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SURVEY( 8ksaszeas2?2^^Ji^^yKs^5^mz5Zira THE MASSACRE OF A NATION. The world is witnessing to-day in Turkey and just beginning to comprehend what will annenr in hisinr? as the greatest, most pathetic and most arbitrary tragedy in history. An entire race, and that, too, one of the oldest and most honorable, is undergoing a process of extermination that for completeness of design and cruelty of execution surpasses anything that ever preceded it in Turkey or in any other country. Although this work of destruction began more than six months before, it did not reach the height of its fury until July and August, and, owing to the close censorship of the press, the world is only now learning the facts from eye-witnesses and from official documents. It is now unquestionablv established that the plan includes the extinction of all the Armenians and probably of other Christian racoo throughout all of Turkey. The highest Turkish official at Constantinople declares to representatives of foreign governments that this is their purpose, and the local officials in the provinces openly proclaim that such are their peremptory orders from the capital. The rulers of Turkey experienced the full force of popular indignation at the time of the Armenian massacre in 1895-6, when, according to conservative estimates. 50,000, mostly men, were miserably killed, and nearly as many more were forced to accept Mohammedanism upon penalty of death. Therefore, the present rulers of Turkey, remembering the cry of protest that went up at that time from the civilized world, decided upon a plan ui eAieriuinaiion new to Turkey and to the world. This is the plan that is being carried out with a cruel ferocity hitherto unknown even in Turkey. The first step of the process is the elimination of all able-bodied men. This was done by forcing all such to enroll in the army. As soldiers they were not permitted to bear arms, but were given different kinds of service like road making. Evidence is now coming in showing that these have been deliberately killed by the thousand. When it was decided to clean the Armenians out of a city from which those able to bear arms had already been taken, with the exccnHnn nt those who paid the immunity tax. the remaining adult men were arrested and thrown into prison. In one instance where full evidence is at hand men thus arrested numbered 1,215. A few days later, all of these were taken out upon the road under pretense of deportation and a few miles out they were all killed. The evidence is complete. After all of the strong men were out of the way, the attack began upon the decrepit men, women and children. These were carried in carts or forced upon the road on foot, without adequate preparation for the Journey. The destination in most instances was announced as Northern Arabia. For most of the refugees this was several hundred miles away, depending, of course, upon the starting point. When attempts were made to provide these refugees with food for the Journey or to feed them by the way. the information was freely given by 4U* ? A1 -1-1- *? - ..... me uuiciuis in cnarge tnat tney wished nothing to be done that would prolong their lives. One of these wayside camps was , visited by the official representative THE PUEsBYTEtti^ OF CURRENT of one of the friendly powers. He reported in detail the terrible condition which he found there in the following words: "If it were simply a matter of being obliged to leave here to go somewhere else, it would not be so bad, but everybody knows it is a case of going to one's death. If there was any doubt about it, it has been removed by the arrival of a number of parties, aggregating several thousand people, from Erzroom and Erzinggan. I have visited their encampment a number of times and talked with some of the people. A more pitiable sight cannot be imagined. They are, almost without exception, ragged, filthy, hungry and sick. That is not surprising, in view of the fact that they have been on the road for nearly two months, with no change of clothing, no chance to wash, no shelter, and little to eat. The government has been giving them some scanty rations here. 1 watched them one time when their food was brought. Wild animals could not be worse. They rushed upon the guards who carried the food and the guards beat them back with eiu us, nuung nara enough to kill sometimes. To watch them one could hardly believe that these people were human beings. "As one walks through the camp, mothers offer their children and beg one to take them. In fact, the Turks have been taking their choice of these children and girls for slaves, or worse. In fact, they have even had their doctors there to examine the more likely girls and thus secure the best ones. "There are very few men among them, as most of them have been killed pn the road. All tell the same story of having been attacked over and over again, and a great many of them, especially the men, were killed. Women and children were also killed. Manv died, of course, from sickness and exhaustion on the way, and there have been deaths each day that they have been here. Several different parties have arrived and, after remaining a day or two, have been pushed on with no apparent destination. Those who have reached here are only a small portion, however, of those who started. By continuing to drive these people on in this way it will be possible to dispose of all of them in a comparatively short time. "The condition of these people indicates clearly the fate of those who have left and are about to leave from here. I believe nothing has been heard from any of them as yet, and probably very little will be heard. The system that is being followed seems to be to have bands of Kurds awaiting them on the road to kill the men' nonnrtlo 11 tt f? J i - 11? * vu^.iuu; anu luuiueuiany some OI the others. The entire movement seems to be.-the most thoroughly organized and effective massacre this country has ever seen." The quotation above is but one of many that might be given from official reports and from men and women not officials representing many races and nationalities but who were eyewitnesses of what they report. This evidence comes from regions as far west as Constantinople and as far east as Van and from the Black Sea coast of Syria. They all agree as to the method of procedure, the thoroughness and cruelty of the destructive work and the confessed purpose of the plan to wipe out the Armenian nation. The fact that the central government at Constantinople lN OF THE SOUTH. EVENTS I I HragMMHawBBg^^ refuses to permit Armenians to leave the country is further evidence of their purpose of extermination. The Turks do not deny the atrocities, but claim they are a military measure to protect them against a possible attack of a race that is disloyal. If their work of extermination included onlv the mnn nt militnrv atra while recognizing its drastic cruelty, there would be less ground for protest in this period of desperate conflict. But no military necessity can possibly be urged for the horrors perpetrated upon old men, women and young children, many of them hundreds of miles from any war. How can anyone excuse these awful crimes against civilization without becoming a moral partner in the deed itself? It is impossible to estimate how many have already perished. A careful survey in the Van Vilayet gathered the names of 55.000 persons who had been killed. Others were able to escape by flight to Persia and Russia. An eye-witness who has recently iiiuue ?u exienaea journey across Asia Minor saw over 50,000 poor, dazed, helpless, starving refugees camped by the roadside in a region almost desert with no provision for their food supply. Probably it is not an overestimate to say that 1,000,000 of the possible 2,000,000 Armenians in Turkey at the beginning of the war are either dead, or in Moslem harems, or forced to profess Mohammedanism or are on their sad journey to the desert and death. There has never been a more urgent * call for help. A more heartrending need has never been established by overwhelming evidence. A more inhuman treatment of a helpless people has never shocked a humane world. The National Armenian Atrocities Committee, with headquarters in New York, has a vast amount of evidence in its possession?and constantly increasing?showing the extent and cruelty of this assassination of the non-Moslems of Turkey. This Committee has already cabled to American Ambassador Morgenthau at Constantinople $100,000 for relief purposes, and $6,000 to Egypt to care for the Armenians who have escaped there. Arrangements are being made to reach with aid the 400,000 refugees who have fled to Persia and Russia. Immediate and generous help is necessary to save scores of thousands of lives where where utter destitution reigns in the face of an approaching winter. He who gives speedily gives twice. Send all contributions (or this purpose to the Presbyterian o( the South. PRODIGALITY OUR NATIONAL SHAME. Fiction is more fascinating than figures, but figures are the more convincing. Fiction is for the moment. Figures make men think. Here are some figures culled from an exhaustive paper recently sent out by the National Life Underwriters of this country that should be considered by every man and woman interfistnd in the conditions that confront themi True, indeed, tne figures representing the wealth of the United States are so vast as to be incomprehensible, except by comparison. This wealth is placed at $150,000,000,000. This is nearly double that of Great Britain and Germany, and three times that of France. Our income of $35,000,000,000 a year is larger in [ January 12, 1016 proportion to this wealth than that of any other nation. The wealth of the country is increasing $20,000,000 a day, or $7,000,000,000 a year. This annual increase equals the entire combined wealth of Holland and Portugal. At this rate, in two and a half years our income will equal the total wealth of Great Britain, two and onequarter years that of Germany, one and a half years that of France, in nine months that of Austria, and in seven months that of Italy. The manufacturing output of this ..1'U.IU 1 1U1 unu juur wuuiu uuy out the entire kingdom of Italy. The statement is also made that this country is drinking enough liquor in value to equal the entire wealth of Portugal and to pay for Great Britain's reported annual expenditure for war. There is enough money deposited in the banks of this country to buy out Spain, Holland, Switzerland and Portugal combined. The crops of our soil each year have a value equal to the wealth of Belgium before the war. The life insurance carried here equals the wealth of Italy, Spajn and Holland combined. The value of the farm lands alone is almost equal to the wealth of Italy, Spain, Holland and Belgium together. And yet?and this is the fact that should appeal to every citizen?Mr. Hunter, the president of the National Association of Life Underwriters, who has gone into the subject in a most comprehensive way, asserts that, in spite of all this vast wealth, increasing every minute, there are between ten and fifteen millions of people here who nrp in nnvortv Ono.flii???" W ... |/W.VI ?/ V/11W til 11 U Ul, H1C pupulation cf New York city applies for public charity in seven years. One person in ten who dies In the great cities is buried in a pauper's grave. The 1,250,000 dependent wage-earners cost the country $220,000,000 a year for their support. And, considering the enormous wealth and growing interests of the country, these people should have been able to save enough to support themselves. There are 3,127,000 widows here who are sixtyfive years old, and over 35 per cent, of these lack the necessities of life, and 90 per cent, do not have the ordinary comforts of life. Seven millions of women are compelled to earn their living. And there are 1,990,225 children between the ages of ten and fifteen years who are forced to labor in order to help sustain their parents, who are bereft of the advantages of education. We have barely touched upon the findings of this expert. We give his inquiry in conclusion: "Why is it that a nation of such limitless wealth should have at its doors such poverty, thriftlessness and its natural consequences?" His conclusion is worth considering: "Prodigality and extragance are far more usually the accompaniments of wealth than of frugality."?Richmond Times-Dispatch. AFTER THE WAR. Vorwaerts, a Berlin newspaper, estimates that the entire income which the German government received before the war will only be enough to pay pensions and the interest on the national debt. All other expenses, and they will be much greater than formerly, will have to be provided for by additional taxation. That is the taxes will be more than double what they were before, and they have long been a grievous burden. No doubt practically the same conditions will exist in other countries; and the longer the .war, the worse conditions will be.