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TUESDAY July 1,1S73
Report on the Harbor and Shipping
of the port of Astoria-Faet Im- ,
portant to the Bicblie.
At a meetingof the Astoria Cham
ber of Commerce, held in May last,
a committee "was appointed to pre
pare statistics of the harbor and ship
ping of the port of Astoria, for use at
the Farmer's Convention. Following
is the report in full.
Your committee to Avhom was referred
the matter of harbor, and shipping intelli
gence, beg leave to offer the follewing:
The water front of Aitoria, varying
from a quarter of a mile to a mile in width
afFordb over six miles of secuie anchorage
for the largest clawed vessels, in from six to
twelve fathoms of water. No storms have
yet visited the harbor .that effected any
damage to hippjng riding at anchor in
the bay, or Vying at the wharf.
Should the demands of commerce re
quire, about five consecutive miles of dock
age may ho cheaply constructed from the
river bank to the edge of the channel,
piling being necessary but a shoit dis
tance at any given point.
The central poition of the harbor is just
twelve miles inde the Columbia river
bar, on which there is twenty-four feet of
water at extreme low tide, and thirty-four
at ordinary high tide." After croiiisr, tho
bar, the depth hold still greater all the
way to Astoria, so that any vessel able to
cross can safely venture to our docks.
About six miles above Astoria, at the com
mencement of Cathlament hay is the
hog's " back, a bar some quarter of a mile
length, with ten feet of water at low and
(dehtecn feet at hieh tide." This is the
most dangerous point on the river, and the
most skillful pilots never attempt its pas
sage in the night, either with sail or steam.
It is formed oi shifting sand, deposited by
the meeting of the tide with the annual
freshets of the river, as Cathlamctbayis
ten miles long up and down the river, and
from seven to fourteen in width. Thus
the waters of the river are so spread out
that they lose their force, and the incoming
tide washes the loose sand into irregular
bars that change their position from year
to year, and make dredging useless.
Steamers are nearly always detained at
Astoria, for tide to cross this bar, and
should one arrive here, say at 12 m. when
high water occurred at 10 o'clock a. m.
she would have to wait until 11 a. m. the
next day, as she could not proceed on the
high tide of the night. Thi bar has been
known for years, but as the draft of steam
ers and vessels now coming into the river
is greater than, formerly, the difficulties
are becoming more and more apparent.
There is the following named depths of
water at the points mentioned at high
"Walker's Island, 19 ftforj mile below Bainier
Carr's Woody ard " " V' abovo
Kalnma " "K
.St 11 elen 17 ftfor JA "
Mouth Wallamet" " "
Post Office 18 y, "
Swan Island... 17 ": -
The channel is often crooked, and diffi
cult of navigation, and the bar at the
mouth of the "Willamette river is subject
to annual deposts of sediment from back
water of the Columbia.
"VVe find that the carrying trade of
Oregon is now chiefly done by vessels of
light draft and small capacity.
That these are subject to a tax of SS per
foot draft as pilotage; from four to ten
days' delay, and 300 to 400 towage,
over and above what they would i have to
pay, did they receive and take in cargo at
Astoria. A fair average would be, say
.six hundred tons capacity. Expenses would
then be as follows : .
Pilotage 10 feet (a, $4 up $ G4
" 16 " " down. ,. (54
Six days demurrage & SliO .(o
Towage up 175
Equivalent to over four cents per bushel
on the cargo of GOO tons outward bound.
This is but a fraction of the expense to the
State growing out of present arrangement
of the arrivals and depatures by sea.
By cureful inspection of the shipping
registers, we find the average draft of all
vessels now in use, ranging between -1,000
md 1,200 tons, to be 20M feet, and the
average of all larger ones but 21M feet.
"While a thousand ton ship is full laiger
than can reach Portland,or any point above
Astoria, loaded, on account of depth of
water, a vessel of 3,000 tons can alwavs
come to Astoria, -whatever the stage of
water. Thus", with a point higher up on
the river, the expoit trade must forever be
carried on in small vessels, while from
here the shipping of the world may com
pete for freights.
A ship of 3,000 tons can carry wheat
fronv-Astora to Liverpool for twenty cents
a bushel less than a 1,000 ton vessel can
do from Portland, as the following figures
fully demenstrate: . V
A sTrip of 3,000 tons is worth 5120,000
Interest, at 10 ? cent for four months
(av,erago passage) t.......'. -1,000
Insurance at 12 r cent 4,800
Depreciation at 10 V cent 4,000
captain, tnrce mates, steward, and cook
8150, $7o.SU0.So0. 840. 840 month...
Twenty-four seamen (5, $25 month...
Stores for voyage, 30 men at 50c fi day,
PORT CHARGES LN ASTORJA.
Pilotage and towage, 23 feet & SKL
Stevedores' bill, 3,000 tons & 40c
Port stores, etc ..
T.IVl'lJlinftT. Olt TJfiPO
Pilotajjo tind towage, 23 feet (&$10. I 230
oxevcuortfs biU, 3,U00 tons 2oc
Jiarljor feesttonnage duos and. dockage
. Total oxponse..'.
'. r CoNTRASr i ii , u . I -.:
3i3ense.?dcdiifctedi..?.Jf...4.. 3122,400 .jzllJL
A shin of 1.000 tons is worth $ 00,000
, Wages V month, for Captain S150, two
I six t-i cacn
Stores for Hi mea
i Pilotage and towage, l' feet 5rl0
Port .'tores and dunnage
OiW tons & )c
UVKRl'OOL t'H lions.
Pilotage and towage, li feet (ft $10
Stevedore's bill (T2"c, harbor dues, ton
nage dues and dockage.. .-.....,... '.....
Total expenscs....i...-.:l..........-. S 11,750
Coxtr : "
By 1,000 tons at $lo $15,000
Expunges deducted ? I 11,760
.Balance: S 3,270
Or, a dividend of 19 per cent, on cost of
the larger ship as agamtt 5 per cent, on
thatof.the smaller. Or, to reduce both to
5 per cent., the 3,000 ton ship will carry
wheat to Liverpool for over a third less
than the 1,000 ton veel; that is 29 cent
against 45 cents per bushel. Add to this
the cost au above figured, incidental to
delays and river expenses of 4 cents per
bushel, and it give a net gain of 20 cents
per bushel in favor of Astoria as an ex
porting harbor, and the emploj'ment of
such vessels as can safely cross the bar,
over the present arrangement of Portland
and small vessels. Twenty cents per
bushel on the estimated crop of the State
for 1670, viz: 5,000,000 bu-hcls, prives the
snu little sum of 1.000,000 that the farm
er should have for his labor. The above
figures are all substantially correct, and
tell their own story.
It may be said that several large vessels
have loaded at Portland, but the Custom
llnuvn records show that of the twentv
vessel named below, comprising all the !
vcs-cls of.anv size that have sailed from I
the liver with wheat, from a fourth to j
over one-half of the carcro was brought i
down to Astoria in steamboats and here j
put on boaid. And yet these recoids are j
more favoiable to the city of Portland
than the facts justify, ibrv the - reason that
in a number of instance-, two or three
hundred tons wa cleared from the Port
land Custom House a? being on board
yhen in fact it was-in lighters and steam
ers alongside of the ship, and towed "clown
to Astoria before being placed on the ves
List of vessels exporting- wheat from
Oregon, showing amount otbushels taken
on at Atoria and Pertland:
Citoi or 1872.
I I J3
.Annie M. Small
Forward, (buls of fiour),
it y j
tf arch 8
AA himngton ,
Again, deep sea vessels never like to
leave the salt water. Coasters are willing
to steamboat it, but large vessels avoid
steamboat grounds. In fact, the under
writers do not allow deep sea vessels to
venture from their natuial element at
The striking of a vessel on any of the
bars of the river, even if no immediate
damage is discovered, is sufficient cause to
render null and void the policy of insur
ance, should she take in cargo and pio
ceed to sea without being put on the dry
dock and having her bottom examined.
Should a ship be lo-t under such circum
stances, not a dollar of insurance could be
collected on thp vessel, and if the owners
wore responsible, the underwriters upon
the cargo would hold them for the value
thereof. Hence large vessels will never
be induced to undertake the navigation of
the bars of the Columbia above Astoria.
!Nbw as to the safety of the Columbia
river. Exact data is wanting of the whole
number of vessels that have crossed the
bar, but from ceitain periods during which
the data is complete, we are enabled to
approximate very closety, and set the
number down at an average of five hun
dred a year for the last twenty-one years,
or since 1S52. The following is a com
plete list of all the losses-' or wrecks that
have occurred on the Lai since 1S52, which
year may be considered the beginning of
wisdom as regaids the channels, currents,
&c, on or about the bar.
Barks iMendora, and Mcrrithew, lost
Januaiy 12th, 1S53, came in without
pilots wind failed after getting in, and
they drifted ashore.
Jark Oriole, lost September 19th, 1S33.
Brig Detroit, lostDec. 22, 1S55, on outer
spit. Going out at night.
Bark Desdcmona, lost Dec. 31st, 185G.
Came in without a pilot, ran on sands "six
miles inside. " ' -
Schooner '"Woodpecker lost Tay 10JMS61,
four miles inside. '
Bark Industry ,lost IMarch 1G? JLS65, com
ingin without a pilot. . f .
Bark"W B. Scranton, lost 3Iay 5th,
18G7, ' .
Only eight vessels in twenty-qne years.
Eight out of 10,500. One out of d,3l2, qv
one-thirteenth of one per cent, of the ship
ping coming into the river.
Of this number, four "were coming in
without pilots. It futher appears that near
ly every loss during the time under reveiw,
ras the result, not of a rough bar, but of
the wind failing after the vessel had crossed
thus lea vin cr her to drill on the sands. It
also seems that each los of vcsFpte coming
in occurred when they were sailing against
tljetide, instead of with it. ,
, -There being no tug to gp jtp, .their relief,
"'Vessels'in'ark'ed'tlius (ty'nrc known toliavo
lightered more than tho uiuountlci1eailed
t . - - ' . 11
. n , ''-: u
of course there could be hotcscug. It is
j,afe t0 say that, had there been, a tug- at
might haye heed saved. Since thenlacmg
ot the tug Astoria upon the bar, or pilot
grounds in 1SG9, there has been no loss, and
with proper care, on the part of tug: and
pilUU!) U1U1UUCUU DC UUUViJUl niiiuy quills
JbhcaQr facts warrant us nrmak-
ins: the bold assertion, that there is no barr
ed harbor known to commerce, where the
percentage of loss ib so small; and lew, if
any, open harbors that can show so fair a
record. The currents and prevailing
winds aresuch, and the land 'marks so
well defined, that at a time when it is un
safe to cross the bar,, vessels outside can
readily keep off, and Avait a suitable time
to enter. And there is . good holding
grounds but a few hundred rods insidc.for
vessels bound out to anchor, and select
from the sopt their own time to pass but.
Less trouble is experienced from fogs at
the Columbia, than either to the north or
south, as they are not frequent, and are
much less dense, owing, no doubt,, to the
presence of atrial currents, resulting from
peculiar uhvsical conformations. The
channel is distinctly bouyed out, and
lighted by a first class light-house on Cape
Disappointment, where is ' established a
life saving station by Government, with
all the necessary facilities for rendering
aid in case of accident on the bar. Gov
ernment has also made an appropriation
for a lighthouse at Point Adams, and
preparations are going forward for com
mencing the work at once.
The commerce of Oregon has hereto
fore been taxed by underwriters far above
the proper and reasonable rate. But, as
the rate of insuarance is made up from a
knowledge of the actual pro rata of loss
a criven harbor, when such
data is to be had, or guessed at from gen-
era! impressions, m the absence ot reliable
information, there seems no good reason
why, if the above facts are laid before the
various marine underwriters of the land,
the discrimination against the Columbia
river oar should not be lcmoveu, ana our
insurance had at a fair rate, much less
than is now imposed.
Another impoitant point gained by
making Astoria the exporting harbor,
would Lethe employment of home capi
tal in the river tranportation, instead of
foreign, or outside, as is now done. The
question is-now never raised about Sandy
Hook bar, at the entrance tof New York
harbor, being too shallow and rough, ibr
the extensive and profitable employment
of all classes of vessels, yet there is five feet
more water on the Columbia river bar at
high tide, than there is on Sandy Hook at
a corresponding stage of water. But, to
conclude, it is evident that .the class of
vessels required to cany the suplus pro
ducts of Oregon to a foreign market, at a
price consistent with the cost of production,
must stop at the mouth of the Columbia
river. Therefore, it is a simple problem of
whether Oregon will build up and main
tain a seaport town worthy of a great
State, within her own borders, or whether
such a place will be sustained on Pugut
Sound, or California, at an annual cost of
one-fourth the agricultuial wealth of the
The committee are under obligations to
Mr. VanDusen, Mr. Hare, Collector of
hould not be
Customs, and the xilots, for valuable in
formation. Respectfully submitted,
J. H. D.Gray, A. S. Mercer, "W.W.
Astoria, May 31, 1S73.
Wt COLUMBIA RIVER PILOTS!
PHIL JOHNSON, ' M.M.GILMAN,
P. E. EERCHIN. C. S. WRIGHT, Agent.
5T Office Corner of Main and Chcnamus
streets, Astoiia, Oregon.
Oregon Steam Slav
ftTOTICE Boats of tho 0. S.
Atf N.Comnanv will leave As- -?5
toria as follow.? : SS32Sr
EOR PORTLAND, and intermediate points
Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday Mornings,
at U o'clock. Returning, leave l'eitland:
EOR ASTORIA, and intermediate points On
Monday, Wednesday and El iday Alornings,
at (i o'clock. J . O. AIXSW OiiTU, Pros
The Steam Tug Varuna
AVill leavo Astoria every
TUESDAY and SATURDAY
Carrying Mails, Passengers and Freight.
&&. Other days of tho week she will bo ready
to go anywhere that business may justify, is
prepared to lighter cargoes, freight, hay, cattle
and wood. J . H D. GRAY Agent, Astoria.
V. "W. BOUTON,
Is prepared to build Boats of all si7es and
descriptions either of EASTERN or HOME
At Less tRanSanPraiicisco 2?rices !
Freight deducted- Oi ders left at tho Astoria
Otfice, or addressed 10 tho undersigned, will re
ceivo attention V BOUTON, Unitv, V, T
From and after July lstlS78,thc A No 1, fast
sailing Sloop , --j
BLUE RACER. 3Zss.
- EOR CHARTER.
Tho East Sailing --i '
SIOO-D, IONE. $233.
R.'CYRUS SHIVELY Master.
i Is now n readiness to Charter fon
Pleasur'Partisjj, freight , oisPabtcngcrs !
Hcadauarters at Case's Landing.
fly aJ& .
ill ply regularly between! Astoria and Klas-
kaninc, leaving every Tuesday and Saturday.
aarQ trice' at Hie Uxion Housk, Astoria."
XlstablLslied ih Astoria in. 1S19.
NE"W G00tS.. CHEAP, GOODS.
A. V AIT D USEE,
( "Wholesale- "and Retail Dealer in
GETTER AD' M-EU'CHADl'SEV
Corner of Main and Ghenamus streets,
I'd IsOW OFFERING FOR SALE ONE OF
the largest and most complete assortments
of General Merchandise ctar before brought
to tho country, and to buyers
For bshill 'offer the Host FlatterinHnfamenls
In thV line of p
DRY-GOODS . ' i -. -i
CLOTHING,, . i ..
HATS, AND CA5S,
BOOTS AND SliOES
LADIES' DRESS GOODS,
j, - GENTS' FURNISHINGS,
A Complete Stoclc of Every Article,
too Numerous to mention.
R35" Givo mo a call, and bo convinced that
my goods are of tho best quality, and as cheap
as can bo bought of any house in tho State.
MRS. A. S. MERCER,
Teaciiek OFPnoy. E.'A. RoiiBrs's'
American Method for Piano Forte
Alse: Harmony andThoroughbaso!
CSTThoONLY COXCISE WORK which
will stand Artistic Criticism, and furnish the
material upon which every educated Teacher
can baso their own peculiarities of instruction,
it presents in a now light, based upon Natu
ral Laws, the art of Execution, and Science of
Music Ey.Rooms at llcsidenco, As-toriaXTa
Dr. 8. KINSEY,
DRUGGIST AND APOTHECARY,
PHYSICIANS AND EAMILYPRESCRIP
tions tilled from tho PUREST DRUGS,
either at day or night A full stock of
"VYINES AND LIQH ORS,
EOR MEDICAL USE,
OILS BRUSHES, ETC.,
US-Orders from tho Country solicited, and
carefully and promptly filled.
A. J. DONALDSON.
DOMALDSG 6l REED,
Dealers in. all kinds of
ERESH AND CURED MEATS,
CANNED ERU1TS, YEGETABLES.
ERESH BEEF, PORK, MUTTON, VEAL,
HAaIS, BACON AND LARD,
MESS BEEF AND PORK,
AST Constantly on hand.
fl Special attention paid to supplying ships.
Holladay's wharf, Astoria.
H. B. PARKER,
Importer and Dealer in
Wines, Liquors, Cigars
TOBACCO,, x i ' '
' , GROCERIES, . . . !
PROVISIONS, Etc., Etc.
BSrnolladay's Wharf, Main street, Astoria.
J a W Cli
, Chonamus street, Astoria. .
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
Hay, Grain and Feejd !
A GENERAL ASSORTMENT of Groceries,
flour; bacon, hams,
shoulders, lard, butter,
CHEESE, EUGS, Etc.
Motto" Small Profits on Cash Sales." Con
signments solicited. tf
Main St., (Holladay's Wharf,) Astoria, Oregon.
CHARLES BINDER, Proprietor.
FRESn BREAD, CAKES, PIES, CRACK
ers and Pilot Bread, always on hand.
Is kopt in connection with tho Bakory, where
meals can bo procured at all hours. v , .
JX -5 Oysters in every btylo in tho season.??
' Corner of Main and Cass streets, Astoria. '
HENRY JACOBS? ......'Proprietor.
BREAD, CRACICERS,' PTLOT BREAD.
Cakcs.Groccries and Pr6viiens of all kinds
always on hand. Ship stores furnished;
u lis. Connected with tho establishment is a
Reading Room- Cigars and Lager Beer served.
' ' PETEH H. EON,
Corner of Main and Jefferson streets, Astoria,
CLOTHING OP "ALL RINDS CUT1 AND
mado to order. Cleaning and repairingi
& n i:i"i fii & jit.
.IV W. CA'SE,,
, . Wholesale' and Retail D eal'cr in
Dq Goods, 'Clothing, Groceries, 'Provisions, "Ifoi'ioos,
A2td General MjsRcriAia)iSE;
WISHES TO ANNOUNCE TO THEPUB
lic that he has a very superior and well
selected Stock of Goods in. tho above line, bo
sides which may- bo found in'great variety, tho
best quality of -.-
HATS AND CAPS,
BOOTS AND SHOES, ' ' ' s
'; BLANKETS, FLANNELS, f&c,
Which i3 being offered u .
Clieap TOR CASK or PRODUCE !
ffS"IIaving had 3ears of exporien6o I think .
I know tho wants of tho people, and as this
stock is nearer complete, and embraces a
GREATER VARIETY than any other stock
in Clatsop countjS I .will guarantee that you
will do as woll, if not better, by trading with
mo than at any other establishment.
rs Having reduced ray expenses materially
of late I propose to givo my customers tho
benefit of 'tho reduction, and any "person who
doubts whether I will soil as cheap as any ono
FOR CASH! can bo convinced by giving me a
call at Headquarters, ' Case's Corner," Chena
mus street, Astoria. I.W.C.
Occident Hotel Block, Astoria,
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
Ciioice Brand Liquors !
The Eincfct in the ATarJvCt
CONSTANTLY ON HAND!-
Which will bo sold in lots to suit .purchasers
S. N. ARRIGONI PKorniETon.
THE BEST FURNISHED' MOST GONVE
nicnt and in every respect popular hotel in
Oregon. Owing to its location it is considered
A Very Delightful Summer Resort.
B55"Magnincent Suits of Rooms for families.
Tho tablo is" supplied with tho choicest delica
cies of tho season. Wino and Billiard Room
attached to the Hotel.
Hot, Cold, ancL Shower Baths !
AT OCCIDENT nOTEL.
HAIR DRESSING SALOON,
"W. UlILENHART PkOPRIETOR.
KrST Special attention paid to LADIES'
CHILDREN'S HAIR CUTTING
tfPrivato Entrance for Ladies "i
U. S. MAIL AND EXPRESS.
From Astoria to Clatsop Beacli !
East HORSES! Good CARRIAGE! '
LEAVES ASTORIA EVERY TUESDAY.
Thursday and. Saturday Mornings. " '
Arrive Samo Mornings at tho
OCEAN HOUSE, . .rfj'.. -,
GRIMES HOUSE, ' ;
SUABIER HOUSE' v I
And SEA SIDE HOUSE.
RETURNINGr-Lcaves those Houses every
Monday, Wednesday and Friday, connecting
with'steamor to Portland each way.
ftjJ" Distance twenty-four miles, faro $1 o0.
. H. B. PARKER, Proiu-ietor;
' M. MEYERS'
HAVING ALL THE MACHINERY NEC- ,
e.vary for tirstclahS work, skillful Brewer
and using none but tho best Quality of materi
als, tho Proprietor is prepared to
Manufacture LAGER BEER I
In any quantity, from a Singlo Bottle to a
Twenty Gallon Keg, and put it up in good con
dition for Shipment or Immediate use. i aim
lies and keepers of Public Houses promptly
and. regularly supplied, AI MEYER, 1 lop r
Chexamts Street Astoria .
' , HOBSON & WARREN,
"Wholesale and Retail Dealers in all Jjinds of
Fresh and Gured Rfteats!
Butter, Eggs, Cheese,
Hams, Bacon and Lardh
K3"Cannod Eruits and Vegetables constant
ly on hand. Ships supplied at lowest rates.
' II. A.SHA.WfeSON, ''
House, Sign and Steamboat Painters
Astoklv, Oregon. "
E&T Paper Hanging and Glazing ?Ba
Done ta Order withNeatnossandDispatch.
C. LEINEN WEBER, , " ' f $ ' '
GT Manufacture all kinds of Leather -su
j Established 1867. $Q
. . i "
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