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6 THE PRESBYTERIAh
alities were represented. Let me note right here what 1 may forget later on: We had some very fine apples on that trip, which is not strange, but these annlw trrout m AnotroKn f 1J 1 -ri - ?iaii cunt. iv no woiuu nave imagined. a few years back, that Australian apples would be eaten by travellers in the Amazon valley? The world is growing smaller! Manaus boasts of otic of the finest theatres in Brazil. It is said to have cost upwards of a million dollars. It occupies a very prominent place on one of the principal avenues of the city. In a small square in front of it stands a beautiful monument which was erected on the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of Brazil, to commemorate the opening of the .\mazon river to the commerce of the world in 1867. Near the theater stands the Palace of Justice, Which is a nice building, but can not he mentioned in the same breath with the theater. Since writing the first part of this,letter I have been glancing over a geography of brazil by Elisec Reclus, a Frenchman, who is inclined to think that the greater part of this part of the Amazon valley was once a great inland sea. In this way the erosions referred to above can be explained. This city is well served by foreign as well as national steamers. Tboro nr<> *? - 1 ~? ? _ - ... ? i..vf lines luuiivrciiug with the extreme south of the republic, besides another that runs to Pernambuco and still another which comes from Maranani only. Then there is the Amazon Steamship Company's steamers that run regularly between here and Para and also to various points within this State and up to Iquitos, Peru. Then there arc a host of smaller steamers that go to all part? of the vast interior, even up to the edge of Bolivia. These are all private boats, some belonging to individuals and some to business houses that do a large business up in those refinns Thun l-ior*. u~ c :? - * --o i.hv1v. ai^ me iuicij;ii steamers. There is a regular line of English steamers to New York, another to Liverpool from here, and another to the same city from Icpiitos, Peru, a thousand miles farther up the Amazon. Then the Germans have a line running regularly between here and Hamburg. I was told a few days ago that a company that has the line from Peru to Liverpool is going to, or has just sent, the first boat to New York to establish a line from Jquitos to New York. This is significant. New York will thus he connected directly with the heart of this vast country, one thousand miles more inland than Manaus. There is another fact of great significance. Brazil and Bolivia both claimed a certain territory but to avoid trouble Bolivia ceded to Brazil her claims on certain conditions. One of these was that Brazil should bpild a railroad from Santo Antonio on the Madeira river, where the rapids begin, to a noint within (li? ?1 * r? n-iiuui; wi uuuvi.1, wncre inc fiver again becomes navigable?some 250 miles. The Madeira is the largest tributary of the Amazon. This railroad is going to open up a wonderful country. This road is boing built by an American company. They have been at it now about two years and it will f liof * ? ? 1 ^ ^ A * * i,,?i i iiiv ii Hinder, ji is a tremendous undertaking. This is the third or fourth attempt to build this road. It will be doubtless one of the most expensive roads in the world. The country, to begin with, is very unhealthy. The company had'to spend J OF THE SOUTH. October 13, 1909. large sums of money in getting the place so they could live there, to say nothing of other expenses. In spite of the difficulties the road is going ahead. I feel sure that Americans can do what can be done by men. When once finished it will be a most important line, as it will open up to llolivia an outlet to yie Atlantic, besides opening up a part of Brazil heretofore practically cut oft front the outside world by the rapids of the Madeira, which could be passed in small boats only with the greatest danger to life and property. During six months of the year ocean steamers can go up to the terminus of the railroad. Very likely a little dredging and blasting would make it possible to go up nearly the whole year. It will be of interest to my readers to know that a son of our beloved Secre* T~\ /"i laiy, \j\. nester, is with the engineering corps on this railway. The company has several thousand men at work. To feed all that multitude up in that wilderness becomes no small problem. I had intended to say something about rubber and other things but T see my letter is already too long so 1 shall have to put a full stop right here. Manaus, Brazil, Sept. 7, 1909. FROM THE JULY-AUGUST NUMBER OF THE BI-MONTHLY BULLETIN OF CHINA. An unfortunate hitch has occurred in the building operations at the Seminary at Nanking. Information which was published in the Missionary and elsewhero led the Board of Directors to believe that the money would be available, and plans were made to begin, building at once". But later information is to the effect that the money with which it was hoped to build has been diverted to Korea, so that the Seminary is again left in the lurch financially. THE WAVE OF FALSE DOCTRINE IN SINIM. Hampton C. DuBose, D.D., Soochow. A tidal anti-Biblical wave has struck the ship of Zion in this land. This summer a venerable missionary from Japan spoke at Ruling against the Scriptures and on the evolution idea of the unity and spirituality of jeliovaii. While at Mohkansan the President of a Union Baptist college and a learned Methodist clergyman aired their theories of inspiration. Also a professor of the Northern Presbyterian college at Hangchow delivered an address favoring universalis , as it was termed by those who heard it. This was strongly opposed by three members of our mission and by a Bishop and clergyman of the Anglican Church. These discourses produced intense excitement here. A third current from the New York Presbvterv seems to be gradually ncaring this shore. The representatives of the New York Board at Nanking offered the left-hand of fellowship to the followers of Alexander Campbell?a company of talented missionaries?and have formed a collegiate union with them. At' Hangchow the right hand oPfellowship was offered to the Southern Presbyterians and these two have made a college rnntrart cnhi#?ot o- J ? " ?.??v app.?M.ii of Nashville, which approval has not yet been obtained, neither has the land on which to erect these college buildings been purchased, for that which was supposed to have been bought has been claimed by the railroad.