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ST. JOHNS HERALD
CHANGES IN BEEF PRODUCTION
IN UNITED STATES SINCE 1850
-(Prepared by the Unites States Department
Beef production in the United States
has undergone marked changes since
3850, and chief among them Is the dif
ference In age to which animals des
tined for slaughter are kept on the
farms. This is one of the many phases
-of the Industry discusced In the 1921
Yearbook article, Our Beef Supply,
prepared by live stock specialists and
economists in the Department of Agri--culture.
This change Is discussed in
connection with variations in the de
mands of consumers and the per cap
ita consumption of beef.
With a larger proportion of beef
cows kept, and with cattle slaugh
tered at an earlier age, it Is now pos
sible to raise more beef each year
than when there were more cattle
In the country than at present How
ever, the system of using younger cat
tle for beef Involves the use of more
harvested feed per 100 pounds of beef
produced, since a larger proportion of
the gains In weight are made in the
:feed lot than was formerly the case
n-hen steers were carried four or five
seasons on grass.
Situation Not Serious.
' While the total number of cattle In
the country has decreased In recent
years, the situation is not as serious
as might appear, since the number of
.cattle is greater now than In any year
from 1896 to 1917. The census figures
ior 1900 and 1920 show that there has
A Bunch of Purebred Shorthorn Cows and Calves.
'been an increase in the percentages of
Tseef calves, heifers, cows and bulls,
-and a decrease In the percentage of
steers, especially aged steers. The
number of cattle In the country In
creased 10,200,000 from 1914 to 1919.
During the last three years there has
been a decrease of 2,000,000 head, but
the greater proportion of cows at pres
ent makes it possible to grow more
beef, especially If more of the calves,
Instead of being slaughtered, are fed
-out as yearlings.
That the country can readily respond
to a quickened demand for beef
was demonstrated during the war
when production was so stimulated
'that during 1917 and 1918 combined
more than 1,000,000,000 pounds of beef
were exported, which was 7 per cent
of our production and 22 per cent of
the exports of the world during that
period. Since about 1905 South Amer
ica and Australia have been the chief
.sources of surplus beef.
Americans are eating less beef per
'capita than formerly, but the figures
show that when demand and prices
.provide sufficient stimulus the supply
can be Increased at a surprisingly
irapld rate. The consumption of beef
and veal in the United States de
creased from 87 pounds per person
In 1907 to 60 pounds in 1915, a net
variation of 27 pounds. Between the
periods of 1907 to 1910 and 1911 to 1921
there has been a decrease In consump-
GRADING PAYS IN
Advantage of Standardization Is
No Longer a Theory.
Shippers' and Producers' Organizations
Which Have Adopted Federal Grades
for Fruits and Vegetables
(Prepared by the United States Department
"The advantage of standardization
Is no longer a theory but an accom
plished fact. Our selling price was
from 15 to 50 cents per bushel higher
than the other houses In this district,
and the greatest advantages of a
standard grade and pack will, of
course, be secured in coming seasons,
.provided we malntahi our standards."
This is but one of the many letters
being received by the bureau of agri
cultural economics, United States De
partment of Agriculture, from pro
ducers' and shippers organizations
-which have adopted federal grades
tion amounting to approximately 20
The article contains interesting In
formation on the variations in demand
for different kinds of beef In various
cities and In the different sections of
the country. High-class hotels in the
larger cities want prime, fat and fin
ished beef, while the average house
wife wants beef Involving less waste.
In warm weather the principal de
mand is for steak and chops, while
the winter trade demands more roasts
and boiling beef. The orthodox Jewish
trade uses only the forequarters, while
Gentiles, as a rule, prefer hlndquar
Beef Consumed in East.
A survey made in 1920 showed that
at that time nearly 32 per cent of the
beef was consumed In the North At
lantic states, which comprises New
England, New York, Pennsylvania and
New Jersey. The next largest amount,
or 24 per cent, was consumed In the
Bast-North-Central division. In other
words, more than 55 per cent of the
total consumption of beef and veal oc
curred in the territory east of the
Mississippi and north of the Ohio
river and Maryland. The smallest
consumption occurred in the South At
lantic division, comprising the states
of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia.
North Carolina, South Carolina, Geor
gia and Florida. Per capita con
sumption varied from 83 pounds in the
western division to 39 in the South
Central. The North Atlantic division,
which was first in total consumption.
was second In per capita consumption.
This survey of the beef-cattle sltua
tion, which includes, in addition to
the discussion of consumption and
present trend, information on various
factors of production and marketing,
leads to the conclusion that the period
of liquidation is over, and that when
industrial conditions and retail prices
permit a normal consumption of beef.
cattle producers should be prosperous
MEATSCRAP AID FOR LAYERS
Kentucky Experiment Station Obtains
Big Increase in Production
For three years the Kentucky ex
periment station has been studying
the effect of feeding various amounts
of meatscraps on the egg production
of white Wyandottes. The average
annual egg production when 5 per
cent of the ration consisted of scraps
was 109.9 eggs; when It consisted of
15 per cent, 134.5 eggs; and when 20
per cent of scraps were fed, 141.6
. From the results the station con
cludes that the mash mixture should
contain at least 20 per cent meatscrap
to secure maximum production.
for fruits and vegetables. The letter
is from a co-operative peach shippers
organization in Ohio.
"We packed out our entire crop on
the United States grades," wrote the
president of the organization. "All
our members are well pleased and,
best of all, determined to begin in
their own orchards at once to try to
produce fruit of higher and better
quality. We see no point at which the
standards recommended by your de
partment for peaches are not thor
oughly practical, and another year we
will doubtless eliminate the old mark
Best House for Poultry.
Makeshift poultry houses may part
ly answer, but for lasting economy and
efficiency a good poultry house, proper
ly equipped, Is best.
Remember that plowing done now
will not have to be done later when
other work Is pressing.
Lasa l fins!
MAKING PORK ECONOMICALLY
Pigs Grown and Fattened on Alfalfa
Pasture Will Do Best When
For rapid and. economical gains use
a self-feeder. If you are growing and
fattening pigs on alfalfa pasture, they
will do best when self fed on gram
and some protein supplement. Self-
feed shelled corn and meat meal tank
ace, and the pigs will make heavier,
faster and more economical gains than
If a limited feed of grain only is fed
Feedinir tests show that the pig will
balance his ration economically when
Food-Producing Machines in Operation.
the self feeder is used with the above
feeds. If alfalfa Is good, and the
shotes pastured at the rate of about
20 head per acre, a pound of gain can
be put on with approximately three'
and one-half pounds of snelied corn
and four-tenths of a pound of tank
age. At this rate, with corn at 1.20 per
hundredweight, and tankage at $3.50
per hundredweight, a 150-pound gain
per pig can be secured at a feed cost
of $8.40. With $10 hogs, tills leaves
$6.60 per head, or $132 per acre from
the gain alone to pay for alfalfa.
With only 20 head per acre, a fair
cutting of hay may also be secured.
E. J. Maynard, associate professor,
animal husbandry, Colorado Agricul
ADDING TO VALUE OF LAMBS
Docking and Castration Should Be
Done in Morning Many Males
Should Be Marketed.
Lambs should be docked and cas
trated in the morning If possible so
that they can be looked after during
the day time. In case of excessive
bleeding as a result of docking, the
tail should be tied with a cord. It is
best to dock first and castrate a few
days later, but If the flock is a large
one and a second handling is not desir
able both operations may be done at
Too great emphasis cannot be placed
upon, these two acts of proper flock
management from the standpoint of
success In raising the lambs and the
higher market value. Many males are
used for breeders when they should be
wethers fattened for market.
The proper place to dock Is about
the third vertebrae or about one inch
from the body. The skin should be
forced forward so that It may later
fall back and cover the stump. For
docking a sharp knife will serve well
Many use a hot plncher or chisel for
this operation, but the heating of iron
consumes time and the hot iron is used
only In cases when lambs cannot be
watched afterward, as In range flocks,
Phil A. Anderson, division of anl
mal husbandry, University farm.
WINTER RYE WILL HELP OUT
Keeps Hogs in Thrifty Condition
While Other Forage Crops Are
Being Sown and Started.
A field of winter rye upon which the
hogs may be turned early In the
spring and on which they may feed
while the other forage crops are being
sown and started, will help out won
derfuliy In the amount of grain food
required to keep them in a good
Purebreds Are Important.
Purebred live stock on every farm
Is greatly needed, for purebred stock
make bigger returns for time and feed
Sows Produce Big Litters.
Sows that are fed well about ten
days before breeding will produce
larger litters than If scantily fed at
dyjPm GRAHAM BONNER
. connCMi it vmuN mvjmm union-.
FIRST SLEIGH RIDE
Little Eugene wanted a Christmas
treat more than anything else.
"I would rather take a sleigh ride
than anything else," he said.
Now, as you can imagine, little LjU-
gene had never lived in the country,
for to take a sleigh ride is lots of
fun but not just the very most special
treat that most boys would ask for.
First of all there was the chance
that there mielit not be snow, but
snow came in plenty of time. And it
was with joy that little Eugene looKea,
at the snow-covered hills and the'
snow on the ground, which was be
coming smooth and nice.
"It will seem more like Christmas
than anything else," he said.
And the first time he heard sleigh
bells he went almost wild with de
light. "I hear them," he cried. "I
Now little Eugene was visiting in
the country, but the people whom he
was visiting did not own a horse and
sleigh. They were going to do their
best to see that he had a sleigh ride
And on' the afternoon before Christ
mas Eugene was given his first sleigh
Such a ride as It was, tool The
trees were covered with snow for the
most part, though the hemlocks had
very little upon them.
For when the snow had been falling
the hemlocks had been shaking about
In their usual graceful fashion and
the snow had not been able to cling
The sun made the snow sparkle un
til a little later bright colors came in
the sky and the sun went to bed
dressed in his holiday suit of red.
Eugene was sure he had put it on for
the holidays and so he had, though
Mr. Sun was also In the habit of w ear
ing that red suit of his when he gave
a birthday party which he did very
At either side of the sleigh there
were bells attached and how they did
llnele. And coming down the road
behind them, all along the road, was
another sleigh which made a sleigh
bell duet of jingles!
Sometimes where the snow had
drifted brown patches of grass could
be seen, but mostly everything was
covered with snow. In the brooks
and streams they passed there were
"So Nice and Winter-Like.
ice and snow. Everything looked so
nice and winter-like and so different
from the city. Eugene loved It all
It certainly was a treat And Dolly,
the horse, was ver - anxious to show
Eugene that she would make It as
much of a treat as she could.
She had heard him say that there
would be sugar at the end of the ride
and there had been sugar at the start
of the ride. Oh yes, Dolly ' 'd some
So Dolly shied at an automobile
which, of course, she never did as a
rule. But she thought It would be fun
to do this for the little city boy.
The sleigh was called a cutter and
what fun It was to ride so close to
the ground and what a crisp, pleasant
sound It made when it hurried along.
nulled by Dolly, the horse.
They passed by a -well which was
used bv everyone In one small village.
A community well It was called and
little Eugene was surprised to hear
that it didn't freeze. He had heard
that plumbers were always busy In
the country fixing pipes which had
But It was explained to him that
It was so deep In the earth It couldn't
freeze and that the water drained
back after It had been pumped. Oh
no. that well never froze.
But little Eugene almost did. And
oh, how glad he was to get back to
thA fire again.
TTfi had had a perfect Christmas
treat, though, and he left a note for
Santa Claus by the chimney that
night, for he knew Santa would like
to hear of the treat of his first sleigh
ride his great unristmas treat i
Took Lydia E-Pinkham's Veg
etable Compound and
is Now Well
tl! TIKrmta "Vnn crrroltr rmrra
women one good medicine when you put
pound on tne mar
tot: After T had mv
baby I was all run
down and so nervous
it kept me from gain
ing. My doctor did
everything he could
to DUUQ me up, iueu
he ordered me to take
Lydia E. Pinkham's
nnrmrl with his med
icine and I am now a new woman. I
have had three children ana xneyareau
Lydia E. Pinkham babies. I have rec
ommended your medicine to several
friends and they speak highly of it. You
are certainly domg good worK in una
world. ' '-Mrs. Adrith Tomsheck, 10557
There is nothing very strange about
the doctor directing Mrs. Tomsheck to
take Lydia E. Pinkham'o Vegetable
Compound. There are many physicians
who do recommend it and highly appreci
ate its 'value.
Women who are nervous, run aown,
and suffering from women's ailments
i u : tttqI 1 lrn nvtm rnofc HTa
herb medicine a trial. Mrs. Tomsheck a
experience should guiae you wwu
Vagaries of a Traveler.
Old Lady (to Major Trotter-Blount,
O. B. E., D. S. O., F. R. G. S., who has
kindly consented to give a little talk
In the Episcopal church on "Village
Life In Thibet") Ain't it funny, ma
jor, with all your travel an' knockln'.
about, that this is the first time you've
ever been in Rlvervllle !" Llf e.
I LL-AN S
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Glad to See Him.
Wife (reading tea cup) A dark
man Is going to call soon.
Hub I hope to goodness his com
plexion Is due to coal dust. I'm get
ting worried. Boston Transcript.
DYED HER SKIRT, DRESS,
SWEATER AND DRAPERIES
WITH "DIAMOND DYES"
Each package of "Diamond Dyes" con
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even if she has never dyed before. Buy
"Diamond Dyes" no other kind then
perfect home dyeing is sure because Dia
mond Dyes are guaranteed not to spot,
fade, streak, or run. Tell your druggist
whether the material you wish to dye ia
wool or silk, or whether it is linen, cotton
or mixed goods. Advertisement.
Cat Ate the Canary.
"Our canary died a natural death
the other day." "So?" "Yes, the cat
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