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—E. c. Simmons I I I The Keen Kutter name and trade mark
Registered I I I cover tools of all kinds for home, shop, farm
111 I or garden, also a full line of pocket-knives,
I I scissors and shears and cutlery.
yPTHnHg 111 I The only tools with all risk removed. Each
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V \[ I / SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY (Inc.),
St. Louis and New York, U. S. A.
STEEL TANKS Before you buy, get our figures.
We build all —from
ENGINES the largest to the smallest. We
are prepared to furnish esti-
PUMPS BOATS mates on short notice.
THE MORAN COMPANY
Offers Opportunity and Independence, together
with Healthy Climate, Fertile Soil, and
WATER IN ABUNDANCE FOR
And in addition Hanford is near to market and
has excellent transportation facilities.
This land is being sold on the best terms and
at a price which is within the reach of all.
We will be pleased to send descriptive litera
& POWER CO.
SEATTLE NATIONAL BANK BLDO.
FIELD & GARDEN
ERADICATION OF FARM WEEDS.
Sulphate of iron is a by-product of
wire making. In the Springtime of
1906, spraying experiments with sul
phate or iron were begun by the Ameri
can Steel & Wire Co. at its Weed Ex
periment Station, conducted by Dr. H.
E. Horton, Agronomist, Mukwonago,
•Wisconsin. Substations for weed
eradication work have been operated
in Trumansburg, N. V., Newark, Del.,
and Sanford, Manitoba. In Manitoba
the problem is to spray a 1,000 acre
tract of wheat for weed eradication
and to do this in a week's time. This
substation is equipped with two small
two-horse machines and one large four
horse machine, the largest ever built
and operated for grain spraying. A
big tank, holding 110 barrels of sul
phate of iron solution and two water
wagons, complete the equipment.
A sixteen acre oat field was selected
for the work, for the reason that the
field was badly infested with Canada
thistles. It has grown crops of oats
for the past three years, and has been
sprayed each year with the result that
today the land is almost clean and
the thistles controlled. In the mean
time the yield of oats has been increas
ed from ten bushels per acre to thirty
bushels per acre.
An adjoining field at this same Sta
tion was seeded to crimson clover,
using a seed which proved to be badly
contaminated with Canada thistle seed.
The clover crop was nothing—the
thistle crop, the finest ever grown. A
systematic spraying of this field the
first year controlled the thistles, pre
venting the formation of seed and kill
ing innumerable plants roots and
During the second year a fine crop
of barley was grown. The number of
thistle plants coming up was fully
90% less than the first year. The
field was again sprayed and the
thistles almost cleaned off. This con
cluded the experiments for two years.
The season of 1909 will make the third
year and, in all probability, will show
a complete eradication of the thistles.
In the past two years Wild Radish
has presumably been mistaken for
Wild Mustard, and this by profes
sional men. Wild Mustard is easily
killed by a 20% solution of sulphate
of iron once applied, while Wild Rad
ish is more resistent and for its eradi
cation requires an entirely different
Leaves of Wild Radish are lyre
shaped and sometimes bear one deep
cut from margin to mid-rib. Flowers
of Wild Mustard are yellow color.
Beak of Wild Radish pod round and
shape of a cone. Beak of Wild Mus
tard pod flattened, cone shape and
often contains one seed.
As the result of three years' suc
cessful work, the following facts will
prove of great interest to every owner
of blue grass lawn:
Young dandelion plants are killed
by spraying with a 20% solution of
sulphate of iron. Old plants are badly
injured, the foliage being wholly de
stroyed, but the growing bud is not
killed and the old root sends up new
foliage. Applying dry sulphate of iron
to the "heart" (growing bud) of the
old plant produces death. Repeated
spraying of middle-aged and old plants
results in their death.
To destroy young dandelion plants
by spraying, dissolve two pounds of
sulphate of iron in a gallon of water,
stirring with a stick to hasten solu
tion, and apply with a hand sprayer.
Use one gallon solution to one square
rod grass plot. If the first applica
tion is not completely successful, spray
a second time. Repeated spraying
will be rewarded by the eradication
of the plant. The grass and clover
will be blackened and appear killed,
but this need cause no alarm; they
are not mortally injured and in a few
days recover and grow with increased
The success or failure in spraying
grain crops to kill weeds depends on
how the sulphate of iron is applied,
and when. For instance, if the solu
tion is applied in drops, as from a
watering pot, the weeds will shed
the drops without any damage being
effected. Large drops strike the leaf
and roll off: small drops run together
and form large drops, but a mist from
a good sprayer settles down upon and
completely covers the leaves.
Spray on a bright day, or on a
dark, damp day; it does not matter
so long as rain does not come within
18 or 20 hours. Spraying on dark,
damp days gives quickest and surest
results. Spraying on bright, warm
days must be followed by dew the next
morning to be effective.
The white coating, or spots, seen
on leaves sprayed dry, warm days, is
the dried out sulphate of iron; the
dew dissolves this so it acts on the
Size of Weeds.
It was formerly thought that the
best time to spray was when the mus
tard plants were in the third or fourth
leaf, now wo know the best time is
when the first buds appear on the
majority of the plants, for then only
is practically all the mustard seed in
the soil germinated.
How to Make the Solution.
To make the spraying solution,
empty a hundred pound sack of the
sulphate of iron into a kerosene,
whiskey, or vinegar barrel, fill to the
chine with water and stir with a hoe
for a few minutes until dissolved.
Strain through several thicknesses of
cheese cloth tacked over manhole of
the spraying machine.
How to Apply.
The solution must be applied with
a powerful spraying machine, produc
ing a real mist free from drops. The
best pressure is 80—100 lbs. measured
at the nozzle, not at the pump.
A properly constructed machine will
deliver continuously the mist at 80
lbs. pressure, and at 100 lbs. the mist
is driven onto the plants and ground
and rolls over and over, wetting the
underside of the leaves as well.
To do the best work, apply 52 gallons
to the acre.
WEED KILLING AND MOONSHINE.
About two years ago the subject of
the thistle pest and the tent caterpillar
was published In The Ranch.
In The Ranch of December 1, 1908,
on page 4, the thistle question is print
ed again, as you say that new comers
and subscribers will continue to resur
rect these same questions. I enclose
ways to get rid of spinous weed pests
and trees not wanted, especially the
alder and elder.
No. I—Thistles, Foxglove, Bur and
Yellow Docks, etc. After they have
got a good growth, take a sharp hoe
and cut them off close to the ground;
have some dry salt with you and put
a spoonful on the crown of the weed;
if the crown is large put on enough
salt to cover it. In one week, if prop
erly done, you can pull them all out
with your fingers.
No. 2 —Within 48 hours of the new
moon—either before or after—in June,
July, or August, go through the same
process of cutting off tops; no salt is
needed for young plants. If any of the
weeds form a matted bed and can be
smashed with a heavy roller, do it In
the morning, then have ready some
strong brine, rain it down on them thick
with a sprayer having a fine nozzle, so
there is enough to soak the crowns of
them; they will not trouble you again.
No. 3—To get rid of elders, alders,
and other pest trees, from two days be
fore till two days after the new moon
in June, July or August, girdle the
trees about two feet from the ground
and take off the bark; while the wood
is wet, salt the tree the same as you
would dry salt meat; take some bur
lap^ wet it with dry salt, then carefully
put it on where the bark was and
bandage it tight on the tree; then
watch the leaves; they are like cats
they die slow.
No. 4—For large trees, proceed with
the same process of girdling, at the
same change of the moon, hack in well
with a sharp axe, scalp off about a foot
of the bark up and down the tree. No
salt is needed for fir, spruce, hemlock
or cottonwoo<ls. If you want some
spruce gum for medical purposes, nail
on a strip of tin on the lower edge of
the girdling and set your can to
catch it. CAPTAIN J. J. DAWSON.
Bay City, Oregon.
The little sisters of the sun
Are shining in the wayside grass;
They turn a glowing face to ours,
And light our footsteps as we pass.
Like sunshine broken Into bits,
They dance along the greening lane
And signal with nodding heads
"Behold! the spring has come again.