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. FEEDING CALVES. By A. K. Hyatt, Sheboygan, Wis. 1 ought to know enough to give most excel '■•. uvice about feeding calves. Excepting the three years I helped Mr. Lincoln "'put down" the rebellion, I have, since I was ten years old, fed calves about as regularly as I have milked, and have milked about as regu larly as I have eaten my supper and breakfast, making about fifty-five years of experience. My average for over half of that time has been over twenty calves. I graduated as a calf breed er on the morning of my fourteenth birthday at my father's. There had come a big bull calf that would not own me as its mother; my fin gers did not seem to taste as he expected they would. Bite and bunt he would, but suck my fingers he would not. I called the calf names and said "ha! ha! I'll show you, I will."—l straddled him to shove him to a corner, put my arms around bis neck and surged back. We went out of an unlatched door, eight feet down into an April barnyard, I underneath. The calf thought it a part of the programme and had a nice picnic. I sneaked to the house and showed myself to mother, and she smilingly relieved me. I had gone through college, "graduated,"' and have been a kind step-mother to calves ever since. If the calf is "born right" it is easy to raise it; if one has proper feed. I allow a calf 'to suck once, as a rule, and get a "good licking." With a good fill of colastrum don't get hungry as quickly as a pig or a colt. I never starve them to make them sensible. That is not sensible. When a calf will suck its mother greedily it will suck my finger greedilyif managed right. The pail must be clean, the milk clean, the hand clean and the milk warm. There is not one calf in a dozen that gets its milk as clean and warm as it shouldbe in cold weather. Milk fed to a calf should be carefully strained. We don't enjoy sucking down hair, hayseed, chaff, etc. Neither does a calf. After a calf begins to ruminate they can stand such stuff better. Don't scare a little calf. Fright and rough usage often makes calves sick and sometimes kills them. A young calf needs feed three times a day. They should take it slowly for awhile, and if fed at morning, noon and night they take it slower than if fed but twice a day. After one begins feeding skim-milk some grain should be added. I said "some grain," and I think it should be cooked. Many calves are destroyed by putting too much grain in the milk. I raised thirty-five . calves last year and I don't think one of them had scours to damage it two shillings. Don't feed oat meal to very young calves unless you sift out the hulls. I don't hurry to get my calves to eating oats, hay, etc. I treat them somewhat as mother treated me; I was quite a big baby boy when T began to eat pork, potatoes and cabbage. Don't fail to keep them warm and dry. For m/my years I have never failed to look my stock all over about bed time. No true Christian— to say nothing about a gentleman — go to bed and sleep well if he knows any of his do mestic animals are uncomfortable for lack of any care he can give them. Their quarters may be clean and warm and dry and yet lack the life giving oxygen. Our professors and editors and instructors at our Farm Institutes have been tellingand then telling it again—and then repeating, how very essential it is to give our animals a well balanced ration of feed. 1 have heard so much about it that I am tired of it. If they would spend half of the time telling how important it is that the ration of ills should be well balanced also they would be RANCH AND RANGE. sensible. It is far more difficult to know when our animals are getting about twenty-one parts of oxygen, seventy-nine parts of nitrogen and a fraction of one-twenty-five hundredths part of carbonic acid. Too little oxygen in the sta ble is more damaging than too little nitrogen in the stomach, but a great many calves get altogether too much ox-ygen, more even than an ox could appropriate. He Never Sleeps. A leading merchant was once asked how it was he had no representatives on the road. He replied: "1 have the best' representatives in the world. They always teU the value of my goods in plain language. They are always at tentive to business. They arc always polite. They never miss an appointment and they are at work from early in the morning till last thing at night. They take no holidays and work the whole year round. My representatives are my advertisements, and I know exactly where they are in every city and town, and I know to a cent what they cost me." At this season of the year the breeders of the country will do well to follow the example of this mer chant. Their business is one that cannot be kept before the public by a commercial traveler, and the reputable journal devoted to such lines is the best medium they can employ to bring their surplus stock to the attention of possible patrons and buyers. If a breeder cannot afford to advertise he cannot afford to breed. No matter how small the card may be, so long as it is in the journal which commands the attention of the people the breeder wishes to reach, it will be a representative who never sleeps. —Spirit of the Time. IT PAYS TO KEEP POSTED. As an illustration of the disadvantages that come to farmers remaining in ignorance of modern methods, some remarks made by ex- Gov. Hoard before the New Jersey state board of agriculture last month were very much to the point. He was speaking of the necessity there was for dairymen to keep posted in order to get the greatest profit possible out of their business and brought out the point forcibly by o-iving the following instance coming under his observation: "You can see the importance of this when I tell you that 800 farmers who bring milk to the Hoard creameries, there is a difference of over 100 per cent in the cash returns per cow in different herds, and over 600 per cent in the net profit per cowfor instance, one man get ting $65 to $73 per cow annual cash return, besides the skim-milk, the other getting $35, the one a profit of $30, the other $5. The first is a student and a reader, has learned how to produce a profitable cow and how to manage her. The other doesn't read, and continually sneers at book farming, and what his neighbors tell him they saw in their dairy paper. The but ter from the two herds sold for one year at the same price. There are thousands who get even less than $35 per cow. Just as there are thousands who fail to con duct the dairy business economically because they do not spend a little money and time judi ciously in acquiring a familiarity with the best dairy methods, so there are thousands in every other department of agriculture who are not as well off as they might be for the very same reason, says the Milwaukee Sentinel. The Farmers' Institute is one agency that is doing useful work on behalf of the farmers and those have themselves to blame if they do not pros per. The great requisite for success in farming is industry, but even industry will fail if it is not supplemented with a proper knowledge of the best farming methods. There is no better ad vice for the farmer than that given by ex.-Gov. Hoard to the dairymento keep themselves posted. SALTING AND WORKING BUTTER. The proprietor of one of the most successful creameries in Michigan writes to Hoard's Dai ryman a description of the method employed there in salting and working butter: We are frequently in receipt of letters of in quiry regarding methods of butter making as practiced in our dairy. Several have, of late, asked our opinion concerning salting, whether we liked best to salt in the churn, or to par tially work before salting; also if we have ever tried brine salting. Ever since the process of making granular butter was introduced into our dairy, which is something over ten years, we have practiced salting in the churn, and, al though several other methods have been given a trial, we still see no occasion to make a change. Briefly described the process is as follows: When the butter is in granules the size of wheat kernels, the butter milk is drawn off, and a pailful of water, of the same temperature, put into the churn. This is then drawn off, after revolving the barrel churn a few times, and water at a temperature of 55 degress to 58 degrees in summer and 60 degrees to 62 de grees in winter introduced. We rinse the but ter, usually in two waters, which removes most of the butter milk. If washed too much the flavor is impaired. Water should never be left standing upon the butter, but drained off as soon as possible. When the water has drained off until it runs only in drops, the salt is sprinkled evenly over the surface of the but ter, about one-fourth the whole v amount at first, then the churn tipped so as to expose fresh butter, and more salt sprinkled, on tip ping from side to side until add has been used. This starts the brine, which will begin to flow freely from the opening in the bottom of the churn. Then cork up and place the cover on the churn, and revolve slowly for several min utes, allowing the butter to fall squarely from end to end so as to thoroughly incorporate the salt. Then hook the churn, remove the cover, take out the cork and allow the butter to drain. Now, if taken out upon a butter bowl, a few minutes work with ladle or level will finish thep rocess, and leave the butter in excellent condition to pack. It should present the peculiar, pebbly ap pearance, when broken apart, which is seen in broken steel, thus showing that the working has not been too excessive. Butter treated in this way will not be mottled or streaked if the working has been sufficient. Such a condi tion is a sign that the salt has not been evenly incorporated. . Buell Lamberson, seedsman, Portland, Or., carries a full line of grass seeds, including Bro mus Inermis, Sheep's Fescue, Hard Fescue, Meadow Fescue, Johnson Grass, Tall Meadow Oat Grass, Italian and English Rye Grass. (lovers—Medium Red, Alsike, Alfalfa, Crim son and Espersette. Fodder Plants—Vetches, Field Peas, Rape, Millet, etc. Correspondence solicited in regard to any other varieties required. Illustrated Catalogue free to any address. Send for it.