OCR Interpretation


Washington farmer. (Spokane, Wash.) 1914-1971, June 15, 1914, Image 5

Image and text provided by Washington State Library; Olympia, WA

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn98047755/1914-06-15/ed-1/seq-5/

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When the amount of rainfall is from
12 to 20 inobes, four pounds each of
alfalfa and orchard grass per acre,
makes about the only combination of
perennials that will do for pasture.
For short time pasture, rye is one
of the best for the dry sections. It
should be planted in the fall for that
purpose. In extremely dry sections,
where the annual rainfall is less than
12 inches, alfalfa planted in rows and
cultivated will yield a good crop.
Soiling Crops
GREEN LEGUMES-The crops
which come under this head are the
clovers, alfalfa, vetches and Held
peas. These are sometimes pastured
off to good advantage and for reasoni
given in the discussion of pasture
this practice is commendable. How
ever, the nature of the legumes, espe
cially the alfalfa, is such as to cause
bloating easily, and these should,
therefore, be pastured with extreme
care. The presence of moisture either
from dew or rain on the legumes
while the cow is grazing increases the
tendency to bloat. A safer plan is to
use these high protein green feeds as
soiling crops. This gives the feeder
an opportunity to regulate the amount
consumed and to eliminate any that
is too green or too wet, thereby less
ening the tendency to cause bloat.
Peas or vetch are often planted in
combination with some grain crop
such as barley or oats for soiling pur
poses. The straight stems of the
grain keep the legume from falling.
This makes the harvesting easier
than where the legume is planted
alone, when it is liable to lodge. A
higher yield of green feed is also ob
tained where the crops are mixed,
and the ration is more nearly bal
anced.
All the clovers are excellent for
furnishing succulence. These are
fairly safe to pasture, but a heavier
yield is always obtained by using
tbera as a soiling crop.
The green legumes have the follow
ing nutritive ratio:
Alfalfa ...1:3.6
Red Clover.. 1:5.2
Alsike Clover 1:4.8
Spring Vetch... .1:3.7
Hairy Vetch in bloom .1:2.5
Canada Field Peas 1:4.2
It would seem from these figures
that the vetches were as good as or
better than alfalfa or the clovers for
feeding the dairy cow. A glance at
the feeding table, however, will reveal
the fact that there is a vast difference
in the amount of digestible dry mat
ter contained io the feeds; alfalfa,
red clover and alsike clover contain
ing nearly twice as much dry matter
as the others. This is a very import
ant point to keep in mind when bal
ancing a ration.
GREEN CORN—This makes a very
good soiling crop. It should be cut
when the grain is in the glazed stage
to make the most and best feed.
The following table taken from
Henry's "Feeds and Feeding"
showing the composition of corn at
different stages emphasizes this point.
COMPOSITION OF AN ACRE OF INDIAN CORN AT DIFFERENT STAGES
Tasseled Silked Milk Glazed Ripe
July 30 Aug. 9 Aug. 21 Sept. 7 Sept. 23
Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs.
Weight of green crop 18045 25745 32600 32295 28460
Water in same - 16426 22666 27957 25093 20540
Dry matter in same 1619 3078 4643 7202 7918
Nutrients in same:
Ash or mineral matter.. 139 201 232 302 364
Crude protein 240 437 479 644 678
Fiber i Carbo- [ 514 873 1262 1756 1734
N-free extract (hydrates) 654 1399 2441 4240 4828
Fat or ether extract .... 72 168 229 260 314
THE WASHINGTON FARMER
Although the percentage of car
bohydrates and fat is greater when
the oorn is ripe, the difference in the
total nutrients when compared with
the crop in the glazed stage is so light
as to be almost negligible. On the
other hand the corn plant is much
more palatable in the glazed state
when the kernels are in the dough
and the whole plant green. Corn as
a soiling crop, fits in nicely with the
legume bays, because it furnishes the
carbohydrates in which the legumes
are defloient. The nutritive ration
of green corn is 1:12.8.
GREEN GRAIN CROPS—Any of
our small grain plants may be used
for soiling purposes to good advan
tage. Because of the little difference
in the relative feeding value of the
small grain when used for soiling,
that on which give the highest yield
is the best to select. The crop should
be out when the grain is in the dough
stage, although under very dry con
ditions it may be necessary to cut a
little earlier in order to get a green
palatable feed. The nutritive rations
of the green grain crops are as fol
lows:
Oats 1:8.2
Wheat 1:7.5
Rye - 1:7.1
Barley... 1:6.1
KALE, MARROW, CABBAGE,
RAPE—In some sections of the state,
especially that which lies west of the
Cascade range, these crops are very
generally nsed for soiling purposes.
They bring enormous yields of green
feed on rich moist soil, often as much
as 50 to 60 tons per acre. On account
of the high protein content of these
feeds, they should be fed in combin
ation with feeds that are compara
tively high in carbohydrates. When
grain hay is used as the dry roughage,
either kale, marrow, cabbage or rape
will tit in well as a sucoulent feed.
Silage
As a means of furnishing a cheap,
succulent feed all the year round, and
at the same time provide for conveni
ence in feeding, and economy of
space in storage, there is nothing
that will take the place of a silo.
Silage is now being successfully made
in the state of Washington from any
of the following crops: Corn, clover,
oats and vetch, oats and peas, barley
and peas, barley and vetch, corn and
clover and clover and rye grass.
Corn is the most popular because
of the high quality of silage which it
makes. In sections where corn can
not be grown successfully any of the
other crops mentioned is recommend
ed. Alfalfa alone does not make
good silage, probably because of its
being high in protein, which, upon
decomposition produces an offensive
odor. There is every reason to be
lieve, however, that alfalfa mixed
with corn or any of the small grains
will make good silage, although this
has not been definitely determined.
The nutritive ratio of these crops is
only slightly changed by being pre
served as silage, and for practical
feeding purposes the ratios as given
for the green feed may be followed.
Root Crops, Potatoes, Etc.
To supply sucoulence on the farm
when there is no silo or green feed
at all times, such crops as mangels,
carrots, beet 9, turnips, apples, pump
kins and potatoes may be used. It
will be noted in the following discus
sion that there is comparatively little
difference in the feeding value of
these crops and therefore, as a gener
al rule, it is wise to grow that root
crop which will give the largest yield
of palatable succulent, feed per acre
at the lowest cost. However, there is
one exception to tbis general rule,
namely, in the case of the sugar beet.
In this root crop the percentage of
digestible carbohydrates is so high
that it may become advisable to grow
it even though the yield per unit of
land is lower than can be obtained
from other crops.
No attempt should be made to feed
roots that have not been washed free
from dirt. The feeding value of any
crop is enhanced if the cow eats it
with a relish, and this she cannot do
if the roots are covered with dirt
Small roots are sometimes fed whole,
but on account of the danger of the
cow's choking on them, it is wise to
cut all, both large and small, before
feeding. This is best accomplished
by the aid of a root cutter or pulper.
The low feeding value of all root
crops and tubers must be emphasized.
When it is considered that most of
them contain from 80 to 90 per cent
water it can easily be understood
that it is absurd to expect a cow to
maintain her body and give a large
flow of milk on roots alone. As an
example of this fact, consider the
mangel. Every 100 pounds of mangels
contains but one pound of protein,
live and one-half pounds of carbohy
drates, and two-tenths pounds of fat.
If mangels were the only feed given
to a cow weighing 1000 pounds and
giving 30 pounds of 4 per cent milk
daily, it would be necessary for her
to eat, according to Haecker's Stand
ard, 270 pounds of them each day in
order to furnish the required amount
of nutrients.
MANGELS—This root is the most
watery of all our roots, bat the high
yields usually obtained and also the
comparative ease with which the crop
is grown makes it popular with the
dairymen. The fact that it stores
well is another point in favor of the
mangel. It also carries a larger rel
ative percentage of digestible protein
than any of the other roots. (N. K.
1:6)
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SUGAR BEET—As has been noted,
this crop carries a high percentage of
digestible nutrients, especially carbo
hydrates, and where a fair yield can
be secured at a reasonable cost, this
crop is a favorite, especially when the
balance of the ration is low in carbo
hydrates. When other root crops are
worth $4.00 per ton, sugar beets are
considered economical at 85.00 per
ton. (N. R. 1:9.7. )
CARROTS, TURNIPS, RUTA
BAGAS, COMMON BEETS—These
are all good for feeding the dairy
cow. Some dairymen claim the best
results from one, some from another.
The difference comes mainly through
the variation in yield. Although the
nutritive ratios indicate a wide
difference in relative amounts of pro
tein to carbohydrates, the fact that
the total dry matter i 9 so low makes
this of little importance. The nutri
tive ratios are as follows: Carrots
1-.10 A; flat turnip 1:7.3; rutabagas
1:8.5; common beets, 1:7.
POTATOES—This crop as a rule is
too expensive to use for feeding dairy
cows. Sometimes, however, it hap
pens that a dairyman has a quantity
of small ones which cannot be sold.
These may be used in small amounts,
to furnish succulence. They have a
tendency to cause scours if fed in
large amounts. This is probably due
to the fact that the carbohydrates in
the potato are in the form of raw
starch, and not as easily digested as
when in the form of sugar. Potatoes
give better results when cooked, but
the cost of cooking makes this prac
tice prohibitive.
PUMPKlNS—Pumpkins may be
used for feeding dairy cows. Henry
states: ' 'As a result of several trials,
Hills, of the Vermont Station, found
that two and one-half tons of pump
bins including seeds, was equal to
one ton of corn silage. Three is a
tradition among farmers that pump
kin seeds increase the kidney excre
tion, and should be removed before
feeding. The seeds contain much
nutriment that should not be wasted.' '
The field pumpkin carries only about
one-half as much dry matter in the
hundred pounds as the garden pump
kin, but on account of the larger
yield of the former it is generally
preferred. (N. R. garden pumpkin
1:6.5; field pumpkin 1:6.2).
APPLES—When other succulence
is not available, apples make a good
substitute. As much as 80 pounds
per day may be fed without injury to
the cow. Apples are comparatively
high in carbohydrates, and when
large quantities are fed it is well to
add some high protein feed to balance
the ration. rN. R. 1:21).
CABBAGE—Caobage has been con
sidered as undesirable for dairy feed,
because of the objectionable odors
and flavors which it imparts to the
milk. If this succulence were fed
after the milking, however, rather
than before or during milking, there
would be no objection from this
source. Where it is possible to ob
tain a large yield from this crop it
can well be used to furnish succulence.
(To be continued. )
5

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