Newspaper Page Text
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I. C. IK2Sr.AXI..;. !::. Editor.
SATURDAY Oct. 18, 1873
Astoriit Harbor aiatl Columbia Bar.
Soineilsin for tlte Excursionists
to Keail a:xI Jtoincnsber.
Oregon is now chiefly done by vessels of
light draft and binall capacity.
Thatthee-are subject to a tax of 8 per
foot draft as pilotage; from four to ten
day' delay, and 300 to 400 towage,
over and above what they would have to
pay, did they receive and take in cargo at
Astoria. A fair average would be, say
six hundred ton capacity. Expenses would
Pilotage 1 feet & 51 up S G4
" 15 " " down to
Six days demurrage s $00 3(50
Towage up 17 j
" down l-o
Next week it is expected there will be a
large number of excursionists lo this place
from the "Wallamet valley, most of whom
come in quest of information concerning
Astoria as the starting point for the export
grain tiade of Oregon. In one sense of
the word, perhaps these excursionists may
be set down as pleasure-seekers, but as a
whole they may be classed " thebone and
.-.mew" of the land, looking out for means
of self protection, for the least expensive
and most direct method of marketing their
productions, when there is a demand for
them, as in Europe at this time. "We are of
those who believe that Oregon is rich in
all that goea to make up a iirst class State,
and that all that i required, to usher in a
degree of extreme pro-perity,is the placing
of the producing cla?se- in a position to
realize full returns for their labor. The
harvest of. 1873 will yield close upon, (if
not more than) live million bushels of
wheat of the very choicest grade, besides
oats, barley, etc. And yet the State is not
developed to a tenth part of its wheat
raising capacity. There are wheat lands
bordering, and" tributary to.the Columbia
river, in Oregon and "Wa-hington, suffi
cient to produce, annually, seventy-five
million- bu-hels! or enough to load eidit
ships of a thou-and tons each working day
of the year. There are no risks of pro
duction in Oregon, it is bimpty a question
of a fair return lor labor, in the way of
price for grain. Vc believe there has
never been a season, with perhaps one ex
ception, that the prices realized by the
farmer of .California would not have
been such a to make wheat raising in
The question then is to so order our
conditions that wheat shall be worth as
much at tide water in Oregon, as it is in
California, and we then have sufficient
stimulus to induce the opening up of all
available wheat land in the State, and the
consequent populating of the State in a cor
responding ratio. The question is now
shall tliis be done? Vre maintain that it
i.- a simple problem. Ve start out with
the statement that a cargo of wheat, saT
jlfty thousand bushel, at Astoria, is worth
a much afloat, a, the same quantity of
wheat is woith in San Francisco, afloat,
iorexpoittoany market south of the equa
tor, or on tlyj western shore of the Pacific
ocean. The f.rst thing required is the
placing of the Oregon crops at Astoria,
where the largest class of vessels can al
ways come, and the giving of that infor
mation to the ship owners of the world.
15 ut we must break up the present ar
rangement of dragging vessels over the
mini to Poitland, and avoid the delays
incident thereto. It is shallow nonsense to
presume that anv other course than that of i
t mpioymg a ep ve ei, ana loaaing mem
at Astoria, will bring the desired result.
Thai it can be done has been shown time
and time again, but no where more plainly
in the same space than in a recent report
or' the Astoria Chamber of Commerce.
This report say&:
The .water, front of Astoria, varying
from a quai ter of a mile to a mile in width
aribrds over six mile- of secure anchorage J
lor the largest classed vessels, in from six to
twelve fathoms of water. No storms have
yet vi-ited the harbor that effected any
damage to shipping riding at anchor in
the bay, or lying at the wharf.
Should the demands of commerce .re
ouire, about five? consecutive miles of dock
age may be cheaply constiucted from the
liver bank to the edge of the channel,
I iiing being necessary but a short dis
tance at any given point.
The central portion of the harbor is just
twelve miles inside the Columbia river
Lir, on which there i twenty-four feet of
a- aier at extreme low tide, and thirty-four
p1" ordinary high tide". After crossing the
lir, the depth hoid- still greater all the
way to Astoria, so that any vessel able to
c-os can safely venture to our docks.
About six miles above A-toria, at the com
mencement of Cathlament bay is the
' uog's-back,' a bar some quarter of a mile j
'" i.i length, with ten feet of water at low and I
seventeen feet at high tide. This is the I
mo-t dangerou- point on the river, and the j
inot skillful pilots rarely attempt its pas-
sage in the .night, either with sail or steam.
l,is formed of shifting sand-, deposited by
the meeting of the tide with the annual
freshets of the river, as Cathlamet bay is
t-n miles -long up and down the river, and
from seven to fourteen in width. Thus
the waters of the river are so spread out
that they lo-e their force, and the incoming
tide washes the loose sand into irregular
"lxir that change their position from year
, -t year, and make dredging useless,
steamers are nearly always detained at
.Astoria, for tide to cross this. by.
- r This barnas been
known for years, but as the draft of steam
(va and vessels now coming into the river
' i- greater than formerly, the difficulties
are becoming more and more apparent;
Above this we have the following named
depths of water at the points mentioned
at high tide: l
Valker's Island, IS ft-for mile below Kainior
Oarr's Woody ard 17 above
kahuna IS J1 A
Ft Helen loftforK .
: ioiit.li Wallamet" " "
- 1 ost Office 15 "
Swan Island... lo
The channel is often crooked, and diffi
cult of navigation, .and tjie bar at the
mouth of the Willamette river is subject
to annual depo-ts of sediment from back
water of the Columbia.
We find that the carrying trade of
Equivalent to over four cents per biv-hel
on the cargo of GOO tons outward bound.
This is but a fraction of the expense to the
State growing out of present' arrangement
of the arrivals and depatures by sea.
15y careful inspection of the shipping
registers, we find the average drait of all
vessels now in use; ranging oetween 1,000
and 1,200 tons, to he '2QlA feet, and the
average of all larger ones but 2VA feet.
While a thousand ton ship is full larger
than can reach Portland,or any point above
Astoria, loaded, on account of depth of
water, a vessel of 3,000 tons can always
come to Astoria, whatever the stage of
water. Thus, with a point higher up on
the river, the export trado must forever be
carried on in small vessels, while from
here the shipping of the world may com
pete for freights.
A ship of 3,000 tons cau carry wheat
from Asfora to Liverpool for twenty cents
a bushel less than a 1,000 ton vessel can
do from Portland, as' the following figures
' A shin of :5,00 tons i worth $120,000
Interest, Jit 10 cent, for four months
(avcrago passage : 4,000
Insurance at 12 V cent 4,800
Depreciation at 10 t1 cent 4,000
Captain, three mates, steward, and cook
SloO. 7o, s'A 0, $-10, S40 fi moil t h ... 1 ,fiO
Twenty-four seamen L' '2o "rl month -,40,)
Stores for voyage, .)0 men at JU'c V day, 1,S00
l'OKT CHVIUIKS IN ASTOK'A.
Pilotage and towage, 2-5 feet SS & 10 20'i
Stevedores' bill, 3,u u tons & 10c 1,200
Port stores, etc -. 200
LlVKKl'OOL Ml VKGI.S.
Pilotage and towage, 2 feet f 10 2-.0
udore's bill, a.OlW tons $ 2oc 7."
Harbor fees, tonnage dues and dockage
Py 3,000 tons (i -ir ?4000
Exijchso' deducted 22,400
balance S 22,10
A ship of 1,0!0 tons is worth S 00,000
Interest at H V cent, and Insurance Qf
12 V cent., four month" -M'1"
Depreciation at 10 f cent
Wages month, for Captain s-loO, two
mates $l.T,stevard toO.and 12 seamen
at $21 each
Stores for lb men at )'c day
POUT CH VKUKS IN ASTOKIA.
Pilotage and towago, 10 feet 5S ( 10 ...
Port stores and dunnage
Stevedore's bill, 1,0W tons (& 50c
iavKnrooL ( iimioks.
Pilotage and towago, 10 feet $10 ......
Stovedoro's bill C4 2 c, harbor dues, ton
nage dues and dockage
By 1,000 tons at $lo.
Or, a dividend of 19 per cent, on cost of
the larger ship as against 5 per cent, on
that of the smaller. Or, to reduce both to
5 per cent., the 3,000 ton ship will carry
wheat to Liverpool for over a third less
than the 1,000 ton vessel; that is. 29 cents
against 45 cents per bushel. Add to this
the cost a1- above figured, incidental to
delays and river expenses of -4 cents per
bushel, and it gives a net gain of 20 cents
per bushel in favor of Astoria as an ex
porting harbor, and the employment of
such vessels a can safely cross the bar,
over the present arrangement of Portland
and small vessels. Twenty cents per
bushel on the estimated crop of the State
for 1873, viz: 5,000,000 bushels, gives the
snug little sum of 1,000,000 that the form
er should have for his labor. The above
iigures are all substantially correct, and
tell their own -story.
It mav be said that several large vessels
have loaded at Portland, but the Custom
House records show that of the twenty
i vessels named below, comprising all the
vessels oi any srze that have sailed irom.
the river with wheat, from a fourth to
over one-half of the cargo "was brought
down to Astoria in steamboats and here
put on board. "And yet these records are
more favorable to the city of Portland
than the facts justify, for the reason that
in a number of instances, two or three
hundred tons was cleared from the Port
land Custom House as being on board
when in fact it was in lighters and steam
ers alongside of the ship, and towed down
to Astoria before being placed on the ves
sel. List of vessels exporting wheat from
Oregon, showing amount of bushels taken
on at Astoria and Pertland:
of wheat, taking on but 600 at Portland,
and being detained some 20 days at this
port to receive the. remaining 1100 tons,
jtfow, compute the demurrage for twenty
days time, at 250 per day, a low price,
5,000. Add 2 50 per ton. (frieght per
O. S. iST-. Co., steamboats), 82,750, mak
ing 7,750, seven dollars per ton, or twenty-one
cents per bushel,as the cost of plac
ing the balance, of the ships cargo on board j
at Astoria, after having already consum
ed ample time in Portland. Farmers
look this thing square in the face, and see
where your money goes.
Something concerning the commercial
interest of Oregon is the rate of insurance
on vessels coming here, and as showing
that these high tariffs are unjust we quote
from the same report as follews:
iSow as to the safety of the Columbia
river. Exact data is wanting of the whole
number of vessels that have crossed the
bar, but from certain periods during which
the data is -complete, we are enabled to
approximate very closely, and set the
number down at an average of five hun-
areu a vear lor uk; kisu iwciiy-wn; . ,
or since 1852. The following is a com
plete list of all the losses or wrecks that
have occurred on the bar since 1852, which'
year may be considered the beginning of
wisdoiM as regauls the channels, currents,
&c, on or about the bar.
Barks Mendora, and lerrithew, lost
January 12th, 1853, came in without
pilot-, wind failed after getting in, and
they drifted ashore.
Bark Oiiole, lost September 19th, 1S53.
Brig Detroit, lost Dec. 22, 1855, on outer
spit. Going out at night.
Bark Desdemona, Tost Dec. 31st, 1S50.
Came in without a pilot, ran on sands six
Schooner "Woodpecker lost lEay 10, 1SG1,
four miles inside.
Bark Industry ,iost March 1G, I860, com
ing in without a pilot.
Bark "V. B. Scranton, lost May 5th,
Only eight vessels in twenty-one years.
Eight out of 10,500. One out of 1.312, or
one-thirteenth of one per cent, of the ship
ping coming into the river.
fw tliio m-im'ii.vjv f'nnv worn nnminn in
without pilots. It rather appeaMhat near
ly every loss during the time under reveiw,
was the result, not 01 a rougn oar, uuloi
the wind failing after the vessel had crossed
thus leaving her to drift on the sands. It
also seems that each loss of vessels coming
in occurred when they were sailing against
the tide, instead of with it.
There being no tug to go to their relief,
of course there could be no rescue. It is
safe to say that, had there been a tug at
hand, every vessel thus tar lost on the bar
might have been saved. Since the placing
of the tug Astoria upon the bar, or pilot
grounds in 1869, there has been no loss, and
with proper care on the pait of tug and
pilots, there need be none for many years
to come. Tke&e facts warrant us in mak
ing the bold abortion, that there is no barr
ed harbor known to'commerce, where the
percentage of loss is so small; and few, if
any, open harbors that can show so fair a
record. The currents and, prevailing
winds are such, and the land marks so
well defined, that at a time when it is un
safe to cross the bar, vessels outside can
readily keep off, and wait a suitable time
to enter. And there is good holding
rrronnds hut a few hundred rods inside for
vessels bound out to anchor, and select
from the spot their own time to pass out.
Less trouble is experienced from fogs at
the Columbia, than either to the north or
south, as they are not frequent, and are
much less dense, owing, no doubt, to the
presence of atrial currents, resiiltiug irom
peculiar physical conformations. The
channel is distinctly buoyed out, and
lighted by a first class light-house on Cape
Disappointment, where is established a
liVn.nvinrr station bv Government, with
a few of the needed iacilities for rendering
aid in case of accident on the bar. Gov
ernment has also made an appropriation
for a lighthouse at Point Adams, and
preparations are going forward for com
mencing the work at once.
The cominerce of Oregon has hereto
fore been taxed by underwriters far above
the proper and reasonable rate. But, as
the rate of insurance is made up from a
knowledge of the actual pro rata of loss
incident to a given harbor, when such
i data is to be had, or guessed at from gen
eral impressions, in the absence of reliable
information, there seems no good reason
why, if the above facts are laia Deiore ine
Crop ok 1672.
1S72 Ships. pi p
Annie M. Smull
Forward, (bbls of flour).
! Red Deer
Channel Light :
v'lrinny inn rin p, underwriters of the land,
the discrimination against the Columbia
river bar should not bo removed, and our
insurance had at a fair rate, much la-s
ilifm io rrvv imv0ed. "? '':'' TllC
question is now never raised about Sandy
Hook bar, at the entrance of iSTew York
harbor, being too shallow and rough for
the extensive and profitable employment
of all classes of vessels, yet there is five feet
more water on the Columbia river bar at
high tide, than there is on Sandy Hook at
a corresponding stage of water.
Mr. A. Xoltneiy of Oregon Lodge
Xo. 3, Grand Representative to the
National Grand Lodge, Independent
Order of Odd Fellows, in a letter to
his Oregon City Enterprise, dated at
Baltimore on the 21st of September,
The Grand Lodge of the United
States met here last Monday. It was
as fine a body of men as we have
ever assembled, and coming as they
did from every State in the Union,
were a fair representation of the Or
der, ana we nave no Hesitancy m
saying that they were an honor to
the Order. The Grand Sire being
absent, Deputy Grand Sire Durha'm,
of Kentucky, member elect to Con
gress, presided over the deliberations
of the body. The proceedings were
harmonious throughout, and much
legislation was had. There was no
change made in the work, and the
new books were adopted to go into
effect on the 1st of next January.
"Washington and Idaho Territories,
who are under the jurisdiction of
the brand .Lodge ot uregon, were
granted charters for Territorial
Grand Lodges. This was deemed
best by us, as the rulings of the
Grand Lodge are that these two
Territories " must make their re
turns of the Grand Lodge of the
United States, and that they are not
entitled to representation" in the
Grand Lodge of Oregon." Finding
thnf. this was thn oirinion of the lead
ing members of the order, including
all the Past Grand Sires and the
Grand Secretary, we concluded that
if we could get a charter for them
they could set up house keeping on
their own hook. In this we were
successful. British Columbia was
also granted a charter for a Grand
Lodge. The Degree of Rebecca was
so amended that the wife's standing
in the Lodge is not dependent 'on the
husband. During the session Grand
Secretary Ridglepr was presented
with a solid silver brick and a most
beautiful silver mounted cane; the
former by "White of Nevada, and the
latter by the representative from
Tennessee. Appropriate presenta
tion speeches were made by Repre
sentative Herman and the Repre
sentative from Tennessee, and repli
ed to bv the recipient. The Lodge
adjourned yesterday afternoon, and
most of the members have left for
Thirty-three Grand Lodges and
seventeen Grand Encampments were
The annual report of Grand Secre
tary, makes a pamphlet of 144 .pages,
andgivds an interesting history of
the order for the past year.
The annual revenue of the Grand
Lodge is a total of $50,S92 00, excess
of 1373 over 1872 $9,059 72.
The Grand Secretary compares the
numerical and financial status of the
order in 1S71 and 1872, from which
it will be seen that Odd Fellowship
is in a remarkably flourishing condi
tion, and rapidly increasing in mem
bership and resouces.
Grand Lodge has decided that
" State Grand Lodges have the pow
er to assess their subordinates to meet
deficiencies and to pay its current
expenses and to raise revenue for its
legitimate purp oses. ' '
Representative Leech, of Iowa,
moved the the following resolution,
which was referred to the Judiciary
Cemmittee: Resolved, that when a
member is sufficiently in arrears to
disqualify him under the rules of his
lodge from receiving benefits in case
of sickness, said arrearages shall dis
qualify him from receiving the semi
A. B. RICHARDSON. S. I. . GILMA2T.
A. B. Richardson?
AUCTIONEER Corner of Front and Oak st?.,
Portland, Oregon. Auction Sales of Ileal
Estate, Groceries, General Merchandise av.d
Horses. Sales Wednesday and Saturday.
KS'Larjro assortinont of Groceries-, Liquor?,
etc., at Private Sale. Liberal advances made
on consignments. A.B.lllCHAKDSQX
Chades S- Wright,
AUCTIONEER Cor of Main and Chennmus
Streets, Astoria. Gooels received on consign
ment and sold to the highest bidder.
AUCTIONEER Office 40 Pirst st., Portland-
WM. L. McEWAX,
' RESIDENT ATTORNEY,
HENRY S. AIKEN,
II. B. PARKER,
JUSTICE OE THE PEACE, .
BSr" Ahvays Ready for Ihisines3."1va
A. VAN DUSEN,
DR. S. W. DODD,
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEONr
G&OKGE U. DURHAM. H. Y. THOMl'SOX..
DURHAM! & THOMPSON,
Attorneys at Law, Portland.
Office 100 Eirst Street, opposite Occidental
'isl. E. 3IULKEY;
ATTORNEY AT LAW - Portland.
Office in Pittock's Ruildinj
ana Stark sts., (up Stairs).
Attorneys at Law, Portland, Oregon
Office in Pitock's Building, Corner of Front
and Stark streets, (up Stairs). slU
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
(Register in Bankruptcy),
Office In Holmes' Building, Portland.
O. P. MASON,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
i5 Land Cases and Titles a specialty .""5?i
Dr. A. D. ELLIS,
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON
Office on Stark Street, Portland, Oregon
KRUMBIEN fc GILBERT,
ARCHITECTS AND DRAUGHTSMEN,
Crco's Building Portland, Oregon.
tfrTho Bost Counsel; the Best Draughp
men; the Best Model Workmen, and best
Patent Agent at Washington; the only reliable,
place to get your intentions put through in
short notice. '
Patronize Home Manufactures.
AINSLEY & DAVIDSON,
Manufacturers and Dealors in
Doors, Sash, Blinds, Frames, Shutters, Brackets,
And all kinds of Scroll Sawing.
Having tho best facilities and the latest im
proved wood working machinery for tho manu
facture of the above articles, can oiFer superior
inducements to customers, and at San Iran
cisco prices, at Nicolai Bros' Mill.
Also, best quality of Soasoned Cedar Lum
per, Ceiling, Rustic and Mouldings. A ood
Turning in all its branches, ,Ballusters, Newell
Posts, Billiard Balls, Croquet Sets, etc., at
NICOLAI BROS.' MILL AND FACTORY.
Cor Second and E Streets, Portland.
FARM FOR SALS.
ACRES GOOD LAND, situated on tho
oanks of Lewis and Clarke river, and
known as tho
y.3aVJJ.I-b-JJ -M IWIJJUXJ
Vessels marked thus () are known to have
lightered ' nuro than tho amount credited
The aliove tables pretty well illustrate
the extra cost of navigating the Columbia
by tailing craft, of any respectability.
The Zouave, for instance carried 1700 tons
Attention has been called by professor
B. Sillman, to the probable occurrence of
bmall diamonds in the bands left in th
sluices of hydraulic wabhings in California.
A microscopic examination ot" a bample of
theae sands, from Cherokee, in Butte coun-tj-,
revealed the existence of numerous
crystals ot hyacinth or zircon, associated
with crystals of topas, fragments of quartz,
black grains of chromite and titanic iron
ore, and a few small masses of a highly
refracting bubstance, which,from its phys
ical and chemical characters, is believed to
be true diamond. The occurrence of dia
monds in California has long been known,
although not under these circumstances.
Enlarged photographs of the genuine
and counterfeit 500 greenbacks have been
sent from Washington.
New School Books. I have just re
ceived all the different kinds of aSew School
Books required to be used in this State, that
can now be found in San E?ancisco. Als'o,
Slate pencils, Blotting pads, a good as
sortment of Stationery, Drawing paper,
CABD BOARD, Perforated board, Ink,
(Carmine, Purple and Black). Likewise a
new stock of Crockery, Clocks and a large
assortment of Lamp Chimneys, all of
wlfieh will be sold cheap for cash.
I. TV. CASE.
Is offered for sale at tho cheap rate of Si 2o per
aero. Address, E.EEiiREL,
s25tf Astoria Steam Saw-mill.
For Sale Cheap for Cash I
00D SUBSTANTIAL DWELLING House
containing seven rooms. Lower rooms
hard iini-hed, together with three acres of
good Garden Land, all under good fence. Or
chard, Barn and Stablo, Store-rooms, Wqod
house and other buildings, situated at Skipa
non Landing For further particulars, apply to
Eerry. Woodward & Co, Portland or to
RICHARD HOBSON. Astoria.
G-emiania Beer Hall
BOTTLED BEER DEPOT,
Chenaimis Street, Astoria.
THE PUBLIC ARE INVITED to call and
leave their orders.
Sjilendid Lager five Cents a Glass,
Free Lunch every Nigld.
oclStf ERNST PAPMAHL, Proprietor.
ACRES GOOD FARMING LAND
on Klaskanino Creek is offered for
sale very cheap for cash. The location is fine:
One and a half miles from the Lower
Landing on the Military Boad, and
on the Bailroad Survey.
A first class location for a Hotel, Summer
Resort, or Dairy Ranch.
Eorty. acres of this ground borders on Klas
kanino creek. There is an orchard of H00 trees
on tho place. A bargain is offered. For par
ticulars inquire of D. C. IRELAND,
aula lm Astorian Qffico. '
HAVING LET THE GLOBE HOTEL, and
furniture, lately occupied Jay mo in this
city, to Messrs. Farleman & Lawson. tho nub-
lie are hereby notified that tho new firm will
bo responsible, lroin this date, for all bills con-!
tracted in tho namo of said Globe Hntol? I'd i
to this date all bills will bo paid by me, nndj
persons inueutuu iu mo are mvitea to square
accounts" without further notice.
Astoria, Sept. 21, lbTtJ.Jf N. KjQEFOED.