Newspaper Page Text
pP"' i i i i i ' ' ' mutmm
. SATURDAY August 9, 1873
Published by Authority.
XSbport on the Harbor and Shipxring
of the xort o' Astoria Facta Im
portant to the Public.
At a meeting of the Astoria Cham
ber of Commerce, held in May last,
a committee was appointed to pre
pare statistics of the harbor and ship
ping oi the port of Ar.toria, for use at
tiie Farmer's Convention. Following
iB the report in full.
Tour committee to vho;n was referred
t&G matter of harbor, and shipping intelli
gence, beg leave to oiler the follewing:
The water front of A-toria, varying
from a quarter of a mile to a mile in width
adbrcU over six mile- of secure anchorage
for the larscBt cla-.-ed vessel in from six to
twelve fatfiomb of water. No .-tonus have
vet visited the harbor that effected any
damage to shipping riding at anchor in
uie bay, or lying ar inc. wnari.
Should the demands of commerce re
quire, about five consecutive milo of dock
age may he cheaply constructed from the
river bank to the edge of the channel,
piling being necessary but a sdiort dis
tance at any given point.
The central portion of the harbor is ju.-t
twelve miles inside the Columbia river
bar, on which there is twenty-four feet of
water at extreme low tide, and thirty-four
at ordinary hiirh tide. After crossing the
bar, the depth holds still greater all the
way to Astoria, so that any vessel able to
cro.-s can safely venture to our docks.
About six mile.- above Astoria, at the com
mencement of Cathlument bay is the
hog's " back, a bar some quarter of a mile
in length, with ten feet of water at low and
eighteen feet at high tide. This is the
lnor-t dangerous point on the river, and the
TOost skillful idiots never attempt its pas
sage in the night, either with sail or steam.
It is formed or shifting sand.-, deposited by
the meeting of the tide with the annual
freshets of the river, as Cathlamet bay is
ten mile.- long up and down the river, and
from seven to fourteen in width. Thus
the waters of the river are so spread out
that they lo.-e their force, and the incoming
tide washes the loose sand into irregular
bars that change their po-ition ironi yeai
to year, and make dredging useless.
Steamers are nearly alway- detained at
Astoria, for tide to cros thi bar, and
should one arrive here, say at 12 m. when
Inch water occurred at 10 o'clock A. m.
.she would have to wait until 11 a. m. the
next day, as she could not proceed on the
high tide of the night. ThU bar has been
known for years, but as the draft of steam
ers and ves.-els now coming into the river
is greater than formerly, the difficulties
-aro becoming more and more apparent.
There is the following named depths of
water at the points mentioned at high
"Walker's Island, in ft-for y, mile below Rainier
Carr'sWoodyard 4 " " above
Kahuna " " K "
St Helen 17ftfbr "
Mouth Wallamet41 Cl "
Post Office. 18 "
Swan Island... 17 "
The channel is often crooked, and difii
ctflt of navigation, and the bar at the
mouth' of the Willamette river is subject
to annual deposts of sediment from back
water oi the Columbia.
AVe find that the carrying trade of
Oregon is now chiefly done by vessels of
light draft and small capacity.
That the-e are subject to a tax of S per
ftxt draft as pilotage; fiom four to ten
days' delay, and 300 to .$-100 towage,
oyer and above what they would have to
pay, did they receive and take in cargo at
Astoria. A fair average would be, say
-six hundred tons capacity. Expenses would
then be as follews:
Pilotage 10 feet $ SI up $ Gl
Hi " " down (54
Six days demurrage uo 8(()
Tiownge up 17")
. Equivalent to over four cents per bushel
on the cargo of 000 tons outward bound.
This is but a fraction of the expense to the
.State growing out of present arrangement
; of the arrivals and depatures by sea.
t By careful inspection of the shipping
registers, we find the average draft of all
vessels now in use, ranging oetween 1,000
and 1,200 tons, to be 20K feet, and the
average of all larger ones but 21 feet.
"While a thousand ton ship is lull larger
than can reach Portland,or any point above
Astoria, loaded, on account of depth of
water, a vessel of 3,000 tons can always
come to Astoria, whatever the stage of
water. Thus, with a point higher up on
the river, the export trad must forever be
carried on in small vessels, while 'from
liere the shipping of the world may com
pete for freights. y
A ship of 3,000 tons can cany wheat
from Astora to Liverpool for twenty cents
.bushel less than a 1,000 ton vessel can
do from Portland, as the following figures
Aship of ".,008 tons is worth $120,000
. Interest, at 1U ". eent. lor four months
(average passage) ,
Jnsuranee at 12 eent
Depreciation at 10 & cent.
Oejitain, three mates, steward, and cook
Twenty-four seamen 25 Q month.....
'Stores for voyage, :0 men at 30c ti day,
POUT CH.UtGKS IX ASTORU.
Pilotage and towage, 2-J feet S8 & 10..... 20iJ
Stovedors' bill, o,oW tons fe 40c . 100
. Iunnage....' 200
"3tat stores, etc 200
rf. , LIVKKl'OOL .'nA.HGKS.
Pttotogo and towago, 2:3 feet C$S10 2-T0
Svedore'ri bill, .',000 tons & 25c........... 750
Jloxbor fees, tonnago dues and dockago S00
.S&etores .'..A. '.
, ' SQtel expense -....,...'. ,m
fVVTD? ' " "
tons g $15 '.. . S4.1.000
3 douucteo.....r.;... t ' .
jWuftt;..:.:....v. ...- s ..'.!
A. shin of 1,000 tons is worth S (50,000
Interest at 10 -0 conL, andlnsuranco (&
12 Y cent, four mouths -
Depreciation at 10 V cent
"Wages V month, for Cajtain SloO, two
mates Sl.-",ste ward SoU.und 12 seamen
at $.!" each
Stores for 15 men at 5cc '0 day -
POUT CHAKOKS. IN ASTORr.V.
Pilotage and totvago, 19 feet $S (jj 10 ...
Port stores and dunnage
Stevedore's hill, 1,000 tons Qc oUc
Pilotage and towage, 1 fuot S10
Stevedore's bill ('2oc, harbor dues, ton
nage dues and dockage
Port stores t
Total expenses $ 11,751
Ue.ntra: . - -
By 1,000 tons atSlo Slo.OOO
Expenses deducted Il,7o0
Lalanco S 3,24
Or, a dividend of 10 per cent, on cost of
the larger ship as against 5 per cent, on
that of the smaller. Or, to reduce both to
5 per cent, the 3,000 ton ship will carry
wheat to Liverpool for over a third less
than the 1,000 ton vessel; that is, 20 cents
against 4o cents per bushel. Add to this
the cost a1- above figured, incidental to
delays and river expenses of -4 cents per
bushel, and it gives a net gam ot 20 cents
per bushel in favor of Astoria as an ex
porting harbor, and the employment ef
such vessels as can safely cross the bar,
over the present arrangement of Portland
and small vessels, twenty cents per
bushel on the estimated crop of the State
for IS?:), viz: 5,000,000 bushels, give the
snug little sum of $1,000,000 that the farm
er should have for his labor. The above
figures are all substantially correct, and
tell their own story.
It may be said that several largo vessels
have loaded at Portland, but the Custom
House recoids show that of the twenty
vessels named below, comprising all the
vessels of any size that have sailed from
the river with wheat, from a fourth to
over one-half of the cargo was brought
down to Astoria in steaniboats and here
put on board. And yet these recoids arc
more favoiablc to the city of Portland
than the facts justify, for the reason that
in a number of instances, two or three
hundred tons was cleared from the Port
land Cu-tom House as being on board
when in fact it was in lighters and steam
ers alongside of the ship, and towed down
to Astoria before being placed on the ves
sel. List of vessels exporting wheat from
Oregon, showing amount ot bushels taken
on at Astoria and Pertland: .
Uaor ok 1.S72.
o i o 5
J uly 11.. Annie M. Smull 7,071142, HJ2
Oct. 11.. Manilla l.,22!i 1 1,521
11.. Navigator 7,:J 20f22
" 14.. Klcutni 7,7;il 22,177
J 11.. Lock Dee-. :J,70i:5,:m
Xov. 7.. Siam 7,173 2o,'57
" II.. Forward, (bbls of flour), l,7i8 :J,200
" 21.. lied Deer 10,177 2,.01
" :W.. Grasmere 20,0o2 2o,57.")
Dec. 11.. Zouave 'M,M7 22,100
" 17.. Naworth 2,303 17,170
" IS.. Channel Light 8,105 21,733
Jan. 10.. Victoria Xyanza. 0,023 14,800
Peb. L. Whitiinston. 11,880 Jl,ij31
" 8.. Kelix Mendelsohn-. 11,37-i :W,iK):)
" 17.. Sarah Scott 1,230 .0,000
" 20.. Koswoll Spraguo 8,:ll2 33,ri80
March t lllione 11,0113 :50,039
" 10 Carribou 7,703 :J2,08:J
" H Victoria Cross :?,82fc 21,-42
Again, deep sea vessels never like to
leave the salt water. Coasters are willing
to steamboat it, but large vessels avoid
steamboat grounds. In l'act, the under
writers, do not allow deep sea vessels to
venture from their natural element at
The striking of a vessel on any ot the
bars of the river, even if no immediate
damage is discovered, is sufficient cause to
render null and void the policy of insur
ance, should she take in cargo and pro
ceed to sea without being put on the dry
dock and having her bottom examined.
Should a ship be lost under such circum
stances, not a dollar of insurance could be
collected on the vessel, and if the owners
were responsible, the underwriters upon
the cargo would hold them for the value
thereof. Uence larjre vessels will never
be induced to undertake the navigation of
the bars of the Columbia above Astoria.
!Xov as to the safetv of the Columbia
river. Exact data is wanting of the whole
number of vessels that have crossed the
bar, but from certain periods during which
the data is complete, we are enabled to
approximate very closely, and set the
number down at an average of five hun
dred a year for the last twenty-one years,
or since 1S52. The following is a com
plete list of all the losses qt wrecks that
have occurred on the bar since 1852, which
year may be considered the beginning of
wisdo.-n as regards the channels, currents,
&c, on or about the bar.
Barks !Mendora, and Mcrrithew, lost
January 12th, 1833, came in without
pilots, wind failed after getting in, and
they drifted ashore.
Bark Oriole, lost September 19th, 1S53.
Brig Detroit, lost Dec. 22, 1S55, on outer
spit. Going out at night.
Bark Dodemona, lost Dec. 31st, 1S56.
Came in without a pilot, ran on sands six
four miles inside.
Bark Industiy,lost March 16, 18G5, com
inc in without a pilot.
Bark TV B. Scran ton, lost fav 5th,
Only eight vessels in twenty-one years.
Eight out of 10,500. One out of 1,312, or
one-thirteenth of one per cent, of the ship
ping coming into the river.
Of this number, four were coming in
without pilots. It futher appears that near
ly every loss auring tnc time unaer revenv,
was the result, not of a rough bar, but of
thewind failing after the vessel had crossed
thus leaving her to drift on the sands. It
also seoms that each loss of vessels coming
in occurred when they were sailing against
the tide, instead of with it.
There being no tug to go to their relief,
Vessels marked thug () aro known to have
lightered jntro tk&& the 'amount credited
&iere.v . - l
of course there could be no rescue. It is
i viti tr wiv fhot lmrl flinrfi bpp.n n. tno- nt
nand, every vessel thus far lost on the bar
might have heed saved. Since the placing
of the tug Astoria upon the bar, or pilot
srrounds m 1SU9. there has been no loss, and
o . . ....
with prwper care on the part ottug and
pilots, there need be none for many years
to come. These facts warrant us in mak
ing the bold assertion, that there is no barr
ed harbor known to commerce, where the
percentage of loss i& so small ; and few, if
any, open harbors that can show so iair a
record. The currents and prevailing
winds are such, and the land marks so
well defined, that at a time when it is un
safe to cross the bar, vessels outside can
readily keep off, and wait a suitable time
to enter. And there is good holding
grounds but a few hundred rods inside lor
vessels bound out to anchor, and select
from the spot their own time to pas out.
Less trouble is experienced from fbs at
the Columbia, than either to the north or
south, as they are net frequent, and are
much less dense, owing, no doubt, to the
presence of serial currents, resulting from
ncculiar physical conformations. The
channel is dhfcinctly bouyed out, and
lighted by a first class light-house on Cape
Disappointment, where is established a
life saving station by Government, with
all the necessary facilities for rendering
aid in case of accident oh' the bar. Gov
ernment lias also made an appropriation
for a lighthouse at Point Atlams, and
preparations are going forward for com
mencing the work at once.
The commerce of Oregon has hereto
fore been taxed by underwriters far above
the proper and reasonable rate. But, as
the rate of insurance is made up from a
knowledge of the actual pro rata of loss
incident to a given Oiarbor, when such
data is to be had, or guessed at from gen
eral impressions, in the absence of reliable
information, there seems no good reason
why, if the above i'acts are laid before the
various marine underwriters of the land,
the discrimination against the Columbia
river bar should not be removed, and our
insurance had at a fair rate, much less
than is now imposed.
Another impoitant point gained hy
making Astoria the exporting harbor,
would be the employment of home capi
tal in the river tranportation, instead of
foreign, or outside, as is now done. The
question is now never raised about Sandy
Hook bar, at the entrance of 2s ew York
harbor, being too shallow and rough lor
the extensive and profitable employment
of all classes of vessels, yettlyu'c is five feet
more water on the Columbia river bar at
high tide, than there is on Sandy "Hook at
a corresponding stage of water. But, to
conclude, it is evident that the class of
vessels required to carry the surplus pro
ducts of Oregon to a foreign market, at a
price consistent with the cost of production,
must stop at the mouth of the Columbia
river. Therefore, it is a simple problem of
whether Oregon will build up and main
tain a seaport town worthy of a great
State, within her own borders, or whether
such a place will be sustained on Pugut
Sound, or California, at an annual cost of
one-fourth the agricultural wealth of the
The committee are under obligations to
!Mr. VanDusen, jIr. Hare, Collector of
Customs, and the Pilots, for valuable in
formation, llespectfully submitted,
J. H. J). Gray, A. S. Mekcer, AV."V.
Astoria, !May 31, 1S73.
New Stock of Goods!
OP THE BEST STYLES,
AND THE VERY BEST QUALITY,
AT REASONABLE PRICES.
EVERYTHING ELSE IN
At The OSd stand of
TAKE NOTICE This is an oxtensivo stock
of woll selected goods, in great variety, which
I am now opening. Old Patrons, Friends and
tho community in gonoral, are invited to call
and inspect hoth Goods and Prices.'
Chenamus street, Astoria,
COLUMBIA RIVER PILOTS!
H. A. SNOW,
P. E. FERCHEN.
M. M. GILMAN,
C.S. WRIGHT, Agent.
KC5 Office Cornor of Main and Chenamus
stroots, Astoria, Oregon.
Having boon purchased by tho undersigned,
will horcafter bo in readiness to carry freight
to any accessible point. Tho Hector has good
accommodations for keening freight dry and
can cany 20,000 feet of lumber. For particu
lars. iniuiro of P. .J OllNSON,
Tho fa3t sailing Sloop &
W. H. TWILIGHT,
II M LOWE Master
Is now in roadiness to Charter for Pleas to
Parties, Freight or Passengers. Headquarter
Corner Main and Jefferson streets, Astoria.
ANTED-A SCHOOL TEACHER FOR
twu children, at tho house of tho Princi
pal Light keeper at Capo Msappointinont.
Address. . J. W. MUNSON,
JWi2tb,1873.- - '-. CapCJ:
Established in. Astoria jut "189.'
XEW GOODS. CHEAP GOODS.
A. VAN DUSE'JT,
"N'holesalo and lletail Dealer in
GE NEPvAL MERCHANDISE,
Corner of Main and Chenamus striets,
TS NOW OFFERING FOR SALE ONE OF
JL tho largest and most complete assortments
of General Merchandise over before brought
to tho country, and to buyers
For Cash will offer the Most Flattering Inducements
In tho lino of
HATS, AND 'CAPS,
BOOTS AND SHOES
LADIES' DRESS GOODS,
A Complete Stock of Every Article,
too numerous to mention.
fiSTGivo mo a call, and bo convinced that
my goods are of tho best quality, and as cheap
as can bo bought of any houso in tho State.
A. VAN UUSEX.
MRS. A. S. jMERCER,
Teacher of Prof. E. A. Rorbins'
American ItMfor Piano Farte
Alse: Harmony and Thorough baso!
ft-iTTho ONLY CONCISE SYSTEM which
will stand Artistic Criticism, and furnish the
matorial upon which every educated Teacher
can base their own peculiarities of instruction,
it presents in a now light, based upon .Natu
ral Laws, the art of Execution, and Scicnco of
Music xfcd 'Rooms at Residence, Astoria""!
Dr. S. KISISEY,
DRUGGIST AND APOTHECARY,
PHYSICIANS AND FAMILY PRE8CRTP
tions filled from tho PUREST DRUGS,
either at day or night. A full stock of
"WINES AND LIQUORS,
EOR MEDICAL USE,
OILS RRUSHES, ETC.,
rfc5? Orders from tho Country solicited, and
carefully and promptly idled.
A. J. DONALDSON.
Donaldson & Reed,
Dealers in all kinds of
ERESH AND CURED MEATS,
CANNED FRUITS, VEGETABLES.
FRESH BEEF, PORK, MUTTON, VEAL,
HAMS, BACON AND LAfvD,
MESS BEEF AND PORK,
H3F Constantly on hand.
tfsr Special attention paid to supplying ships.
Hollnday's wharf, Astoria.
H. B. PARKER,
Importer and Dealer in
Wines, Liquors, Cigars
PROVISIONS, Etc., Etc.
RST ITolladay's "Wharf, Main stroet, Astoria.
John W. G-earhart,
Chenamus street, Astoria.
"Wholcsalo and ltotail Dealor in
Hay, Grain and Feed !
A GENERAL ASSORTMENT of Groceries,
FLOUR, BACON, HAMS,
SHOULDERS. LARD, BUTTER,
CHEESE, EGGS, Etc.
Motto" Small Profits on Cash Sales." Con
signments solicited. tf
Main St., (Holladay's Wharf,) Astoria, Oregon.
CHARLES HINDER, Proprietor.
FRESH BREAD, CAKES, PIES, CRACK
ers and Pilot Bread, always on hand.
Is kept in connection with tho BaJiory, wliere
meals can be procured at all uoHrs.
iter Oysters in every stylo in tho soason.'tvti
Corner of Main anl Cass streets, Astoria.
HENRY JACOBS Proprietor
READ, CRACKERS, PILOT BREAD.
Cakos.Grocenes ana itovimohs 01 an Kinus
always on hand. Ship storos furnished.
T&. Connected with the establishment is a
Reading Room. Cigars and Lagor Beer served.
PETER H, FOX,
Corner of Main and Jefferson isireots, Astoria.
rtLQTHIXG OF ALL KINDS CUT' AND
W mado to.trier. ClMMbgjTjViJ. 2
Headquarters ! Headquarters !
"VVholcsalo and RotailJDealer in
Dry Goods, Clothingntaerie. Provisions, Notions,
And General 3ttERCHANDiSE,
WISHES TO ANNOUNCE TO THE PUR
lie that he has a very superior and well
selected Stock of Goods In 'the above line, be
sides which may bo found in great variety, tho
best quality of -
HATS AND CAPS,
HOOTS AND SHOE&
BLANKETS, FLANNELS, xfcc,
... "Which is being offered
Cheap FOR CASH or PRODUCE !
rtST Having had years of experience I think
I know tho wants of the people, and as this
stock is nearer complete, and embraces a
GREATER VARIETY than any other stock
in Clatsop xrounty, I will guarantee that you
will do as well, if not better, by trading with
mo than at any other establishment.
"?THaving reduced my oxpenses materially
of lato 1 propose to givo my customers the
benefit of tho reduction, and twiy person who
doubts whether I will sell as cheap as any one
FOR CASH! can bo convinced by giving mo a
call at Headquarters, "Case's Corner," Chena
mus street, Astoria. I. V. C.
Sn N. ARR1GON1,
'Occident Hotel Block, Astoria
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
Ckoice Brand Liquors
The Einest in the jtfarket
CONSTANTLY ON HAND!
Whieh will he sold in lots to suit purchasers
S. N. ARRIGONI. .. Propkietor.
THE BEST FURNISHED, MOST CONVE
nient and in every respect popular hotel in
Oregon. Owing to its location it is considered
A Very DeHghtful Summer Resort.
flSTMagnificont Suits of Rooms for families.
Tho table is supplied with tho choicest delica
cies of tho season. Wino and Billiard Room
attached to tho Hotel.
Hot, Gold, and Shower Batlis !
AT OCCIDENT HOTEL,
HAIR DRESSING SALOON.
"WAT. Uiilexii akt PitorniETOHv
3T Special attention paid to LADIES'
CHILD KEN'S HAIR CUTTING
w" Private Entrance for Ladies "XtU
Main Street - - Astoria, Oregon.
This House has boon refitted and nowly fur
nished in tho neatest manner, uml guests will
lind all thoir comfoits woll attended to. Tho
Tablo always supplied with the beat of tho
sejison that tho markot affords.
wr Those who desire to have a good square
meal go to the (J lobe. Terms moderato.
Chenamus street, Astoria, Oi'cgon.
K& Manufactures to order tho best quality
of Boots and Shoes Repairing of all kinds "a
A J MEGLER, Chenamus street
ITAVINCr ALL THE MACHINERY NEC
i. essary for lirstclass work,skilltul Brewers
amd using none but tho best quality of materi
als, tho Proprietor is prepared to
Manufacture IiAGER BEER !
Ih any quantity, from a Singlo Bottlo to a
BARUEL, AND PUT IT UP in good con
dition for Shipment or Immediate use. Fami
lies and keepers -of Public Houses promptly
and regularly supplied. M MEYER, Pi op'r
Chenamus Street Astoria.
IIOBRON fc WARREN,
Wholesale und Retail Dealers in all kinds of
Fresh and Cured Meats!
Butter, Eggs, Cheese,
Hams, Bacon and Lard!
Canned Fruits and Vegetables,
Constantly on hand.
s&r Ships supplied at lowest rates:
Hi A; SHAW & SON,
House, Sign and Steamboat Painters
Astoria Oregon. "
GrainingjPaper-liangiiig and Glazing
Done to -rder with Neatn'es? andDispatch.
Hemlock TAHNERY !
Baths! ifciSSir Baths
i.l -. -rm- -