6 THE PRESBYTERIAh
alities were represented. Let me note right here
what 1 may forget later on: We had some very fine
apples on that trip, which is not strange, but these
annlw trrout m AnotroKn f 1J 1
-ri - ?iaii cunt. iv no woiuu nave imagined.
a few years back, that Australian apples would
be eaten by travellers in the Amazon valley? The
world is growing smaller!
Manaus boasts of otic of the finest theatres in
Brazil. It is said to have cost upwards of a million
dollars. It occupies a very prominent place on one of
the principal avenues of the city. In a small square
in front of it stands a beautiful monument which was
erected on the four hundredth anniversary of the discovery
of Brazil, to commemorate the opening of the
.\mazon river to the commerce of the world in 1867.
Near the theater stands the Palace of Justice, Which
is a nice building, but can not he mentioned in the
same breath with the theater.
Since writing the first part of this,letter I have been
glancing over a geography of brazil by Elisec Reclus,
a Frenchman, who is inclined to think that the greater
part of this part of the Amazon valley was once a
great inland sea. In this way the erosions referred
to above can be explained.
This city is well served by foreign as well as national
steamers. Tboro nr<> *? - 1 ~? ?
_ - ... ? i..vf lines luuiivrciiug
with the extreme south of the republic, besides another
that runs to Pernambuco and still another which comes
from Maranani only. Then there is the Amazon
Steamship Company's steamers that run regularly between
here and Para and also to various points within
this State and up to Iquitos, Peru. Then there arc
a host of smaller steamers that go to all part? of the
vast interior, even up to the edge of Bolivia. These
are all private boats, some belonging to individuals and
some to business houses that do a large business up
in those refinns Thun l-ior*. u~ c :? - *
--o i.hv1v. ai^ me iuicij;ii steamers.
There is a regular line of English steamers to
New York, another to Liverpool from here, and another
to the same city from Icpiitos, Peru, a thousand
miles farther up the Amazon. Then the Germans
have a line running regularly between here and Hamburg.
I was told a few days ago that a company that
has the line from Peru to Liverpool is going to, or has
just sent, the first boat to New York to establish a line
from Jquitos to New York. This is significant. New
York will thus he connected directly with the heart
of this vast country, one thousand miles more inland
than Manaus. There is another fact of great significance.
Brazil and Bolivia both claimed a certain
territory but to avoid trouble Bolivia ceded to Brazil
her claims on certain conditions. One of these was
that Brazil should bpild a railroad from Santo Antonio
on the Madeira river, where the rapids begin, to a
noint within (li? ?1 *
r? n-iiuui; wi uuuvi.1, wncre inc fiver
again becomes navigable?some 250 miles. The Madeira
is the largest tributary of the Amazon. This
railroad is going to open up a wonderful country.
This road is boing built by an American company.
They have been at it now about two years and it will
f liof * ? ? 1 ^ ^ A * *
i,,?i i iiiv ii Hinder, ji is a tremendous undertaking.
This is the third or fourth attempt to build
this road. It will be doubtless one of the most expensive
roads in the world. The country, to begin
with, is very unhealthy. The company had'to spend
J OF THE SOUTH. October 13, 1909.
large sums of money in getting the place so they could
live there, to say nothing of other expenses. In spite
of the difficulties the road is going ahead. I feel
sure that Americans can do what can be done by men.
When once finished it will be a most important line, as
it will open up to llolivia an outlet to yie Atlantic,
besides opening up a part of Brazil heretofore practically
cut oft front the outside world by the rapids
of the Madeira, which could be passed in small boats
only with the greatest danger to life and property.
During six months of the year ocean steamers can go
up to the terminus of the railroad. Very likely a little
dredging and blasting would make it possible to go
up nearly the whole year. It will be of interest to
my readers to know that a son of our beloved Secre*
laiy, \j\. nester, is with the engineering corps on this
railway. The company has several thousand men
at work. To feed all that multitude up in that wilderness
becomes no small problem.
I had intended to say something about rubber and
other things but T see my letter is already too long
so 1 shall have to put a full stop right here.
Manaus, Brazil, Sept. 7, 1909.
FROM THE JULY-AUGUST NUMBER OF THE
BI-MONTHLY BULLETIN OF CHINA.
An unfortunate hitch has occurred in the building
operations at the Seminary at Nanking. Information
which was published in the Missionary and elsewhero
led the Board of Directors to believe that the money
would be available, and plans were made to begin,
building at once". But later information is to the
effect that the money with which it was hoped to
build has been diverted to Korea, so that the Seminary
is again left in the lurch financially.
THE WAVE OF FALSE DOCTRINE IN SINIM.
Hampton C. DuBose, D.D., Soochow.
A tidal anti-Biblical wave has struck the ship of Zion
in this land. This summer a venerable missionary
from Japan spoke at Ruling against the Scriptures and
on the evolution idea of the unity and spirituality of
jeliovaii. While at Mohkansan the President of a
Union Baptist college and a learned Methodist clergyman
aired their theories of inspiration. Also a professor
of the Northern Presbyterian college at Hangchow
delivered an address favoring universalis , as it was
termed by those who heard it. This was strongly
opposed by three members of our mission and by a
Bishop and clergyman of the Anglican Church. These
discourses produced intense excitement here. A third
current from the New York Presbvterv seems to be
gradually ncaring this shore.
The representatives of the New York Board at
Nanking offered the left-hand of fellowship to the followers
of Alexander Campbell?a company of talented
missionaries?and have formed a collegiate union with
them. At' Hangchow the right hand oPfellowship was
offered to the Southern Presbyterians and these two
have made a college rnntrart cnhi#?ot
o- J ? " ?.??v app.?M.ii
of Nashville, which approval has not yet been obtained,
neither has the land on which to erect these college
buildings been purchased, for that which was supposed
to have been bought has been claimed by the
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