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Successor io fndiahoma Champiott
ELGIN, OKLAHOMA, THURSDAY, JANUARY 30, 1913
D. E. McAnaw
Dealers in . . .
All Kinds of '
Grain, Cotton, Coal.
, Best Mexico Coal
$7 a Ton
The Bank That Accommodates
Bank of Elgin
If you are not already our customer, open an
. account without delay.
A. L. McFhehson, Pres. 0. A. McPherson, V. P.
E. McPherson, Cashier.
: : : -h : : : ! -:-'K":-m-v-
J. P. KENNEMUR
. . . For the Very . . .
First Door West of
TILE DRAINS IN CLAY SOIL
' "J ''.' 1iV"'."'tll "' 'II . II " .11' . N. II...'-' 'II i.." II- '"I'll III lll
"& Mfc $i ;:; Age && & fe & ?zm
Siil uninainti rAin'Jrvtns 'are ftt'tfeet apart; AmF
etrtihiJ wfien thty r SO foot jrt
The Illustration shown herewith In
from ft bulletin of tlio Ontario De
partment of Agriculture nnd shows
how the water talile of tho soil de
pends on the location of drains. If In
a field that la undordrnlncd three feet
deep n number of holes nro dug It
would be observed after n heavy rain
that la those nearest tho drains no
water would remain. In thodiole slt
uated half-way between the drains at
C would hold considerable water for
s few days.
In a clay In fairly good condition It
will bo found that tho slope of tho
water. table Is about 1 foot In 25, In
loam 1 foot In about 33. The Illus
tration represents n clay soil with
drains A and B 100 feet apart. Wolls
are dug 12.5 feet apart. At the end
of 48 hour nfter a heavy rain the
water will stand about ns Indicated
by zig-zag lines, In a gradient of about
1 In 25, and hence will be two feet
deeper In tho centre well than at cith
er drbln. Hence If the drains aro
three feet dcop thero will bo throe
foot of draluod soil over A and IJ, but
only ono foot at X. Capillarity and
soil resistance to water flow play nn
Important part .n holding tho wnter
highest half way bctweon tho drains.
and the gradient 1 In 26 represents
their combined strength In clay,
hetico after tlilu gradient Is reached
drainage becomes very, very slow, and
the water tnblo stands In this Irregu
lar shapo until lowered by evaporation
from tho solt fend plants, nut during
the months of April, May and' some
times June, when the rains supply at
the surface all the water needed for
evaporation, none Is drawn from be
low for this purpoio, hence during the
early months of growth the water
stands ns Indicated by the dotted lino
AXU. Consequently root development
Is hampered at X, as 1 foot of soil Is
not cnoush. Thero nro two ways to
remedy tho defect, either to dig A
and B deeper or else put a drain at C
half way between.
MONTANA DRY FARM RESULTS CULTIVATION OF DRY CROPS
"Conclusions as Arrived at After Six Main Thing Is to See That Hants
Years' of Experimenting Art
For the past-six yecrs the' Montana
.experiment station has been conduct
ing experiments upon dry land, undor
the direct charge of Prof. Alfred At
kinson and Mr. J. 13. Nelson, superin
tendent of dry farm work. Tho results
are to be published In bulletin No. 83,
nnd may bo had upon application to
the director of tho experiment sta
tion. Tho conclusions drawn from
this work are very Interesting and
are as follows:
1. That tho precipitation during the
six years, 1906-10, was very close to
the normal precipitation as shown by
all of the available records of the U.
8. weather bureau. This applies to
the total amount as well as to tho dis
tribution of tho rainfall over the grow
2. That, of all crops raised, pota
toes, with an nverago yield of 105.32
bushels per acre, and returning an
nverago net profit of 141.99, aro the
most profitable. Of tho grain crops,
tall sown or winter wheat gives the
best returns. Kharkov, an Improved
Turkey Red, gave an average yield
of 40.41 bushels and an average net
profit of 21.30 por acre. This was
grown at tho Fergus county statton
only. The Turkey Red, which was
grown all years and at all stations,
gave an average yield of 82.45 bush
els, with an average net profit of
114.49 per acre. Among the spring
planted grains, corn, Hanna barley,
Sixty-day oats and flax, In the order
named, were the most profitable;
while alfalfa and fodder corn were
the most satisfactory forago crops.
3. That it is decidedly more profit
able to ralso grain crops under a sys
tem of alternate cropping and fal
lowing, or summer tillage, than to
raise them continuously.
4. That the first crop will be more
profitable It breaking Is done the year
previous than If the crop Is planted
the same spring, Immediately after
6. That more profitable crops are
raised whoro the fallow Is summer
tilled -than where It Is allowed to lie
untouched through the summer.
6. That it makes no practical dif
ference In tho yield of grain whethor
full ptowlng or spring plowing Is prac
ticed In tho preparation of the pre
7. That on the average five pecks
of seed Is the best amount to use In
seeding dry land grain crops.
, That there Is positive lost from
lessened yield where fall sown crops
are fallowsu-ln f,ha spring.
I. That grains planted In the ordi
nary way, -with ft seed drill, give
larger yields than grains planted In
rows 14 Inches apart and Intertilled
Have Ocod Roots No Tearing
Out If Done Properly.
Professor". '"Dlount was recently
quoted as advocating tho ndvantago of
cultivating grain crops In tho arid
regions and being laughed nt by some
who could not understand the philoso
phy of such n proposition. Protestor
Blount is absolutely right as I have
proved by experience. Last season at
Cheyenne was ono of tho driest on
record and all crops grown on tho
stnto dry farm under my supervision
were cultivated several times after
they were up and hnd good roots
soino when knoe high to the team,
wrltcm Dr. V. T. Cooke lu tho Denvor
Field aud Farm. The object of culti
vating with tho crop as high as this
was more to nhow that such cultiva
tion although possibly not benuflclal
at least did no harm.
The crops cultivated woro winter
wheat and u Inter rye In the spring.
Then in due time we also cultivated
spring wheat, oats, barley, emmor or
spelts, Canadian field peas, stock
beets, corn, inlllot, sorghum and pota
toes. A twelve-foot three-row spring
tooth ildlng wceder with a lever was
used. TIiIh lover enables tho driver
to control the depth of cultivation. A
common steel drag harrow will take
the placo of a weedor as a cultivator
provided tho tooth aro sharp and sot
vlantlnglr. Judgment must be used on
some soils ns to how early this work
should bo begun. One can got onto
tho crop too soon nnd thus tear out
considerable of the growing grain,
which is entirely unnecessary.
The main thing Is to see that the
crops have good roots and If tho work
is properly done, very little If any
tearing out will oocur, but the work
will surely get rid of thousands ol
weeds, ns well as stimulate tho crop,
besides malting tho soil In better con
dltlon to conscrvo and receive inols
ture. Wo know the cultivation of corn
Is necessary and pays. Then why
not cultivate cereals? in fnct all exopp
grown in arid and somlarld countrlos
should bo cultivated. Due considera
tion should be given tho grain crop In
an abnormally wot seafMi, for culti
vation undrr these conditions Is not
so extromely essential.
A great deal more importance
should bo attached to this cultivation
than there is. The weeer gives tho
farmer a greater margin of time to
do this work because It enables him
to get onto taller grain and Se can
control tho depth' he wishes to culti
vate. The 'veeder s of light draft and
a fast team can cover a considerable
area In a day. The common steel
drag harrow can be used and Is ven
enective In be-vlef so'.
Live STOCK NOTES.
Tho period of gestation In sheep Is)
Keep tho pigs growing right Into)
Winter sunshine' counts for much
In the hog houso.
Bait In some quantity Is a necessity
to living animals.
Tho best profits In hog raising nro
always quick profits.
Select tho "breeders from large Ut
ters farrowed by mntnro bowh.
Tho hogs llko good pasture but they
need n ltttlo grain, too.
Water Is cheap, but It In very es-'
sentlnl In good feeding.
Hogo can bo raised at a profit, nnd
fnrmers should raise moro of them.
Raw eggs with the shells crushed
finely nre good for scours In calves.
Every farm of 80 ncre nnd up
ought to hnvo a small flock of ehHp
Rape makes n good pasture If mn
frequently. A little ryu mixed in
Keeping tho hogs In (dean sur
roundings Is tho best provontlve of
Tho innros with their colU double'
In vnluo every year, wllh no extra ex
pense, except fees for breeding.
.Market somo of the.older shoep, and
retain part of tho choice lambs for
tho Improvement of your own flock.
Make n feeding platform for tho
hogs eight Inches high with a two'
Inch protecting board nil around to
keep the feed out of the winter's mud.
Never get tho Idea In your heads
that breeding from young and Im
mature breeding stock encourages
early maturity In the progeny, for It '
fa a mistake.
Pumpkin feeding has been tried In
the crate feeding work at the Univer
sity of Maine, but It has not been
found satisfactory If one attempt to"
'atten for three weeks only.
1 ' e
Weights Horses Should Carry.
At the Paris horse chow recently sv
special Jury of exports was appointed
to determine Just how, much a horse
of a given weight should carry In the
saddle, Tho Jury brought In the fol
lowing decision: A horse welghlng
not moro than 825 pounds should not
enrry n greater weight than 187
pounds, provided the girth of tho ant
mnl does not exceed 67 Inches. Ai
horso weighing 985 pounds or less,
with a girth of 09 Inches, should not
earn' moro than 209 pounds, and d
horse weighing 1,045 pounds, with a.
girth of 71 Inches, should cot carry
more than 231 pounds.
Good words "cost nothing, but
aro worth much.
English Farmer's Plan.
An English farmer who has had
groat succens with hogs, builds his
houses with a soctton of tho wall hung
on a swivel pin In the middle, which
can bo flung ojKsn whenever sunlight
and air nro needed. When the sec
tion is released, It swings back Intd
an unrlght position by gravitaton.
If nnythlng v. Ill Bbow a dollar profit
on a farm It Is cows. The more rows
tho moro hoy and fodder can be mired
and tho moro foddor wo cut tho mo-
cows can be kept. Many of tho fann
ers who gavo up cows and went Into
potnto growing a few yonrs ago
are coming back to cow keeping.
Horses for Food.
In Holland, as In other parts of Eu
rope, horses aro used for food. The'
retail price of horse meat is about
six cents a pound one-fourth the1
price of similar cuts of beef.
Some Big Crop Stories.
Apples 11 Inches In circumference
are among thoso produced by E. F.
Stevens, tho orchnrdlst of Crete, Neb
J. Martin, ot Qlbbsland, la., raised
on his farm a water melon which
weighed 95 pounds. It supplied a
feast for 100' persons more or less.
Doctor Svnln, of Moundsvllle, W
Vn., boasts ot a tomato weighing 3ft
pounds which grew on a vino 8 feet
J. W. Long of Eaton, Ind., raised
beans tho pods of which measured
some 30 to 36 Inches In length. Tho'
editor of tho local paper descrlber
them as "a rate variety.""
Profitable' Frog Farms.
Thero aro a fow frog farms scat?
tared throughout the United States',
which are profltutle'to their owners.
The ponds are fenced with wire andf
roofed over with the same to keep
out tho birds and' animals which prey
upon tho email frogs. There Is asj
Increasing demand lu alt the big BUM'
keU for this delleof.