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flax plants had their stems toughened by advanced
growth, the plan of the person doing the weeding
was to wear heavy stockings on his feet in place oi!
stiff-soled shoes, and walk through and gather thn
weeds. The plants thus tramped upon soon re
covered an erect position, l^ater, as the stems be
came toughened by growth, a novel invention by an,
assistant in the work accomplished the destruction
of the tallest weeds without going through the
plats. The device for this purpose consisted of
riveting two long, slender poles in the form of
pruning shears, with jaws about five inches in
length. With this tool the user became somewhat
skilled, and the process proved quite rapid. Unttt
the middle of June the plats were kept reasonably
clean of weeds, but later growth added consider
ably to the labors of separating them from the flax
straw when it was pulled for curing.
There were but two kinds of weeds which provetf.
seriously troublesome to the crop. One of them,
equisetum, is by nature a plant best adapted to
cold, moist conditions of soil. The other weed was
the wild buckwheat.
A popular belief is held that the growing of flax,
is immensely exhausting to the fertility of the soil
As evidence in proof of this opinion, persons of ex
perience tell us that to raise flax more than one
year on the same land invariably results in a dimin
ished yield. But investigations by the Minnesota,
station have proven that flax is no more exhaustive
than a crop of corn or oats.
The usual mode of harvesting flax for fiber is by
pulling; and this always gives the best results
In this labor young boys were employed on somr
of the plats, and on others only men were engaged
The expenses involved in pulling varied consider
ably, ranging from a rate of approximately $10 pel
acre to nearly three times that amount. All hands]
were at the beginning unskilled. One boy out of
five acquired dexterity equal to that of the besi
man, while he was paid 75 cents per day, or one
half as much as a man.
CuriiiK ami Handling.
After pulling, the usual practice is to tie near
the seed end, in small bundles called "stooks," and
stand on end with the bottom spread out to dry
This is shown in the engraving, which was made
from a photograph taken at the Puyallup station.
There are other processes which the flax must go
through, such as "retting," "scutching," etc., but
the flax-grower does not have to do that, as the
manufacturer performs that work.
As to the results and the quality of flax raised,
we quote from the report of the secretary of agri
culture for 1897:
"A ton of flax straw grown in the Puget sound
region of Washington, under the direction of the
office of fiber investigation, was sent to a firm of
famous flax manufacturers in Lisburn, Ireland, to
be scutched and retted in order to determine the'
grade of the flax so produced. A very superior
RANCH AND RANGE.
quality of straw was produced, resembling the
straw of the famous Courtrai region of Belgium
With the Irish report was received a large assort
ment of flax samples, the best scutched fiber of
which is valued therein at $350 per ton; but out of
the lot sent from Washington, fiber was hackled
worth 500 per ton. This experiment also demon
strated conclusively that it is possible to obtain
good fiber and good seeds from the same plant.
The success of the experiment has stimulated ex
periments in other parts of the Pacific coast."
HOW TO HAKE A FRUIT EVAPORATOR.
Bill of Lumber—4 pcs. 2x4, 10 feet long; floor
ing, 150 feet; lxl strips, for trays, 400 feet, lineal
measure; Ix 2, 47 feet; Ix 4, for tray rest in center,
Flax Standiug on End In "Stooks."
How to Build and Operate —For the house or
box part take four pieces of 2x4, 56 inches long,
and four pieces 2x4, 37% inches long; nail together
with the short pieces on the inside, lapping the long
ones on the ends of the shorter —thus making a
frame 52x37% on inside. This makes the sills and
plates. Close three sides of this with matched floor
ing, up and down, 7 feet high; now you have a
box 7 feet high, 54x37% inches. Leave the one side
open to be closed with four doors similar to double
stable doors, and in the exact center of this door
space nail a Ix2-inch piece up and down to nail
tray rest to. This will give two rows of trays.
The Roof, Draft, Etc.
Put comb roof on with the flooring, leaving a
vent open at comb 2 inches the entire length of
box. Make a V trough, which turn upside down
with 1-inch blocks under the corners; this gives
ventilation and also keeps out rain; also make two
6-inch holes below to be opened or closed as needed;
Pacific M Jacob Hettrick, v
jfcffl JP Local and district agents
C^ f\f\ imai wanted on all parts of the
/^*^ "" 31k Pacific Coast. yelm, wn.
A jifll IA la a Cream Separator a paying invest
/\ -l /"▼^L r PSB^M ment? If you keep cows, what is your ob
/-% \3 t~~ I IL, V ITIJ ft ject in so doing? What system do you
*■ -^^^ M M -J if Hm use to cream your milk? What per cent.
«—* •^ W « % of the fat in the milk are you able to the
__« % • with the present system? Do not wait
H I• fl «W^^ cos( ln tlme' labor and «■'"■''•',,"" V ot w! I
1 4 >^T ■ #^ Z^ until you see how your neighbor is going
MVlll/^V _JB^^^^ make a separator pay; Separator" out
L^W'M 1 |^/A»-7^^ J^K^ yourself. Buy an "Eclipse Separator" at
JT^ -^^^^ Ifctfc once and get your share of Increased prof
«C3 BPSSiSF its pained by the use of a separator All
C ream Separators S« ..S 'z^-\ si
this admits cold air and drives the hot air up, caus
ing complete draft. When the evaporator is full
of fruit, the holes below should be open full size,
except at night when fruit is nearly dried they
could be closed, or partly so, which is done by tack
ing a small piece of board over hole, which can be
pushed to one side and a nail or screw hold it in
place. For the trays to rest on, take a piece Ix 4
37% inches long, nail a 2-inch piece same length,
in center of this, on top; this gives one inch on
each side for rabbit; this is for center, and the
rabbit rest is nailed to it through the Ix 2 inch in
front and through the siding on rear side. For
the outside rabbit one piece lxl inch 37Y 2 long,
this nailed to a piece Ix 2, same length, and this
nailed to the end of box, forms rabbit for the trays
to rest on. As many of these tray rests can be
made as needed to fill the box to near top of doors.
Place the first ones 12 inches from bottom of bo^,
and continue up, placing them 3% inches apart.
The trays are made of lxl-inch strips for the
frame part, and are 2x3 feet square; bottom is made
of plastering lath sawed in two, and also cut in
two lengthwise, as they are too wide; nail these
to bottom of frame, three-sixteenths of an inch
apart. When used for berries or sweet corn, tack
cheese cloth stretched tightly over the lath. There
should be four doors in order to have as small a
space open as possible in attending to the fruit;
these are hung by light hinges to outside and fast
ened by wooden button screwed to center upright,
the lumber can all be bought at planer ready for
use cheaper than it can be cut by hand.
For the furnace, build a box of brick or stone
as large on the inside as the house, letting the
most of the wall extend on the outside in order
to have all the space possible inside, for heating.
Build into this wall at the bottom and ends a
piece of heavy stack or sheet iron; any old smoke
stack will do, but must be at least one foot in diam
eter; if smokestack is used, split it and spread as
much as posssible to have large enough place for
fire, and all the heating surface possible. This
open edge of iron must be well plastered down with
mortar, or brick and mortar, that no smoke may
get inside, says a writer in Colman's Rural World.
Let it extend just through the wall to a flue built
at the end on the outside, of brick or stone, as high
or a little higher than the wall; then a common
6-inch stovepipe set on to run as high as the evap
orator, will do. A damper in pipe is an advan
tage to check draft and control heat, and pipe should
be at least one foot from evaporator.
The mouth of the furnace should be at same end
as the ventilator holes in the evaporator, and can
be closed by a piece of sheet iron with a small
draft underneath, the same as a stove door.
Set your box evaporator on this wall, and mud
or plaster it down tight. In using, always have
your house well heated before putting in fruit.
The top of wall must be fully one foot above top
of iron; this will make two feet space from iron
to first tray. In putting the trays in, shove the
first one clear back, let second be flush in front,
the third clear back again—placing them the same
in both sides; this sends the heated air directly
over each tray to the top.
The "docile" bull is the one which is just "as
likely as not" to catch the war fever and inaugur
ate a Spanish bull fight. Look out for him, if you
are giving him too much latitude. While his favor
ite occupation is chasing Spaniards in their famous
bull fights he doesn't care what color he chases so
it's red and the stars and stripes are no protection
from his ire.