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title: 'Tri-weekly Astorian. (Astoria, Or.) 1873-1874, August 02, 1873, Image 3',
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Inspector General |
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August 2, 1873
Published hy Authority.
. 0OMME11CIAL STATISTICS.
r&eport ori the Harbor and Shipping
of tlic port of Astoria Facts Im
. portant to tlic Public.
At a meeting of the Astoria Cham
ber of Commerce held in May last,
.& committee was appointed to pre
jmre statistics of the harbor and ship
ping of the port of Astoria, for use at
the Farmer's Convention. Following
3& the report in full.
Your committ&e to whom was referred
ti& matter of harbor, and Gripping intelli
.2jce, beg leave to offer the follewing:
The water front of Astoria, varying
Irom a quarter of a mile to a mile in width
-affords over tix miles of secure anchorage
fbrtfce largest clawed vested, in from six to
twelve fathom of water. No storms have
.vet vibited the harbor that effected any
damage to s-hi-ping riding at anchor in
the bay, or lying at the wharf.
Should the demands of commerce re--qifire,
about five conbccutive milt of dock-
itcc may be cheaply constructed from the
nver bank to the edge of the channel,
piling being necessary but a short dis
tance at any given point.
The central portion of the harbor it just
lvuii: iiuiua jumuv; uiu jiuiiiujii. jjvv-i
bar, on which tnere is tweiuy-iour iccl oi
water at extreme low tide, and thirty-four
tVt ordinary high tide. After crossing tlie
bar, tlic depth holds still greater all the
way to Astoria, so that any vessel able to
-cru can safely venture to our docks.
About six miles above Astoria, at the com
mencement of Cathlument bay is the
"hog's " back, a bar some quarter of a mile
in length, with ten feet of water at low and
dghteen feet at high tide. This is the
most dangerous point on the river, -and the
most skillful pilots never attempt -its pass-age
in tlic night, either with sailorsteam.
It is formed of shifting sands, deposited by
thameetincr of the tide with the annual
freshets of the river, as Cathlaraetbayis
ten miles long up and down the river, and
from seven to fourteen in width. Thus
the waters of the river are so spread out
that they lose their force, and the incoming
tide washes the loose sand into irregular
"bars that change their position, from year
to year, and make dredging useless.
Steamers are nearly always detained at
Astoria, for tide to cross this bar, and
jdiould one arrive here, say at 12 m. when
high water occurred at 10 o'clock a. m.
she would have to wait until 11 a. m. the
next day, as she could not proceed on the
high tide of the night. Tins bar has been
known for years, but as the draft of steam
ers and vessels now coming into the river
is greater than formerly, the dmieulties
are becoming more and more apparent.
There is the following named depths of
water at the points mentioned at high
Walker's Island, in ftfor mile below Rainier
Carr'sWoodyaid " " " abovo
Kalaina " " H "
St Helen. 17fUbr "
Mouth Wallamet 4
Post Office 18 V. "
Swan Island... 17 "
The channel is often crooked, and diffi
cultof navigation, and the bar at the
mouth of the "Willamette river is subject
to annual deports of sediment from back
water of the Columbia.
We find that the carrying trade f
'Oregon is now chiefly done by vessels of
lurht draft and small capacity.
That these are subject to a tax of S per
foot draft as pilotage; from lour to ten
'days' delay, and 300 to $400 towage,
Kjvcr and above what they would have to
pay, did they receive and take in cargo st
Astoria. A fair average would be, say
:sir hundred tons capacity. Expenses would
iheriDC as follews:
Pilotaao 10 feet & Si up S 4
l'i " " down 01
Sir days demurrajjo Q, 00 "OO
Towage up 175
- down . r.5
'Total - S7SS
Equivalent to over four cents por bushel
on the cargo of GOO tons outward bound.
This is but a fraction of the expense to the
State growing out of present arrangement
of the arrival and denatures by sea.
By careful inspection of the shipping
registers, we find the average draft of all
vessels now in use, ranging oetween 1,000
and 1,200 tons, to be '20)4 feet, and the
average of all larger ones but 21V6 feet.'
While a thousand ton ship is lull larger
than can reach Portland,or any point above
Astoria, loaded, on account of depth of
water, a vessel of 3,000 tons can always
come to Astoria, whatever the stage of
water. Thus, with a point higher up on
the river, the export track mut forever he
carried on in small vessels, while from
here the shipping of the world may com
pete for freights.
A ship of 3,000 tons can carry wheat
from Astora to Liverpool for twenty cents
a bushel less than a 1,000 ton vessel can
oVfrom Portland, a the following figures
-A shlp'Of 3,000 tons is worth 8120,000
Interest, at 10 "fl cent for four months
(average passage) 4,000
Insurance at VI 1 cent .. 4,800
Depreciation at 10 ft cent 4,000
Captain, three mates, steward, ana cook
SloU, S7.i, $oO,3oO, $40, 40 ft month...
Twcntv-four seamen $23 1 month. ....
Stores 'for voyage, 30 men at 30c ft day,
l'OKT CHARGKS IN ASTOUU.
PHbtago and towage, 23 feet & S10..
Stevedores1 bill, 3,00 tons ( 40c .....
Port storey, etc - - -
PtJ6feco and towage, 2 foot ($10.. 230
.tevedoro's bill, 3,000 tons & 2oc..... .0
lUrbor fees.tonsagoaos oa aocKago
-;....! joixka; -
tag up jjp i hi i agQucmu..!, ...... ............ iw"" . - .
A ship of 1,000 tons is worth 5 00,000
Interest at 1U cont.und Insurance M"
12 t1 cent, four months 2i9? i
Depreciation at 10 1 cent ,uw
Wages ? month, for Captain S15U, two
mates 5UstevardoO,and 12 seam en
Stores for 10 men atrOOc & day JWO
POUT CHARChS IN ASTORIA.
Pilotngo and towage, 10 feet (& $11) 1JJj
Port store and dunnage 200
Stevedore's bill, 1,000 tons (& 30c 300
Pilotage and towage, l! foet S10 100
Stevedore's bill (a. 2c, harbor dues, ton
nage dues and dockage 030
Port storey 100
Total expenses -S 11,750
Centra: - -
Uy 1,000 tons at Sin $13,000
Expenses deducted 11,760
Ualanco $ 3,24b
Or, a dividend of 19 per cent, on cost of
the larger ship as against 5 per cent. , on
that of the smaller. Or, to reduce both to
5 per cent., the 3,000 ton ship will carry
wheat to Liverpool for over a thiid les
than the 1,000 ton vessel; that is, 29 cents
against 45 cent, per bushel. Aad to this
the cost a, above figured, incidental to
delay's and river expense. of 4 cent per
bushel, and it gives a net gain of 20 cents
per bushel in favor of Astoria as an ex
poi ting harbor, and the employment of
such vessels as can safely cross the bar,
over the present arrangement of Portland
and small vessels. Twenty cents per
bushel on the estimated crop of the State
for 1S73, viz: 5,000,000 bushels, gives the
snug little sum of $1,000,000 that tlic farm
er should have ior his labor. The above
figures arc all substantially correct, and
tell their own story.
It may be said that several large vessels
have loaded at Portland, but the Custom
House recoids show that of the twenty
vessels named below, comprising all the
vessels of any size that have sailed from
the liver with wheat, from a fourth to
over one-half of the cargo was brought
down to Astoria in steamboats and here
put on board. And yd these recoids are
more favorable to the city of Portland
than the facts justify, for the reason that
in a number of instances, two or three
hundred tons was cleared from the Port
land Custom House as being on board
when in fact it was in lighters and steam
ers alongside of the ship, and towed down
to Astoria before being placed on the.ves-
Jist ot vessels exporting wneat irom
Oregon, showing amount ot bushels taken
on at Astoria and Pertland:
Crop ok 1872.
1S72 Ships. K
I -g SSiS
July 11.. Annie M. SniulP 7,H71 42,4(52
Oct 11.. .Manilla 13,220 14,021
4 14.. Navigator 7,:i")9 20,022
41 14.. Electnu 7,7.31 22,177
" II.. Lock Dee-. 3,7!W :J(,:;33
Xov. 7.. Siain 7.17o 2ti,0i7
44 11.. Forward, (bbls of flourj, 1,7!8 3,200
4 2l..tUcdDcer. 10,177 20,301
44 :50.. (irasmero 20,0o2 2-V773
Dec. 11.. Zouave 34,007 22,400
44 17.. 'Naworth .,. 2,"03 17,170
" IS.. ChannolLight 8,495 21,733
Jan. 10.. Victoria Nyana. 8,023 14,S0O
Pcb. 1.. Whittington. 14,880 31,054
44 S.. Felix Mendelsohn. 11,373 :.5,003
" 17.. Sarah Scott 1,250 30,000
" 20.. ltosweU Spraguc. 8,312 :,()80
March 8 lllionc 9,0!Jo .30,030
44 10 Carribou 7,703 32,08:3
44 14 Victoria Cross 8,828- 24,342
Again, deep sea vessels never lslce to
leave the salt water. Coasters are willing
to steamboat it, but large vessels avoid
steamboat grounds. In fact, the under-?
writers do not allow deep sea vessels to
venture from their natural clement at
rJRe striking of a vessel on any of the
lars of tihe river, even if no immediate
A damage is discovered, is sufficient cause to
render null and void the policy of insur
ance, should she take in cargo and pro
ceed to sea without being put on the dry
dock and having her bottom examined.
fc&culd a slim be lost under such circum
stances, not a dollar of insurance could be
collected on the vessel, and if the ervners
were responsible, the underwriters upon
the cargo would hold them for the value
thereefc Hence large vessels will never
he induced to undertake the navigation of
the bars of the Columbia above Atqria.
2sTow as to the safety of the Columbia
river. Exact data is wanting ot the whole
number of vessels that have crossed the
bar, but from cei tain periods during which
tihe data is complete, we are enabled to
approximate very closely-, and set the
number down at an average of five hun
dred a year for the last twenty-one years,
or since 1S32. The following is a com
plete list of all the losses or wrecks that
have occurred on the bar since 1852, which
year may be considered the beginning of
wisdom as regards the channels, currents,
&c., on or about the bar.
13arks Men&ora, and MerritheWj lost
January I2th, 1853, came in without
pilots, wind failed after getting in, and
they drifted ashore.
Bark Oriole, lost September 19th, 1S53.
Ihig Detroit, lost Dec. 22, 1S55, on outer
Bark Desdemona, Tost Dec. 31st, 1856. 1
Came in without a pilot, ran on sands six
Schooner "Woodpecker lost !M!ay 10, 1861,
four miles inside.
Bark Industry ,l6stIarch 16, lS65com
ing in without -a pilot. ,
Bark"V. B. Scranton, lost May 5th,
Only eight vessels in twenty-one years.
Eight out of 10,500. One out of 1,312, or
one-thirteenth of one per cent, of the ship
ping coming into the river.
Of this number, four' -were coming in
without pilots. It father appears that near
ly every loss during tlie time under reveiw,
was the result, not of a Tough bar, but of
incwina inning airer tne vessel naa crossea
thus leaving her to drift on the sands. It
also seems that eachloss of vessels coming
in occurred when they were sailing against
the tide, instead o f with it.
There being no tug to go to their relief,
-. w8b1s naftea thj ) arq,known.tp hare,
gj- hthtoreMor tiatf 'amount1 created
- . c
of course there could be no reaque. It is
safe to say that; had there -been a tug: at
hand, every vessel .thus far lost on the Dar
might have heed saved. Since thcplacin
of the tug Astoria upon the bar, or pilot
grounds m 1869,- there has been no loss, and
with proper care on the part of tug and
pilots, there need be none for many years
to come. Tke&e facts warrant us in mak
ing the bold assertion, that there is no barr
ed harbor known to commerce, where the
percentage of loss is so small; and few;, if
any, open harbors that can show so fair a
reooid. The currents and prevailing
winds are such, and the land marks so
well defined, that at a time when t is un
safe to cross the bar. vessels outside can
readily keep off, ana wait a suitable time
to enter. And there is good holding
grounds but a few hundred rods inside for
vessels bound out to anchor, and select
from the spot their own time to pass out.
Less trouble is experienced from fogs at
the Columbia, than either to the north or
south, as they are not frequent, and are
much less dense, owing, no doubt, to the
presence ot ajrial currents, resulting iroin
peculiar physical conformations. The
channel is distinctly bouj'ed out, and
lighted by a first class light-house on Cape
Disappointment, where is established a
life saving station by Government, with
all the necessary facilities for rendering
aidr in case of accident on the bar. Gov
omment has also made an appropriation
for a lighthouse at Point Adams, and
preparations are going forward for com
mencing the work at once.
The commerce of Oregon has hereto
fore been taxed by underwriters far above
the proper and reasonable rate. But, as
the rate of insurance is made up from a
knowledge of the actual pro rata of loss
incident to a given harbor, when such
datais to be had, or guessed at from gen
eral impressions, in the absence of reliable
information, there seems no good reason
why, if the above facts are laid before the
various marine underwriters of the land,
the discrimination against the Columbia
river bar should not be removed, and our
insurance had at a fair rate, much less
than is now imposed
Another impoitant point gained by
Tnnl.-iner A (.frvrtfi flin ovnrivHnrr linrhftT
would be the employment of home capfr-
tai in the river tranportation, instead of
foreign, or outside, as is now done. The
question is now never raised about Sandy
Hook bar, at the entrance of New York
harbor, being too shallow and rough ibr
the extensive and profitable employment
of all classes of vessels, yet there is five feet
more water on the Columbia river bar at
high tide, than there is on Sandy Hook at
a corresponding stage of water. But, to
conclude, it is evident that the class of
vessels required to carry the surplus pro
ducts of Oregon to a foreign market, at a
price consistent with the cost of production,
must stop at the mouth of the Columbia
river. Therefore, it is- a simple problem of
whether Oregon will build qp and main
tain a seaport town worthy of a great
State, within her own borders, or whether
such a place will be sustained on Pugut
Sound, or California, at an annual cost of
one-fourth the agricultural wealth of the
The committee are under obligations to
IMr. VanDusen, Mr. Hare, Collector of
Customs, and the Pilots, for valuable in
formation. Hespectfullv submitted,
J. II. Dl Gray, A. S.'Mekcek, "W.W.
Astoria, lay 31, 1S73.
Few St&cR t)f Goods !
OF THE BEST STYLES,
AND THE YERY, BEST QUALITY,"
AT REASONABLE PRICES.
, EVERYTHING ELSE IN
At The Old stand'of
TAKE NOTICE This i3 an oxtensivo stock
of well selected goods, in great varioty, which
I am now opening. Old Patrons, Friends and
tho community in general, aro invited to call
and inspect hoth Goods and Prices.
G. SUMMERS, , -Chenamus
COLUMBIA MM PILOTS!
H. A. SNOW,
M. M. GILMAN,
C.S. WRIGHT, Agent.
B2T Office Corner of Main and Chonamus
streets, Astoria, Urogon.
T&o Fast Sailing - -a
Sloop, IONE, rgssa
R, CYRUS SHIVELY Master.
Is row in readiness to Charter for
Pleasure Parties, Freight or Passengers !
Headquarters at Case's Landing.-
Tho 'sloop -rj&
Having boon purchased by tho undersigned,
will hereafter bo in readiness' to carry freight
to any accessibl6 point. Tho Hector has good
accommodations for kooping freight dry and
can carry 20,000 foet of lumber. .Por .particu
lars, inquire of P. JOHNSON, Astoria. ,
Tho fast Bailing Sloop Z
,. : tr.H; twilight,
K M LOWB :;. J..:Master
jg now m readiaogs Jo Qhartor far Pleas!
ParUea, EreiihtwSEasspngers.. HaadquArtorl
-Established in Astoria Jn 1849.x
dSTEW GOODS. CHEAP GOODS.
A, VAN DFSEHiv.
"Wholesale and Retail Dealor in
Corner of Main anil Chenamus streets,
IS NOW OFFERING FOR SALE ONE OF
the largest and most comploto assortments
of Uoneral Merchandise evor beforo brought
to tho country, and to buyers
For Cash will offer the Most Flattering Inducements
In tho lino of
HATS, AND CAPS,
ROOTS AND SHOES
LADIES 3XKESS GOODS,
A Complete Stofek of Every Article,
TOO 2TUMEROUS 'TO MENTION.
BSFtGivo mo a call, and bo convinced that
my goods are of the best quality, and as cheap
as can bo bought of any houso in tho State.
. . A. VANDUSEN.
MRS. A. S. ItfERGER,
Teacher of Prof. E. A.RoBBI's,
American Method for -Piano Forte
KZ The ONLY CONCISE SYSTEM which
will stand Artistic Criticism, and furnish tho
material upon which overy educatod Teacher
can haso their own peculiarities of instruction,
nt prosents in a now light, based upon Natu
ral Laws, tuo artot .hxeeution, and fccienco of
lMusic ftgrltooms at ltesidonco, Astoria"u3i
Dr. S. K1NSEY,
DRUGGIST AND APOTHECARY,
PHYSICIANS AND FAMILY PRESCRIP
tions filled from tho PUREST DRUGS,
either at day or night A full stock of
WINES AND LIQUORS,
EOR MEDICAL USE,
OILS BRUSHES, ETC.,
Xk3- Orders from tho Country solicited, and
carefully and promptly filled.
A. J. DONALDSON.
DONALDSON & REED,
Dealers in all kinds of
ERESH AND CURED MEATS,
CANNED FRUITS, VEGETABLES.
FRESH BEEF, PORK, MUTTON, VEAL,
HAMS, BACON AND IrAAD,
MESS BEEF AND PORK,
XJS Constantly on hand.
XT5T Special attention paid to supplyingships.
Holladay's wharf, Abtoria..
H B. PARKER,
Lnporter and Dealer in
PROVISIONS, Etc., Etc.
tfirllolladay's "Wharf, Mn street, Astoria.
J. W. GEARHARTi,.
Chenamus street, Astoria.
Wholosalc and Retail Dealer in
A GENERAL ASSORTMENT of Groceries,
FLOUR, BACON, HAMS,
SHOULDERS. LARD, BUTTER,
CHEESE, EGGS, Etc.
Motto" Small Profits on Cash Sales." Con
signments solicited, - if
Main St.,(Holladay's Wharf,) Astoria, Oregon.
CHARLES HINDER, Proprietor.
RESH BREAD, CAKES, PIES, CRACK
crs md Pilot Dread, -alw-uys'on hand!
v A T?T,RTATT'RAXT'.
Is kopt tn connection with tho Bakery, Y&oro
meals can ho procured at all hours.
0s)' Oysters in overy stylo in ihoscaaon'ttU
Comer of Main and Cass streets, Astoria.
HENRY -JACOBS..-:.: Proprietor.
BREAD, CRACKERS, PILOT BREAD,
Cakes,Grocorios and Provisions of all kinds
always on hand. Ship stores furnished.
1K, Connected with tho establishment is a
Reading Room. Cigars andLagorBeorservcd.
inMinvnf. M4in anrl TofToraAn ctrnnta
ar,'Wt s t ,
xnado tordor. T Cleaning and.rapftiriss.
Headquarters ! Headquarters !
1. W-. -GA&E,
"Wholesale and Rotail Doalerin
Diy Goods, -Clothing, Groceries, Provisions, JoiiMSt
And :General Merchandise,
WISHES'TO ANNOUNCE TO THE PUB
he that ho has a very superior and well
selected. Stock of Goods in tho abovo lino, be
sides which may bo foundinreat variety, tho
best quality of
HATS AND CAPS,
ROOTS AND SHOES,
BLANKETS, ELANNELS, &c.f
mv.... "Which is boing'offered .-...
Cheap FOR CASH or PRODUCE f
tftT Having haft years of experienco I think
I know tho wants of tho people, and as this
stock is nearer complete, and embraces -a,
GREATER VARIETY than any other stock
in Clatsop county, 1 will guarantee that you
will do us well, if not better, by trading with
mo than at any other establishment.
x3r Having reduced my oxpenses materially
of lato 1 proposo to give my vjustomors tho
bonpfit of tho reduction, and any person who
doubts whether I will sell as cheap as any ono
1'OR CASH! can bo convinced by giving me a
call at Headquarters, " Caso's Corner," Chena
mus street, Astoria. I. W. C.
S. N. ARR1CON1,
Occident Hotel Block, Astoria,
"Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
Choice Brand Liquors!
Tlic Einest in tho Market
CONSTANTLY 'ON HANlf!
Which will bo sold in lots-to suit purchasers
S. N. ARRIGONI. ..-. Pkopbietor'.
THE BEST FURNISHED, MOST CONYE
nient and .in overy respect popular hotel in
Oregon. Owing to its location it is considered
A Very Delightful Sumincr Resort
'fiS'Magnificent Suits of Rooms for families.
Tho table is supplied with tho choicost delica
cie3 of tho soason. "Wino and Billiard Room
attached to tho Hotel.
Hot, Gold, and Shower Batlis !
AT OCCIDENT HOTEL,
HAIR DRESSING SALOON.
"WAT. UULEXHART PkOPKIETOR.
inr Special attention paid to LADIES'
CHILDitEIS'S HAIR CUTTING
ttS)"" Private Entrance for Ladles -?H
Main Street - - Astoria, Oregon.
This House has hedn rofitted and newly fur
nished in tho neatest manner, and guests will
lindall thoir comforts well attended to. Tho
Tablo always supplied with tho best of tho
season that tho market affords.
I'rJf Those who desiro to havo a good squaro
meal go to tho Globe. Terms moderate.
Chenamus street, Astoria, Oregon.
Kfc&- Manufactures to order tho best quality
of Boots and Shoes ltopairing of ail kinds vji
COME AND SEE
m fancy IPoultry !
A J MEGLER, Chenamus street
AVING ALL THE MACHINERY NEC-
ossary for lirtt class work, skilliul lirowers
and using nono but tho best quality of materi
als, tho Proprietor is prepared, to
Manufacture IMAGER BEER !
.In any quantity, from u Single Bottle to a
JiAKKEL, AD PUT IT bi' 'in good con
dition for Shipment or Immediato use. t ami
lies and keepers of Public Houses promptly
and regularly supplied. M MEYER, Piup'r
dnENAMus- Street ..,....
HOBSON Si WARREN,
( Wholosalo andltetail Dcalers'in alLkind3 of
Fresh and Cured ffSeats!
Butter,, Eggs, Cheese,
Hams, ISaoon ajud Lardl
Canned Fruits and Vegetables,
. i . Constantly on hand.
lEg" Ships supplied afrlowest rates.
H. At SHAW A-SOS?,
House, Sign and Steamboat Painters
Graining,Paperrlianging and Glaziiig
Dono to rder with Neatness and Dispatch.. .
f Manufacture a4l-k:fejr-tpft'
jjuvjii.ii, . ajt.jwjrAijKS.