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This apple belongs to the Ben Davis
type and is most likely a seedling of
that well known apple.
THE STAYMAN WINESAP.
This fine apple originated with
Dr. Stayman at Leavenwortb, Kansas,
in 1866, Irom seed of the old Winesap.
The book entitled, "The Apples of
New York" has this statement con
cerning this apple: "Van Deman
calls this the best variety of the Wine
sap class for general cultivation.
Taylor remarks that the only par
ticular in which it does not equal its
parent is in its color which is some
what less brilliant than that of the
I have been growing this apple for
a number of years and can fully in
dorse these statements. It is a larger
apple than the old Winesap and that
is a decided factor in favor of almost
any apple. Tbe Winesap has a ten
dency to bear small apples and this
is sure to be the case unless well thin
ned. If Stayman is sent to tbe east
ern markets, its lack of color will be
much against it. For this reason I
prefer to grow the old Winesap and
then thin heavily. I believe that this
apple should be called simply The
Stayman with the name Winesap left
off. It is true that this apple is a
seedling of the Winesap, but so are a
number of other well known apples.
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or write, Mammoth Black Twig
Winesap, Arkansas Wioesap or
Arkansas Black Winesap?
I have raised the Wealthy for a
number of years and find it a profit
able apple. The history of this apple
is a very interesting one. A man by
the name of Peter M. Gideon lived at
Excelsior, Minn., who was anxious to
raise apples there but the cold was so
extreme that his trees died on ac
count of the severe winters. He con
ceived the idea of getting apple seeds
as far north as possible and growing
hardy stocks. He procured apple
seeds from Albert Emerson, Bangor,
Maine. That was in 1860. One of the
seedlings was specially promising and
the tree proved hardy in that cold
country. He named it for bis wife
whose Christian name is Wealthy.
With us the apple attains a very good
si ?,e and becomes beautifully red. In
the extreme north it is a winter apple
but in the Yakima valley it matures
in the fall and must be picked in
August or early in September or the
fruit nearly all falls off. This is an
objection with U9 for at that time of
year the markets are overstocked with
fall apples Its large size and fine
color enables us to get fairly good
prices even at that time of the year.
It does well west of the Cascade Range
and keeps longer than with us.
1 am not familiar enough with the
Senator and the Paragon to say any
thing about them that would be pro
fitable to our readers.
ROME BEAUTY, JONATHAN AND
The regular readers of this paper
know that these are my favorites
among old, well-established apples. I
make more money from these apples
than any others which I grow. Some
varieties sell higher, notably is this
true of the Esopus Spitzenburg, but
taking one year with another these
three standard apples make me more
money than the Spitz, for the simple
reason that we get so many more
apples from the same number of trees.
Here 1 must drop a word of caution,
viz., what I have said about the
money making from these three apples
applies to my locality in the Yakiam
valley. My judgment is that at Hood
River the Spitzenburg and Yellow
Newtown are the best money makers.
If I were raising apples west of the
Cascade mountains, I would certain
ly not depend on these three apples
chiefly, if at all. After twenty years
experience, if I were planting a new
orchard I would depend in great part
on these standbys. I would certainly
plant the Delicious as one of my
money getters and the Winter Banana
and King David to some extent. As
I have so often described those three
varieties of apples in the pages of
The Ranch, I need not say more about
them now. My motto is try the new
and promising varieties, but stick to
the old ones as your main dependence.
Before I close this discussion of the
best apples to grow allow me to repeat
what I have often said in these
columns: When any one has selected
his location for an apple orchard,
then consult the apple growers in that
section and find out from them what
apples bear best there, sell best and
pay the most money in the long run.
Then govern yourself accordingly.
ALFALFA IN THE ORCHARD.
F. P. Adams, Craig, Montana,
The Christopher Nurseries
We did 50% more business during the year ending July 1, 1!)12, than
during any previous year. WHY?
From every customer who has a single word to say we get only assur
ances of satisfaction or appreciation.
We send only good trees, berry bushes and plants.
Our stock of rose bushes is about as complete and thrifty as can be found.
Let us send you our catalogue and price list, then we'll bank on your
order if you want the best at a reasonable price.
APPLE TREES—AII leading vari- SMALL FRUITS — Gooseberry,
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CHRISTOPHER NURSERIES CO.
JOHN A. STEWART CBb .YON, Props.
(Nurserymeii of Four Generations.
CHRISTOPHER, KING COUNTY, -WASH.
Mention "Trie Ranch" when you write.
writes under date of Oct. 20th, as
"I am interested in your article in
The Ranch of October Ist and would
like one question answered. In sew
ing alfalfa and the other legumes in
the orchard, do yoa plow it uuder
after you get a good stand or do yon
mow it? I mention alfalfa as I know
more about it than the others. I
have a small fruit ranch close to
Spokane that I bought this fall. The
trees have been neglected. Any in
formation yoa can give me will be
No, we do not expect to plow under
the alfalfa, and we could not do it
very well, if we did. The other
legumes, viz., the clovers and the
vetches and others need not be plow
ed under in order to get the benefits
to be derived from nitrates formed on
their roots. In case you grow annual
legumes like peas and beans, you can
plow under the tops or you can cut
them for hay or any other form of
feed you can make from them. But
in case you grow alfalfa the best plan
is to leave it for a number of years
and possibly indefinitely. Alfalfa is
a hard thing to plow, under the best
conditions, but when it is in an or
chard and its roots run down among
the tree roots it is well nigh impos
sible to plow it under so as to hill it
out. I have repeatedly paid to our
readers not to sow alfalfa in an or
chard if you want to get rid of it. I
have alfalfa in some of my orchards
and never expect to get rid of it till 1
am ready to dig out my trees and
that will not likely occur during my
life time. The longer alfalfa occupies
the ground the richer in nitrates will
become that soil. Every year the
bacteria will form new nodules on the
roots and these nodules will be filled
with nitrogen in the available form.
Now, you can mow this alfalfa for
hay or you can cut it and pile it
around under the trees, or you can
pasture it by hogs or any kind of
stock which will not injure the trees.
If the legumes are annuals or biennials
they may or may not re seed them
selves. Hairy vetch reseeds itself
with us. So will sweet clover and
yellow trefoil. All these plants will
make your soil richer in nitiates.
Mrs. A. H. Smith, of Sumiier,
Wash., writes me, October 22nd, that
she has just visited a friend near that
place who grows successfully tf'e ever
bearing strawberry, that they are just
as good berries as those raised in
June. Now I do not doubt this in
the least—in fact I have often seen
such berries, but do they pay? She
thinks that they do. Do they bear as
well; that is, as many boxes to the
acre as the berries grown in the early
summer? If the business should be
increased would we have berries as
cheap in the fall as in summer? This
is the point I would like to have
cleared up if any one can do it. 1
know that these so-called everbearing
(Continued on page 13.)
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