island, On
Hcptember 7, eight member of Hit crew
were found by a rescuing party. On
June 13 inoro than two hundred miner
wero lost by nn explosion In a coal mino
nrnr Alberta, Caunda. A flro nt Baleni,
Mass,, Juno 33, destroyed hnlf of tho city.
Including sovcrnl thousand homes and
many largo industrial establishments. In
this month, also, American consuls In va
rious Clilueso cities reported Hint floods In
southern Chlnn hnd destroyed tho cropa
nnd made 3,('0,ooo persons boneless. On
September 18 tho Francis H. LcRgett
collided with nn unknown vessei oft
tho Oregon roast nnd 73 of hor passen
ger nnd crow wero lost. In Octohor
on earthquake In Turkey destroyed
inoro than 3,000 persons In a few min
utes. Hdlson's Rrent electrical plant nt
Orange, N. J. wa doetroyed by fin on
December 9. ,
Notable Cventi.
Hnrly In January tho firm of J. P.
Morgan & Co. unnoiinced tho with
drawn! of It members frntn director
ships In 7 largo corporation, thu
complying with thn government's, now
regulation condemning Interlocking di
rectorates. On Jnnunry 9 Harvard uni
versity nnd tho Massachusetts Instituto
nf Technology arranged to combine
their engineering departments. On
Februnry 10 Andrew Carneglu novo
33.000.000 townrd tho propaganda car
ried on hy tho Church Penco union. On
prll 13 the International uurglr.nl
emigres met at Now York city. Water
let into thu new canal across Cupo
Cod on April 31. This canal shortens the
distance, by water between lloslon nnd
Now York by seventy mile nnd cut out
ihe danger of rounding tho cnpo In stormy
wenther. Tho canal wn formnll" opened
July 39.
Piesldent Wilson youngest daugh
ter, Hlcanor Ilnndnlph Wilson, wn
married, Mny 7. nt Iho White House, to
William Olhbs McAdno, secretary or tho
Treusury. Tho Norwegian celebrated
the centennial of tho Reparation of
Norway from Denmark on Mny 15, On
May ID tho Panama canal was opened
ror bargo trafile. Tho Kngllsh Darby
wus won by Durbar III, a horse be
longing to nn Amerlcnn, Ucrmnn II.
Duryen, on May 27. Tho monument
erected hy Iho Daughters or tho Con
federacy In thn natlonnl cemetery at
Arlington wn inivulled Junn 4.
On June 10 Kugland captured tho In
ternational polo championship at
Meudowhrnolt, N. Y. It wns mndo pub
lic on June 24 that Mrs, Morris K. Jemup
hnd bequeathed $8,500,000 tu piihlla In
stitutions. Tho American Museum of
Natural History was a bunellclary tn
tho extent of $3.000,000. That, nlso,
was thu dny on which tho reconstruct
ed Kiel canal wa opened by tho Ger
man kaiser.
On Hcptember 3 Cardinal Olacnmo
delta Chican, urehhlshop of Ilolognn,
was elected popo to nuccced tho lato
Plux X. The new pontiff assumed tho
tillo of Tlcnadlct XV. Tho government
crop report, mndo puhlla Octohor 8, an
nounced a record wheat harvest of
I 832.000,000 nnd a normal corn crop of
z.iim.uuu.uou. 'i no world ciinmpionsnip
serle wn won October 13 by llio Hui
lón National Icaguo baseball team.
Gn October 14 ono of tho most com
prehensive llunnclnl Relíeme on record
formulated by banker nt New York
clly Involved tho raising by tho hunk
of a fund of $130,000,000 which wn to
bo limned upon wnrohoiiso receipt for
cotton. On tho Inst day of October Iho
Putin ma ranal wa closed for traillo n
second limn on account or nil mirth
atldu Into Culebra cut.
On November 6 tho Chicago stock
yards wero closed on account of nn
epMemle of foot-nnd-iuoiilh disenso
which hud already led tho federal au
thorities o establish quarantine In
eight states against tho shipment of
cattle, Ijiter till prohibition wn ex
tended In several other stolon. The so
called "house of governor" met in li
seventh annual session at Madison,
Wl.. November 10
After a period or suspension covering;
15 week, brought nbout by Hio war,
the cotton exchanges or New York and
New Orleans opened ror trading nn No
vember 10. Tho Now York stock ox
changi whh'h wa closed nt the break
Ing out or hostilities, wn reopened for
restricted trading November 31 A red
letter cvont In tho history of American
athletics wns tho forinul opening ot ihe
I great rmo nowi. seating eo.ooo persons,
November 21. Tho nnniial Ynlu-Har-vard
football contest resulted In a liar-
1 vard victory, 30 tu 0,
I

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