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Pfcc gaits stosim-
MONDAY Mat 1, 187G.
The Seal Fisheries at tke Islands of
St..Paml and St. George.
Habits f tlie Seal Methods or Cap
tureProcess or Preserving1
the Skins Population
of tbe Islands Con
dition of the
The Congressional inquiry relative to
the contract between the Government and
the Alaska Commercial Company of
San Francisco, directs public thought to
the subject of seal catching in Alaska
waters, Under the -original lease, the
Company weje permitted to take annually
from Saint Paul 75,000 fur seals, and from
fcaint George25,000. In 1874 the contract
was amended giving the Company the
right to take 90,000 heals in Saint Paul,
and limiting the number to be taken from
Saint George to 10,000. The terms of the
lease require the Company to establish and
maintain a school on the Islands, to sell no
liquor to the natives, and to pay the Gov
ernment of the United States 55,000 a
year for the period of twenty years.
There is no doubt that the lease of the
islands is highly lucrative. The great
success of the franchise is owing to three
principal causes: First The Alaska com
mercial Company, owing to the iact that
that they have the sole control of the three
Asiatic Islands on which fur seals are
found, as well as our islands of Saint Paul
and Saint George, virtually manage the
sale o! eighty per cent, of all the fur seals
killed in the world. Second Tbe decree
of fashion has raised the price to sell skins
in the market fully seventy-five per cent,
during'the past five years. Third Time
and experience have given this controlling
Company most valuable advantage. The
Compan3T employ experts iD selecting the
seals that are most valuable in the market
and have no difficulty in sorting 90,000 out
of a flock of three millions which are the
select of the whole tribe. Care is taken
to avoid buts in the skin, and also to pre
serve the skins properly; hence the high
prices obtained in markets of the world.
The former mode of indiscriminate killng
of the fur seals was as detrimental to the
value of the skins as it was to the existence
of the breed.
The cession by Russia of the two fur seal
islands imposed upon our Government the
obligation to prevent not only the exter
mination of the fur seal, but also the ex
termination of the natives.
POPULATION OF THK ISLANDS.
The following shows the population of
of the islands as given last year:
Total -....' 228
In the repost of Henry W. Elliott, Spe
cial Agent of the Treasury Department,
many interesting facts concerning the
character of the country, the habits of the
fur seal, and the condition of affairs on
the islands are to be found. In connec
tion with a survey of affairs in the Terri
tory of Alaska, Mr. Elliott was accom
panied by Lieut. "Washburn Maynard,
an officer selected by the Secretary of the
Navy. In presenting the report to the
Treasury, Mr. Elliott says:
"On the subject of Alaska, it is safe to
assert that no other unexplored section of
the world was ever brought into notice so
suddenly, about which so much has been
emphatically ad positively written, pass
ed entirely upon the whims and caprices
of the writers, and, therefore, it will not
be at all surprising if the truth in regard
to the Territory does frequently come, into
conflict with many erroneous popular
opinions respecting it."
DESCRIPTION OF THE FUR ISLANDS.
Saint Paul's Island is the lareest and
most important of the Alaskan group,
and is the most southernly land. It has
a superficial area of about 33 square miles
of diverted, rough and rock uplands,
small rounded hills, which either setdown
boldly to the sea or fade into wet, mossy
flats and dry, drifting sand-dune tracts.
It.has 42 miles ot shore line, 1614 of
which are used by the fur seal en masse.
Saint George's Island is next in impor
tance, and has an area of 27 square miles
and 31) miles of coastline, of which two
and a quarter miles are visited by fur
Vegetation on thesr lands, such as it is,
is fresh and luxuriant during the growing
season of June and July and the early
part of Aucust, but the beauty and econ
omic value or trees and shrubbery seem to
be denied by climatic conditions.
NUMBER OF SEALS ON THE ISLANDS
The number of seals on thase two islands
of the groups is estimated at 4,700,000.
Of this number there are 3,000,000 breed
ing seals. The non-breeding seals, consists
of all theyealings, and all the males under
six or seven years of age, seem nearly equal
in number to the breeding seals. After
leaving these islands in autumn or early
winter, the seals do not visit land again
f till the following gpring.. They spread
themselves out over the vast north Pacific,
following schools of fiVh, or frequently
shoals or banks where abundance of fishy
food is found. The habits of the fur seals
are rery peculiar.
SEALS SELECTED FOR SLAUGHTER.
It is estimated by Mr. Elliott that two
thirds of all the males that are born and
they are equal in number to the females
born are never permitted by the remain
ing third, strongest by natural selection, to
land upon the same ground with the fe
males, which always herd together en
masse. Therefore, this great band of so
called batchelor seals is compelled when it
visits land to live apart entire from the
breeding grounds, and in this admirable
perfect manner of nature are thoe seals
which can be properly killed with
out injury held aside, so that the natives
can take them without in the slighest de
gree disturbing the peaceful quiet of the
breeding grounds, where the stock is per
petuated. HO"W THE SEALS ARE SLAUGHTERED.
In the early part of the season large bodies
of the young batchplors do not haul upon
land very far from the water, and the men
are obliged to approach shyly and
quickly "between the dozen seals and the
surf, before thpy alarm and bolt into the
sea. In this way a dozen men running
down the long sand beach will turn back
from the water thousands of seals. As
the sleeping seals are first startled they
arise, and seeing men between them and
the -water, immediately turn, lope and
scramble rapidly back over the land. The
natives then le'isurly walk on the flanks
and in the rear of the drove thus secured,
and direct and drive them over to the kill
ing ground. On firm, grassy ground a
drove of seals may be driven at the rate of
half a mile an hour. They require little
urging, being permitted to halt and cool
off, as heating injures their Jur. They
nover show fight unless a few old seals are
mixed in. The seals, when brought up to
the killing ground, are herded there until
cool and rested; then squads of fifty to
two hundred are driven out from the body
of the drove, surrounded and huddled up
one against the other. The natives then
take heavy clubs of hard wood, wth which
they strike the seals down by heavy blows
on the head . A single stroke of the heavy
oak bludgeon will crush in at once the
slight thin bones of a seal's skull, laying
the creature out lifeless. After the killing
a long, sharp knife isthrust into the chest.
The body of the seal, preparatory to skin
ning, is rolled over orputupon itsback,
and the natives make a single, swift cut
through tho skin, down along the neck,
chest and bolly from the lower jaw to the
nob of the tail. The skins are taken from
the field to the Milt-liou&r, where they are
laid out open, one upon the other, like so
many sheets of papor, with salt profusely
spread upon the fleshy sides.
THE SEAL SKIN OF COMMERCE.
The common or popular notion regard
ing seal skins is that they are worn by the
animals ju-t es thry appear when offered
for sale. This is a wrong notion, for few
skins are less attractive than the seal skin
as it is taken fiom the animal. The fur
is not visible, being concealed entirely by
a coat of stiff over-hair, dull gray, brown
and grizzled. The best of these raw skins
are. worth from $5 to $10, but lifter dress
ing they bring from $25 to 940, and it
takes three of them to make a lady's saque
Drifts and Tow Heads 1876.
Upper Astoria, Clatsop county, Oregon.
April 24, 1870. J
At a Special meeting of the Colum
bia River Fishermens Beneficial Aid
Society, the following regulations for
tlie government of all concerned
were adopted. That the following
drifts and tow heads be established
for the fishing season of 1S76.
First Drift. From Woody Island
to Brown's point.
Second Drift. From Brown's Point
inside of Snag Island to the 12th red
Third Drift. From the loth buoy
to Tongue Point.
Fourth Drift. From Tongue Point
to a point a little west of Booth's
Cannery, at a place to be designated
by a spile or some permanent mark.
Fifth Drift. From the termina
tion of the 4th drift to Smith's Point.
Sixth Drift. From Smith's Point
to the Pacific Ocean.
Seventh Drift. From the red buoy
in the Prairie channel to Tongue
Point up or down.
Eighth Drift. The big snag in
cininooK snoor win oe considered, a
The fishermen in Astoria, in coun
cil have mutually agreed to bind
themselves to be governed by the
foregoing drifts, and it is expected
from boats outsfde of the Society that
they will also conform to the .same.
Any fisherman who is not fortunate
enough to be a member of this Society
has still another opportunity to join
this Society, by applying before the
10th day of May, 1S76, in accordance
with the notice published elsewhere
in the Astoriax. After which time
the initiation fees will be raised to
By order of the Society,
THOMAS DEALEY, Sec.
I offer for salo all my real estate in Clatsop
County, consisting of my original Donation
claim, on Lewis and Clarke river, consisting
of iivo hundred acres'; tide land meadow, ac
knowledged to ho the best stock claim in tho
county. A1h, a largo interest in tho Upper
Town of Astoria, a portion of John Adair's do
nation claim. Enquiro of the subscriber.
BILLS OF LADING, WAY BILLS,
Receipts, and all kinds of Commer
cial Printing, done at th Astorian office.
CALL, EXAMINE, BDER.-B!
T)R. S. TV. DODD.
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON,
Astoria. Oregon, opposite Custom House.
T Q. A. BOWLBY.
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Tp J. TAYLOR.
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
Room No. 5, Brown's Building.
A VAN DUSEN.
NOTARY PUBLIC, ASTORIA.
Agent Wells, Fargo & Co.
G. W. REA. C. W. FULTON.
REA & FULTON,
ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELORS AT
Law,Convoyancors and Real Estato Agents
Special attention given to perfecting Titles,
paying taxes for non-residents, and.all col
lections promptly attended to. Office in
Building, Chenamus street, corner of Cass,
Main street, Astoria Oregon.
WATCHES and CLOCKS cleaned and re
paired in the best manner.
pHARLES S. WRIGHT.
Corner of Main and Chenamus street. Goods
received on consignment and sold to the high
pETER H. EOX.
New Shop, Main Street, Astoria. Clothing
of all kinds cut and mado to order. Cleaning
C. Leinenweber and H. Brown, Props.,
Manufacture all kinds of Leather.
Corner Court and and -Hamilton Street, As
toria. Oregon, Sign and Ornamental Painter
and Paper Hanger.
Orders left at binder's Oregon Bakery will
bo promptly filled and at reasonable rates.
A class of children from eight to fifteen
years of ago will bo taught free hand drawing-.
GEIOIAXIA BEER HALL
BOTTLE BEER DEPOT,
Chenamus Street. Astoria.
Tho public aro invited to cill and leave
their orders. Splendid Lager 5 cent a glass.
Freo Lunch every night.
WM. BOCK & CO., Proprietors.
ALBERT ROEDER & CO..
Machinists, Gunsmiths, and
Corner Concomly and Lafayette Streets,
Will pay Special Attention to Blacksmith
Work and general repairing.
RODGERS' OM STAND,
' Cass St., Astoria, Oregon.
All kinds of Blacksmithing
dono to order. Satisfaction
guaranteed,. Ship and engine
work a speciality.
Having all thenecessary machinery for first
class work, skillful J3rowors, and using nono
but the best quality of materials, tho Proprie
tor is prepared to manufacture LAGER JJEElt
in any quantity, from a single bottle to a bar
rel, and put it up in good condition for ship
ment or immediate uso. Families and keep
ers of public houses promptly and regularly
supplied. M. MYERS, Proprietor.
W. B. HEAD1NCTON,
ARCHITECT AND BUILDER,
1'ians anu specmcauons
for buildings of any kind,
and contracts (largo or
small) filled with dispatch
and in tho best manner
BAIN & FERGUSON, .
Contractors and Builders,
AKE PREPAltED TO
furnish material and
orect buildlings of every
discnption ; execute any
and all kind of Carpen
ters' and Joiners' work.
in tho most approved styles, with Neatness and.
Plans and Specifications,
BILLS OE MATERIAL
Furnished on Short Notice.
Seasoned Lumber Always on Hand.
B3- Orders left at I. W. CASE'S STORE will
be promptly attended to.
,; r m
F. S. MEADE,
Constantly on hand.
esr Garments made in tbe most
Draying & Trucking.
Tho undersigned hav
ing purchased the inter
est of tho
Astoria Truck & Dray Co.,
Including Teams, Vehecles, etc, respectfully
announces that ho is prepared to
FILL ALL ORDERS WITH
PROMPTNESS. IN A CAREFUL MANNER
from this date.
B3T Orders may bo left at the Occident
Hotel. T. S. JEWETT.
Astoria Truck & Dray Co.
THE MOST EXTENSIVE
t Best Assorted Stock
(Tun fce fnad at
E. S. LARSEN'S
Between Chenamus and
. . ortiyTvT A T"C m&
AO A VUVJU1. , VJftXiUi VI .
A Large Invoice
JV& C 1
And Plain and
Orders left at the Occident Hotel
Promptly Attended to.
J. B. Knapp, Knappton ; Capt. J. Went, West
port; 11. li. Parker, S. X. Arrigoni, Ilobson &
narren, J. Badollet tfc Co. Astoria; J. W. A V.
Cook, Clifton; Jos. Hume, Eureka; It. Watson
tO Co. Manhattan; J. L. llep'jurn, Glen Ella;
J. G. Megler 4fc Co. Brookjietd, and numerous
others for whom 1 have
Built Furnaces, set Ranges,
and Kettles, and
"Spread the Mort!"
During my 12 years Residence
LIME, SAND, BRICK, PLASTER,
Lain, Cement, and all materials in
my lino, furnished to order.
1ST" Special attention paid to Furnace work
and Kangcs. Cistern work warranted good,
or no pay. PEXJER KUSEY,
New Stock Now Opened
At N. LOEB'S,
Ono door South of Globe Hotel, Astoria.
THE UNDERSIGNED HAVING
just received and opened a new and
completo Stock of
Groceries and Provisions,
Invites tho attention of tho public. Theso
Goods will bo sold at Low Figures. Call be
fore purchasing elsewhere.
Tho best quality of goods for tho
Fishing and Sailors
Trade constantly on hand.
EST Highest Trice Paid Ifrr Furs. -
esr New Goods by every Steamer.
N. LOEB, Astoria, Oregon.
rutter & Mckenzie,
HAVING LEASE D THE PREMISES FOR
a term of yean, at tho foot of Wash
ington streot, we beg leave to announce to tho
public that wo aro now prepared for
and General Kepairing of
VESSELS, BOATS, ETC., ETC.
tsr Boats of all descriptions, Srst class in
every respect, built to order. Yard foot of
Washington street, Astoria, Oregon.
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BOOK AND JOB PRINTING.
DDIHTJun 1 EQT'ALTOTIIEBEST.AND
(JIM I INT- fCheap
us tho Cheapest, at
tiir astariax Office.
Daily and Weekly
Job Printing Office !
IS NOW WELL SUPPLIED WITH
New Material and Stock,
And prepared to execute orders for
POSTERS, BILLS OF FARE,
And any other kind of Printing,
Neatly and Promptly
The Lowest Living Priceare Charged,
Printing by hand,
Printing by steam, ,
Printing from type,
Or from blocks by the ream.
Printing in black,
Printing in white.
Printing in colors,
Of sombre or bright.
Printing for merchants,
And land-agents, too ;
n, Printing for any
"Who've printing to do ;
Printing for bankers,
Printing for druggists,
For dealers in wares.
Printing for drapers
For grocers, for all,
"Who will send in their jobs
Or give us a call.
Printing of pamphlets,
Or bigger books, too ;
In fact there are few things
But what we can do.
Printing of placards,
Printing of bills,
Printing of car-notes
For stores or for mills 'T
Printing of labels,
All colors we use, sirs,
Especially fit for
Our salmon producers.
Printing of forms
All sorts you can get
Or houses to let.
Printing done quickly,
Bold, stylish or neat,
At the Astoriax Office,
On quemocqha street-
THE DAILY ASTORIAN
THE WEEKLY ASTORIAN
NOW IN ITS FOURTH YEAR
Affords SUPERIOR Facilities to
fiGIVE US A. CALL. 8
HENRY JACOBS PROPRIETOR,
Cor. of Main and Schemocqha Sts.,
TAKES PLEASURE IN ANNOUNCING
to tho public generally that he is again
prepared, at the above well known stand to
supply orders for FllESIL BREAD and all
kinds of pastry.
t&r Ono of tho best Bakers on the coast
omployed. Satisfaction guaranteed. A share
of tho public patronage respectfully solicted.
"W7ANTED - - BUSINESS MEN,
To engage in tho salo of a Business Book.
PROF. PARSONS' XEW 1AW BOOK
THE PERSONAL AND PROPERTY
Of a Citizen of the United States ;
How to exercise and how to porservo them.
TIIK WORK IS ESSENTIAL TO
Every Voter in tho Union; to every Tax Payer
and Magistrate ; to every Man who Buys,
Sells, or Exchanges property ; to evory Justice
of the Peace, Sheriff, Commissioner, or Select
man ; to every Landlord and every Tenant ;
to every Notary. Clerk or Book-keeper ; to
every Executor, Ileir-at-Law, or Legatee ; to
every Man who Recoives or Pays Interest : to
every one who has Property to take care of, or
business to transact. Civil Duties to perform,
or Rights to maintain.
Send for circulars, giving terms, etc.
S. S. SCRAXTOX, A Co., Hartford, Conn.
Demand that bills be rendered
promptly, and to do it nicely, get your Bill
paper an 1 Statements printed at
THE ASTORIAN Offic.