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DISEASES OF CATTLE.
Delivered before the Stockmens' con vention at Pendleton, Ore., by Dr. Withycombe, state veterinarian of Ore gon. As the/ subject, "Diseases Affecting Cattle," has. been assigned to me, I take it for granted that those diseases affecting cattle in this section of the state will be the most appropriate of which we speak. It is well known to the stock breeders of Eastern Oregon that there is no cattle disease that ex tensively or even seriously affects the cattle interests of this section. Probably the most prevalent disease, which occasionally makes its appear ance among your cattle, is black quar ter or black leg. This disease is some what similar in character to anthrax, although not nearly so infectious or serious. It is a specific disease, de pending upon bacilli for its propaga tion and development. Anthrax and black leg are diseases which are usu ally confined to certain localities, such as moist, undrained swampy places, or lands containing large amounts of de composed vegetation. These seem to be the favorite localities of the disease. As a precautionary measure, whenever the disease appears in the herd, the - cattle should be immediately removed to higher and dryer pastures. The symptoms of the disease are of general and local character, and usually appear from one to three days after affection, commencing with a loss of appetite and a suspension of rumination, ac companied with general debility and high fever. The patient usually be comes lame, or a pecuiliar stiffness of one or more limbs appears, due to a tumor or swelling. These tumors or swellings accompanying the disease generally make their appearance upon the fleshy portion of the body, and are distinguishable from ordinary swell ings or tumors by a peculiar cracking sound heard when they are smoothed or pressed with the hand. These sounds are due to the generation of gas formed by the bacilli as they multiply. If the enlargement is cut into, the ani mal experiences but little pain and a dark red frothy, ill-smelling liquid is discharged. The animal usually suc cumbs to the disease in from one and a half to three days. Treatment has thus far proved unavailing, hence pre ventitive measures should; be used. Various measures have been adopted by stockbreeders for the prevention of the disease, the most prominent of which is what is known as a Pasteur vaccine. This remedy consists of a thin virus of the disease, with which the young animal is inoculated, which pro duces freedom from subsequent attacks of the disease. Two vaccines are usual- ly employed, one stronger than the other, the weaker one being used first and followed by the stronger in about 10 days. The virus is usually injected beneath the skin of the tail. Various other methods for prevention have been employed. The most common and pos sibly the most successful is the inser tion of a seton rowel in the dewlap, or in the skin on top of the neck. The seton usually consists of a strong piece of tape or cord, the ends of which are tied together, and the whole seton smeared with turpentine or cerate of cantharides, which sets up a local in flammation and suppuration, thereby reducing the animal somewhat. Actinomycosis, or big jaw, is another specific disease of cattle occasionally met with on the range. This disease is due to a fungus, and is inoculable, oc casionally affecting different organs of the body, but is most commonly con- fined to the lower jaw of cattle. The disease isi transferable to man, hence the afflicted animal should be treated so as to arrest the progress of the di- sease or killed. lodide of potash is considered to be a specific for this di sease. One and a half drams of this medicine given daily in a pint of water for a week or ten days is said to be al most invariably cure the disease. In the discussion that followed this address, Prof. W. J. Spillman stated that it was a mistaken idea that Oregon Is not a good country for hogs because corn cannot be raised. He said every condition is so favorable that he would predict that the state within 20 years would be sending hogs East. CHARCOAL FOR HOGS. I had a little experience a week or two ago with my hogs, and would like to give our readers the benefit of it. I have between fifty and sixty porkers in the pens, and at the time of which I write they were all coughing badly. Some of them would stand and cough for two or three minutes at a time. I have been in the habit of burning cobs and making charcoal for my hogs for several years, but, on account of the snow this winter, I have not been able to make any since Thanksgiving until about two weeks ago, when there was a nice lot of dry cobs and several wagon loads of wet and snowy ones. I went to work and made a fine lot of charcoal, and was all done by dinner, when the hogs started on their feast. The result was that, by 5 o'clock that day, I did not hear any more coughing in the hog pens. The way I make my cob charcoal is this, says a writer in Wallace's Farm ers: I take a small armful of straw and start my fire, and then, with a rake and scoop-shovel, I keep putting on cobs slowly . wherever the flames break out. I clean up cobs and all kinds of dirt and rubbinsh and put on the fire, so by the time I am done I have my feed lot nice and clean. When the cobs are nicely charred (not burned to ashes) I put out the fire by putting on water and spreading out the cobs. PRAISE TO THE FACE. Seems to me there is an old saying about praise to the face being open dis grace; and I wish to enter my protest against this sentiment, that probably owes its birth to flattery. When a man has worked hard and accomplished something that is really worthy of praise, I see nothing objectionable, and there may be much good, in letting him know that his work is appreciated. Some people have the happy faculty of bestowing praise in a delicate, tactful way, in a way so "pat" as to add greatly to the enjoyment; as did the little boy who asked a young lady if her eyes were new, and when asked why, replied, "because they are so bright." But even if we are not blessed with the happy faculty of say ing things in a bright, poetical way, that need not prevent our bestowing praise and encouraging words where we think they are deserved. We little know how much good a kind or en couraging word may do a fellow mor tal. —Bee Keeper Review. . DIGGING WELLS. Having had much experience in dig ging wells, I was consulted on one oc casion as to getting water in a lo cality where it was necessary to go down 40 or 50 feet and there was no rock or stone in the vicinity with which to stone up the walls. I advised • wall ing up the first four feet of the top solidly, with stone or brick, using ce ment for mortar, after that to excavate six feet, and then to cement the upper three feet of this six feet; excavate three feet more and cement above, in which manner continue to water the cementing to be done as usually done in cisterns. This was tried but on reaching the sand the "well digger" objected for danger of caving; he was however induced to proceed, carefully whitewashing with cement, until enough was excavated for cementing. This plan of whitewashing with cc- RANCH AND RANGE. ment has proven ample protection from caving in sand and loose gravel in all and numerous cases since that time. The first well of this kind was put down fourteen years ago and it was greatly ridiculed for some time. At this time this well appears as perfect as when first put down—apparently good for ages to come. This well is thirty-two inches in diameter— first fifteen feet was hard digging, the balance loose sand and put down in the manner above stated until water wes reached at forty feet when a tub was sunk four feet proving a continu ous supply of water to this time. Several wells have been put down sinceone over sixty feet —all a per fect success. Two men will ordinarily complete ten feet in a day. If water fails the well can be lowered until water is again found without taking out the "stoning up," or danger of cav ing walls. If you please you can make it angle worm proof and also perfectly secure from impure drainage, says F. C. Cur tis in Michigan Fruit Grower. In draining marshes we find a title drain three feet deep drains three rods each side of it and the deeper the tile is laid the farther it will drain. If that is true, and we know it is, how far will a well fifty feet or more drain? The principle is the same. In many locali ties we hear of intermittent and re mittent fevers. In Wisconsin we sel dom hear of these fevers, but we do hear of the deadly typhoid and other diseases caused by impure water. The doctor comesalmost the first thing he looks after and inquires about is the source and purity of the water used. The learned Dr. Boudich, of Massa chusetts is reported as excavating a deep trench around several privy vaults, and in every instance he found on the side towards the wells a dark discol ored streak running towards the wells. Shocking to think of it, particularly in cities! Tho cemented well may not be ab solutely proof against all impure drain age, in a closely built city, but it will be an improvement and safe guard anywhere. lam not quite certain but feel almost sure that a well put down in the manner described will have no side drainage or at least it would not be effected by any side impurities for many years. GRINDING GRAIN FOR POULTRY. An interesting experiment in feeding chicks and capons is reported in Bul letin No. 26 of the New York Experi ment station. The experiment was in tended to show the difference, if any, in the feeding values of whole and ground grain. Similar tests with laying hens have been made at this station before. Now the result with young stock cannot but be of interest both to the mushmakers, and to those who favor feeding whole grain. The latter method is certainly more eco nomical of labor, but the question to be decided is as to the greater profit, all things considered. In the experiments under considera tion, only ordinary foods were used, and the endeavor waa made to have them of such character that there should be no pronounced difference in the chemical composition of the ra tions. The two lots of chicks, twenty two in each, were fed for three months in the summer, after which the cock erels were caponized. They were hatched in! incubators, raised in out door brooders, and were comparable in size. They were L. Brahma, Dark Brahma, Buff Cochin, Partridge Coch in, and Cochin-Game cross. One lot received nothing but ground grain from the start, and the other nothing but whole or cracked grain. Both had skim-milk freely. The lot having ground grain was fed dried blood, and the others cut bone twice a week, and what dried blood they could be induced to eat. Not enough was eaten, how ever, to bring the amount of nitrogen in the whole-grain ration entirely up to that in the other. Each lot was kept on a grass run. The grain mixture fed to the chicks consisted of two parts by weight of corn meal, two parts of wheat bran, and one part each of wheat middlings, old-process linseed meal, and ground oats. The whole grain fed was granu lated oat meal, wheat cracked and whole, cracked corn and barley. Those fed* ground grain consumed more food, hut made 8.9 pounds more gain in weight than those fed whole grain. The total cost of growing to twelve weeks of age, including hatching and cost of eggs, oil for brooders, feed, etc., was 15.3 cents each for the lot fed on ground grain, and 15 cents for the lot feed on whole grain; but the average weight of the former was 2.9 pounds, and of the latter 2.6 pounds. This cost does not include labor, rent of build ings or losses. There was no loss in either lot from disease, and the chicks and the capons from them remained in good health throughout. The cockerels were caponized, and fed the same contrasted rations during the winter, or from September 10 to March 10. The lot fed on ground grain were a trifle heavier at the start, and they maintained this weight through out, reaching "a weight of 11 pounds several weeks sooner than the lot fed on whole grain. Some of the time the gain was made at less cost by those fed on whole grain. The nearer the birds approached maturity the greater the cost in either case. In another ex periment with capons from chicks hatched under hens, the ground grain ration apparently gave the greater profit for the whole time, as those thus fed reached maturity sooner than those fed whole grain. WHICH WOULD YOU CHOOSE? You have a nice bright boy and honestly desire to do as well as pos sible by him. We will suppose you are that kind of a dad who will cheerfully give this boy a start in life when he leaves you at 21, to the amount of $1,000. In doing this you give him what is called a common school edu cation, such as may be obtained at your district school, and he stays and helps you 1 on the farm until he be comes of age. Now we want to ask you if this is the best thing that you can do for --us boy of yours. Suppose you take that $1,000 and invest it in a good modern education for your boy and turn him out at 21 with such an education and no money. We are going to) assume that this education shall be along ag ricultural lines and then when he leaves you he will be apt to take up farming as a business. And it is a good business, as we know from ex perience, and has many advantages over work in a city. Agriculture has, within a few years, been lifted up from a ,happy-go-lucky, hit-or-miss business, to a profession, only more advancement is needed along this line. This business demands a trained mind and expert skill. Your son thus equipped is infinitely better prepared to meet the problems-and emergencies of life than he would be with the $1,000 and only a limited education with it. A course at one of our agri cultural colleges is one of the very best investments you can make for your boy. Think this thing over. ' "I can never look at an incubator without thinking of George Washing ton," remarked the snake editor. "Go on," replied the horse editor, in a resigned manner. "If the incubator could speak it would say, proudly, as it surveyed its numerous output of chickens, 'I did it with my little hatch-it.' " II