Newspaper Page Text
fSLLSJ!g?:: j!igfrfr. caPTgr
Published by Authority.
3jfeport on the Harbor and Shipping
qf the port of Astoria Facts Im
portant to the Public.
At a mooting of the Astoria Cham
ifer of Commerce, lield in May last,
$ committee was appointed to pre
jtere statistics of the harbor and ship
ping of the port of Astoria, for use at
t&e Parmer's Convention. Following
it the report in full.
Your committee to whom was referred
tjfe matter of harbor, and shipping intelli
gence, beg leave to offer the follewing:
The 'water iiont of Astoria, varying
ttsm a quarter of a mile to a mile in width
fibrd over six mile.- of .secure anchorage
for tkc largest classed vessels, in from six to
twelve fathoms of water, No storms have
.'vet visited the harbor that enectod any
'Cbunageto shr-ping riding at anchor in
tkc bay, or lying at the wharf.
Should the demands of commerce re
Ollire, about live consecutive miles of dock
HJge may be cheaply "constructed from the
river bank to the edge of the channel,
.piling being necessary but a short dis
tance at any given point.
The central poition of the harbor is just
twelve miles inside the Columbia river
bar, on which there is twenty-four feet of
water at extreme low tide, and thirty-lour
at ordinary high tide. After crossing the
har, the depth holds still greater all the
wiry to Astoria, so that any vessel able to
jros.s can safely -venture to our docks.
About six miles above Astoria, at the corn-
mencement of Cath lament Day is
bay is the
i i (i i i t. - - ? :i i
noes oacK. a. u:ir some mi.uiur ui u mm-
mnglh, with ten feet of water at low and
eighteen feet at ugh tide. Ihis is the
most uangerous pointoii uiu nvta, auu ijjc
most skillful yjilots never attempt its pas-
age in the night, either with sail or steam.
It is formed of shifting sands, deposited by
the meeting of the tide with the annual
freshets of the river, as Cathlamethayis
ten miles long up and down the river, and
from seven to fourteen in width. Thus
the waters of the river are so spread out
that they lose their force, and the incoming
tide washes the loose sand into irregular
bars that change their position from year
to year, and make dredging useless.
Steamers are nearly always detained at
Astoria, for tide to cross this bar, and
should one arrive here, sayit 12 y. when
high water occurred at 10 o'clock a. r.
she would have to wait until 11 a. m. the
next day, as she could not proceed on the
high title of the night. This bar has been
known for years, but as the draft of steam
42TS and vessels now coming into the river
i5 greater than formerly, the difficulties
are becoming more and more apparent.
There is the following named depths of
water at the points mentioned at -high
Walker's Island, 10 ftfor mile below Hainier
' Carr's Woodyard 4 " " -above '
Kalama " " M "
St. Helen 17ftfor " , ,
Mouth Wallamet" " "
Post Office IS M , t .
Swan Island... 17 y "
The channel i often crooked, and difil-
' -cult of navigation, and the bar at the
mouth of the "Willamette river is subject
to annual deposts of sediment from back
water of the Columbia.
We find that the carrying trade of
Orwron is now chieflv done by vessels of
light draft and small capacity.
That these are subject to a tax of S per
foot draft as pilotage; from four to ten
days' delav, and $300 to 400 towage,
over and ahove what they would have to
pay, did they receive and take in cargo at
Astoria. A fair average would be, say
six hundred tons capacity. Expenses would
then be sis follews:
Pilotaao 10 feet $4 up .' $ 04
" . " " down 04
. Six days demurrago $00 300
Towage up :....' 175
Total .-. '. $7S8
Equivalent to over four cents per bushel
' on tne cargo of (300 tons outward bound.
This is but a fraction of the expense to the
State growing" out of present arrangement
of the arrivals and denatures by sen.
By careful inspection of the shippingr
' registers, we find the aveiagre draft of all
vessels now in use, ranging between 1,000
and 1,200 tons, to be 20M feet, and the
- average of all larger ones but 21 feet.
"While a thousand ton ship i& iull larger
than can reach Portland,or any point above
Astoria, foaded, on account of depth of
water, a vessel of 3,000 tons can always
come to Astoria, whatever the fatage of
water. Thus, with a point higher up -on
the river, the export trade must forever be
carried on m small vessels, while from
here the shipping of the world may com
pete ibr freights. '
A ship of 3,000 tons can cany wheat
from Astora to Liverpool ibr twenty cents
a bushel less than a 1,000 ton vessel can
do from Portland, as the following figures
A ship of 3,009 tons is worth $120,000
Interest, at 10 ft cent, for four months
(average passage) 4,000
Insurance at 12 "$ cent 4,800
Depreciation at 10 cent 4,000
Usptain, tnroe niate3, steward, anu cook
$150, 557.5, $00, 50, $40, $40 " month...
Twenty-four seamen $25 $ month
Stores for voyage, 30 men at 50c ift day,
POUT CHARGES IX ASTOUU.
Pilotage and towago, 21 feet $10
htovedores' bill, 3foW tons 40c
i'art stores, etc - w
Pilotage and towago, 23 foot $10. 230
gtavedoro's bill, 3,000 tons & 25c . 750
Harbor foes, tonnage dues and dockage S00
Pwi'storeg.................... . 2w
f&lal expense ...., . .$22,460
tons & $15.M..o..............$4.r,000
A ship of 1,000 tons is worth 3 K,000
Interest at 10 ti cent., and Insurance &
12 V cent., four months 4,400
Depreciation at 10 tl cent - 2,000
ages f month, for Captain $150, two
mates Sl..steward $50,and 12 seamen
at $2 each 2,540
Stores for 1 J men at 5Cc day 0W
POUT t II KGkS IN ASTORIA.
1'ilotago and towage, 1!) feet $10 r
Port stores and dunnage 200
Stevedore's bill, 1,000 tons & 50c 500
Pilotage and towago, l.l feet $10 lbO
Stevedore's bill ( 2-K5, harbor dues, ton
nage dues and dockage 050
Port stores - 100
Total expenses .$ 11,75!
By 1,000 ton at $15 $lo,000
Expenses deducted 11, oU
balance S ,24
Or, a dividend of 19 per cent, on cost of
the larger ship as against 5 per cent, on
that ot the smaller. Or, to reduce both to
5 per cent., the 3,000 ton ship will carry
wheat to Liverpool for over a third less
than the 1,000 ton vessel; that is, 29 cents
against 45 cents per bushel. Add to this
the cost as above figured, incidental to
delaj's and river expenses of 4 cents per
bushel, and it gives a net gain of 20 cents
per bushel in favor of Astoria as an ex
porting harbor, and the employment of
such vessels as can safely cross the bar,
over the present arrangement of Portland
and small vessels. Twenty cents per
bushel on the estimated crop of the State
for 1873, viz: 3,000,000 bushels, gives the
snug little sum of $1,000,000 that the farm
er should have tor his labor. The above
figures are all substantially correct, and
tell their own stoiy.
It may be said that several large vessels
have loaded at Portland, but the Custom
House record-, show that of the twenty
vessels named below, comprising all the
vessels of anv size that have sailed from
the river with wheat, from a fourth to
over one-half of the cargo was brought
down to Astoria in steamboats and here
i put on board. And yet these records are
I more favorable to the city of Portland
than the facts justify, for the reason that
i - i .
number of instances, two or three
hundredt0IUs wab cleared om t
,and Cufctom 1IoUhQ as bei Q
when in fact it was in lighters and steam
ers alongside of the ship, and towed down
to Astoria before being placed on the ves
sel. List of vessels exporting' wheat from
Oregon, showing amount ofbushels taken
on at Astoria andPertlarfd:
Crop of lt72.
1S72 Ships. fill
J uly 11.. Annie M. SmulP 7,l.7142,4'i2
Oct. 11.. Manilla'. 15,22' 14,(521
4 11.. Navigator. 7,8V l 20,022
" 14.. Electra .. 7,7.54 22,177
" 1 L Lock Dee. 3,7J)4 Miffi
!Now'7.. Sia'm 7.175 2o,0u7
" 14.. Forward, (bbls of flour), 1,7;S 3,200
" 2L. ll'edDedr. 10,177 2fi,50l
" ;o.. Grasmere 20,0"2 25,575
Dec. 11.. Zouave 31,01)7122,100
" 17.. Xaworth 2,305 17,170
" 18.. ChunnelLight S.405 21,755
Jan. 10.. Victoi ia Nyanza. 0,025 44,S00
Peb. 1.. liiltingtortf. 14,Sb0 .11,054
" S.. Felix iMendelsohn- 11,573 :53,(Oo'
" 17. Sarah Scott 1,230..0,000
" 20.. Hoswell Spiaguo 8512 :55,OSO
March S lllione 9,0!I5 0,0?J
44 10 Cairibou 7,705 :52,OS-l
44 14 VietoriaCios 3,S2S 24,342
Again, deep sea vessels never like to
leave the skit water. Coasters are willing
to steamboat it, but large vessels avoid
steamboat grounds. In fact, the under
writer:: do not allow deep sea vessels to
venture from their natural element at
The striking of a vessel on any ot the
bars of the river, even if no immediate
damage is discovered, is sufficient cause to
render null and void the policy of insur
ance, should she take in cargo and pro
ceed to sea' without being put on the dry
dock and Haying her bottom examined.
Shoulda ship be lost under such circurriw
stances, not'a dollar of insurance could be
collected on the vessel, and if the owners
were responsible, the underwriters upoli
the cargo would hold them for. the valiic
thereof. Hence large vessels will never
be induced to undertake the navigation of
the bars of the Columbia above Astoria.
Now as to the safety of the Columbia
river. Exact data is wanting of the wliolc
number of vessels that have crossed the
bar, but from certain periods during which
the data is complete, we are enabled to
approximate very closely, and set the
number down at an average of five hun
dred a year for the last twenty-one years,
or since 1S52. The following is a com
plete list of all the losses or wrecks that
have occurred on the bar since 1S52, which
3car may be considered the beginning of
wisdom as regards the channels, currents,
&c, on or about the bar.
Parks 3Iendora, and AlerrithcWj lost
January 12th, 1S53, came in without
pilots, wind failed after getting in, and
they drifted ashore.
Park Oriole, lost September 19th, 853.
Brig Detroit, lost Dec. 22, 1335, oti outer
spit. Going out at night.
Bark Dchdemona, lost Dec. 31st, 1S5C.
Came in without a pilot, ran on sands six
Schooner "Woodpecker lost Atay 10, 1S61,
four miles inside.
BarkIndustry,lost!March 16, 1865, com
ing in without a pilot. '
Bark "W. B. bcranton, lost 3Iay 5th,
Only eight vessels in twentv-one years.
Eight out of 10,500. One out of 1,312, or
one-thirteenth of one per cent, otme ship
ping coming into the river.
Of this number, four were coining in
without pilots. It futher appears that near
ly every loss during the time under reveiw,
was the result, not of a rough bai but of
the wind failing after the vesselluulcroased
thus leaving her to drift on the sands. It
also seems that each loss of vessels coming
in occurred when they were sailing against
the tide, instead of with it.
There being no tug to go to their relief.
Vessels marked tHHg ) are knowq to have
lightered sure ika HkoiYamount' Credited
a vo. ,
. ' L . . . ' j I i
of course" there could be no rescue. It is
safe to say that, had there been a tug at
hand, every vessel thu far lost on the bar
might have heed saved. Since the placing
of the tug Astoria upon the bar, or pilot
grounds in 18G9, there has been no loss, and
with proper care on thepait of tug and
pilots, there need be none for many years
to come. Tkqse facts warrant us in mak
ing the bold assertion, that there is nobarr
ed harbor known to commeice, where the
percentage of loss is so small; and few, if
any, open harbors that can show so fair a
record. The currents and prevailing
winds are such, and the land marks so
well defined, that at a time when it is un
safe to cross the bar, vessels outside pan
readily keep off, and wait a suitable time
to enter. And there is good holding
grounds but a few bundled rods inside for
vessels bound out to anchor, and select
from the spot their own time to pass out.
Less trouble is experienced from fogs at
the Columbia, than either to the north or
south, as they are not frequent, and are
much less dense, owing, no doubt, to the
presence of ieri a 1 currents, resulting from
peculiar physical conformations. The
channel is distinctly bouyed out, and
lighted by a first class light-house on Cape
Disappointment, where is established a
life saving station by Government, with
all the necessary facilities for rendering
aid in case of accident on the bar. Gov
ernment has also made an appropriation
lor a light house at Point Auanis, and
preparations are going forward for com
mencing the work at once.
The commerce of'Oiegon has hereto
fore been taxed by underwriters far above
the proper and reasonable rate. But, as
the rate of insurance is made up from a
knowledge of the actual pi o rata of loss
incident to a given harbor, when such
data is to be had, or guessed at from gen
eral impressions, in the absence of reliable
information, there seems no good reason
why, if the above facts are laid before the
various marine underwriters of the land,
the discrimination against the Columbia
river bar should not be lemoved, and our
insurance had at a fair rate, much less
than is now imposed.
Another impoitant point gained by
making Astoria the exporting harbor,
would be the employment of home capi
tal in the river tranportation, instead of
foreign, or outside, as is now done. The
question is now never raised about Sandy
JJook bar, attlie entrance of New York
harbor, being too shallow and rough for
the extensive and profitable employment
of all classes of vessels, yet there is five feet
more water on the Columbia river bar at
high tide, than there is on Sandy Hook at
a corresponding stage of water. But, to
conclude, it is evident that the class of
vessels required to cany the surplus pro
ducts of Oregon to a foreign market, at a
price consistent -with the cost of production,
must stop at the mouth of the Columbia
river. Therefore, it is a simple problem of
whether Oregon will build up and main
tain a seaport town worthy of a great
State, within her own borders, or whether
such a place will be sustained on Pugut
Sound, or California, at an annual cost of
one-fouith the agricultural wealth of the
The committco are under obligations to
l!Mr. YanDusen, Mr. Hare, Collector of
vubujuis, umi mu x nuts, iui. wiuuium in
formation. Respectfully submitted,
J. H. D.Gray, A. S. Merceh, AY. "W-.
Astoria, May 31,1S73.
New Stock of Goods!
OE THE BEST STYLES,
AND THE VERY BEST QUALITY,
AT REASONABLE PRICES.
EVERYTHING ELSE IN
' - PROPORTION.
At The Old stand of
TAKE NOTICE. This is an oxtensivo stock
of well selected goods, in groat variety, which
I am now opening. Old Patrons, Priends and
tho community in genoral, are invited to call
and inspect both Goods and Prices.
Chenamus street, Astoria,
COLUMBIA RIVER PILOTS! &
P. JOHNSON, M. M. GILMAN,
H. A. SNOW, G.REED,
P. E. FERCHEN. C. S. WRIGHT, Agent.
BST Office Corner of Main and Chenamus
stroots, Astoria, Oregon.
Tho Fast Sailing
Sloop, IOHE, sa
R. CYRUS SHIVELY- ..Master.
Is how in readiness to Charter for
Pleasure Parties, Ereight or Passengers !
Headquarters at Gasp's Landing.
Having boon purchased by tho undersigned,
will heroaftor bo in readiness to carry freight
to any accessible point. Tho Hector has good
accommodations, for keeping freight dry and
can cany 20,000 ot of lumoor. Tor particu
lars. innmro of P. JOHNSON, Astoria.
Tho fast sailing Sloop
R M LOWE ..rr..; ....Master
Isnow is ro&dinoss to' Charter for Pleasure
Parties. Freight or Passongore! Heudrmarterj'
wuu.iaiu ituu cukcuu outvie, jVSWTia.
r "Of ,
Established in Astorift in 1849?
NEW GOODS. CHEAP GOODS.
A. VAN DUSElt,
"Wholosalo and Rotail Dealer in
Corner of Main and Chonamus streets,
5 NOW OFFERING FOR SALE ONE OF
tho larcost and most complete sissortments
of Uonoral Merchandise ever before brought
to tho country, and to buyers
For Cash will offer the Most Flattering Inducements
In the lino of
TT JLT ATtfT flAPfi
' I3(50TS AND SHOES
LADIES' DRESS GOODS,
A Complete Stoclc of Every Article,
TOO NUMEROUS TO MENTION.
ttGivo mo a call, and bo convinced that
my goods are of tho best quality, and as cheap
as can bo bought of any house in the State.
A. VAjN DUSjKA.
MRS. A. S. MERGER.
Teacher of Prof. E. A. Bobbins'
American Methoil for Piano Forte
Alse: Harmony and'i'horoughbaso!
its-Tho ONLY CONCISE SYSTEM which
will stand Artistic Criticism, and furnish tho
material ( upon which overy educated Teacher
can baso 'their own peculiarities of instruction,
it presents in a now light, based upon Natu
ral Laws, tho art of Execution, and Science of
Music ifceS'Rooms at Residonco, Astoria5!
Dr. Sk K1NSEY,
DRUGGIST AND APOTHECARY,
PHYSICIANS AND FAMILY PRESCRIP
tions filled from the PUREST DRUGS,
either at day or mghu A full stock of
WINES AND LIQUORS,
EOR MEDICAL USE,
TOILET ARTICLES, ...
OILS "BRUSHES, ETC.,
9 Ordors from tho Country solicited, and
carefully and promptly filled.
A. J. DONALDSON.
DONALDSON & REED,
Dealers in' all kinds of
FRESH AND CURED MEATS,
CANNED ERUITSj VEGETABLES.
PRESII BEEF, PORK, MUTTON, VEAL,
HAMS, BACON AND LAuD,
K" Constantly 'on hand.
J35T Special attention paid to supplying ships.
Holladay's wharf, Astoria.
H. B. PARKER,
Importer and Dealer in...::.
Wines, Liquors, Cigars
PROVISIONS, Etc., Etc.
K5T Holladay's "Wharf, Main street, Astoria.
J. W. GEARHART-;
Chenamus street, Astoria.
"Wholosalo and Retail Dealor'in ''
Hay, Grain .and Feed !
A GENERAL ASSORTMENT of Groceries,
FLOUR, BACON, HAMS, u v
SHOULDERS, LARD, liUTTER,
Motto "Small Profits on Cash Salbsi'" Con
signments solicited. tf
Oregon Bakery. V-
Main St., (Holladay's AVharf,) Astoria, Oregon.
CHARLES BINDER, Proprietor.
11ESH BEEAD, CAKES, PIES, CRACK-
ors and rilot ureact, always on nann-p
Is kept in connection with fho Bakory, trhoro
meals can bopi.ooureu ataiinoHrs.
iter Oysters in overy stylo in tho season.TKi
Corner of Main ani Cass streets, Astoria.
HENRY JACOBS...:: Proprietor.
READ, CRACKERS, PIJiOT BREAD,
Cakes.Grocof ios and Provisions of all kinds
always on hand, chip stores furnished.
tj, Connected with tho establishment is-'a
Reading Room. Cigars and Lager Boor served.
PETER II. EOX,
Corner 'of Main and Joflcrson stroota, Astoria.
JIL'eiHIXGr OF, ALL KINDS, CUT, AND
V made tVttder.' Cleaain an4 ropfdrSfifr
Headquarters ! Headquarters !
f. W. CASE, .
Wholesalo and Retail Dealor in
Of Goods, Clothing, Groceries, Provisions, Notions, '
And General Merchandise,
IBHES TO ANNOUNCE TO TIIE PUH
lic that he has a verv sunerior an.! well
selected Stock of Goods in tho above line, be
sides which may be found in groat variety, tho
best quality of
HATS AND CAPS,
ROOTS AND SHOES,
Which is being offered :
Cheap FOR CASH or PRODUCE !
C Having had years of experienco I think
I know the wants of tho people, and as thi-
stock is nearer complete, and embraces a
WREATER ArARlETY than any other stock
in Clatsop county, 1 will guarantee that you
will do as well, if not better, by trading with
ma than at any other establishment.
&5" Having reduced my exponses materially
of lato L propose to givo my customers tho
benefit of tho reduction, and any person who
doubts whether 1 will sell as cheap as any ono
FOR CASH! can be convinced by giving mo a
call at Headquarters, " Case's Corner," Chona
mus street, Astoria. I. C.
8. N. ARR1CQNI,
Occident Hotel JBloc7c, Astoria,
"Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
Choice Brand Liquors
The Einest in the Market
CONSTANTLY ON JIAND!
Which will bo sold in lots to suit purchasers
S. N. ARRIGONI Proprietor.
THE BEST FURNISHED, MOST CONVE
nient and in every respectpopular hotel in
Oregon. Owing to its location it is considered
A Very DeHglitful Slimmer Ifcesort.
J3SMagnificent Suits of Rooms for families.
Tho table is supplied with tho choicest dolica
cios of tho season. Wine and Billiard Room
attached to tho Hotel.
Hot, Cold, and Shower Baths !
AT OCCIDENT HOTEL,
HAIR DRESSING SALOON.
C5T Special attention paid to LADDIES'
CHILDREN'S HAIR CUTTING
tf-?f Privato Entrance for Ladies "TJW
Main Street - - Astoria, Oregon
This House has been rofittod and newly fur
nished in tho neatest manner, and guests will
iindall their comfoits well attondodto. Tho
Table always supplied with tho best of tho
season that tho market affords.
Kafir Thoso who desiro to have a good srpuaro
meal go to the Globe. Terms moderate.
Chenamus street, Astoria, Oregon.
BcS, Manufactures to order tho best quality
of Roots und Shoes Repairing of all kinds "H-u
A J MEGLEil, Chenamus street
AVING ALL THE MACHINERY NEC-
ossary for first clats work, skillful brewers
and using none but the best quality of muteii
als, tho Proprietor is prepared to
Manufacture LAGER BEER ! ' -In
any quantity, from a Singlo, Bottle to a
BARREL. AND PUT IT, UP in good con
dition for Shipment or Immediate use. Fami
lies and keepers of Public Houses promptly
and regularly supplied. M. MEYER, r lop r
Ciienamus Street ."..... Astoima'.
LtOBSON d AVAE&E'N, . fc l
"Wholesalo and Retail Dealors in all kinds f
Fresh and Cured Meats!
Butter, Eggs, Chcepc,
Ilarvs, Bacon and LcnZ!
Canned Fndts and Vegetables,
Constantly on hand.
tsfW Ships supplied at lowest rate-. ,
II. A. SHAW fc SON,
House, Sign and Steamboat-Painters
Astouia, Oregon. . ,
GraimngjPaper-hunging and Glazing
Done to rdcr-with-Ncatnes- and Dispatch.
Hemlock TANHERY !
.12 . J WJHBtVJRt. i
Ufiftctur 3 Hr tflktt&