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in my opinion is one of the most pro lific sources of this terrible disease. During the eleven months of this year, from January 1 to November 30, sixty-four persons died from tubercu losis in Seattle alone. It would be in teresting to know how many of these cases originated in the milk of a tu berculous cow. Even with the best sur roundings dairy cows should be regu larly examined by a competent veter inary surgeon. If you are not able to employ a veterinary it is the duty of the state to provide you with one, who shall examine your stock and admin ister the tuberculin test to suspected animals at the expense of the state. Let this association at its present meet ing memorialize th° legislature in fa vor of a state vetrinarian. and as many deputies as will protect the public from this serious menace. In some of the states they are discussing the advisability of building institutions for the treatment of consumptives at the public expense. Why not spend a little of our public funds in trying to prevent our people from contracting this dread disease? By all means let us have a state veterinarian. Let us educate the dairymen of the state in all that pertains to the pro duction of pure and wholesome pro ducts. And let us have more stringent laws for the punishment of dishonest persons who, for a paltry gain, adul terate their milk with injurious sub stances. Let them be dealt with as severely as we deal with the counter feiter or the murderer. A man who adulterates the food of little children is many times a murderer, as every physician knows. MILK AND CREAM TESTS. A. C. Bebee. Several times in the last few weeks I have had farmers come to me with samples of milk to be tested and in nearly every case the farmer wanted to sell or to buy a cow by the Babcock test. As I always found that the sam ple brought was from a single milking, I wish to call your attention to the fact that such a sample is not suffic ient evidence to determine the worth of a cow. The reason is because milk from the same cow will vary a great deal from day to day. A difference of one-half of one per cent, between night's and morning's milk is very common and differences of up to one and one-half per cent, have been no ticed. Extended experiments made in various places have shown that very little dependence can be placed on a single sample. For no apparent cause the milk from the same cow. on the same feed, drawn at the same time of day and under the same conditions, will show variations of from two-tenths up to one per cent, and perhaps even more. The way to get an idea of the worth of a cow is to get a number of samples and combine them. Take a sample of every milking for one or two weeks or a month, put a sample as soon as taken in a quart fruit jar containing a little bichromate of potash and test this combined sample, and you will have something to go by. Nor will this give you the exact truth, for a cow's record for a year is what counts. For the exact methods of getting at the value of a cow with the greatest justice to the cow and the least work to yourself, I must refer you to Prof essor Spillman or some one better ac quainted with this subject than I am. I simply wish to call your attention to the fact that a test from a single sam ple of milk is apt to be misleading as to the worth of the cow. There ought to be no particular dif ficulty about testing milk if you get a good book like Prof. Farrington's "Testing Milk," and follow directions. Prof. Russell's "Dairy Bacteriology" is well worth buying. Any one can get more than a dollar's worth out of them if he reads them. I think I get nearly a dollar's worth every time I look at either of them, which is every few days. (Editor's Note —For accom modation of our readers we will mail these books to any address pastpaid, for $1.00 each.) Another point in testing is the Wis consin curd test described very fully in Professor Russell's book spoken of above. This test is to discover why milk is bad and where the trouble lies. It takes a fruit jar. a little rennet, patience and care. I had a case come ud recently where a farmer brought in each morning twenty gallons of fairly good flavored milk and in spite of all he could do the milk developed in four or five hours such a bad taste and smell it was impossible to use it. I tested every cow of his herd by this curd test and finally proved that it lay in the feed he was using. He changed feed and has had no more trouble with the milk. The test is of value to the former in enabling him to trace down bad milk. Suppose, for instance, it was due to some one cow. That cow could be isolated and the rest of the milk would be fit for market. This test is so simple that with a little prac tice and perhaps some heln from your creamery mnn the cause of poor milk can be located in most every case. Tn regard to testing ihe age and con dition of milk. I think Farrington's acid test should be very freely used at the skimming stations. T believe the greatest improvements in dairying will come from the farmers, as a class, improving their methods of handling milk and keeping it from contamination. It is so much easier to keep out. dirt than to get it out af ter it is once in. Professor Spillman has shown in a recent number of the New York Dairy Produ z how to make un solutions for acid testing which shall be less expensive than the Far rington tablets. Such solutions will give a sharper end reaction (I mean the red will disappear more sharply) than with tablets. When testing cream for my own use I always pour in some indicator when using tablets. The phenolthalien seems to deterior ate decidedly with age I think the supply houses can easily put a stand ard solution of sulphuric acid to stand ardize Prof Spillman's solutions by. Such sulphuric acid keeps for a year or more if kept in a jlass stoppered bottle. A quart or two will last for a year. With a little practice this solution for testing milk at the factories can be made up from caustic soda and tested with a standard sulphuric acid at very little cost. The Hazelwood Company has one large shipper where this acid test is continually used and though the shipping facilities were unusually poor the cream comes in very much oetter than from places where the acid test is not used and the shipping facilities were very good. That lo cality has one of the best records of sweet, fine flavored cream that I know of, and I attribute it largely to the constant use of Farrington's acid test at the receiving stations. Now as to cream testing: Cream testing is not as easy as milk testing, and we don't know all about it yet. A four per cent, milk is easier to test accurately than a forty per cent, cream. I shall probably tell you things that you knew before. But I shall give what I have found of ser vice in my own testing room. In the first place, always read your butter fat at the same temperature. One hundred and thirty degrees Fahren heit seems to be the accepted tempera ture according to the most recent ex periments. I have had an old style steam turbine—that is, it was two years old, —which is quite antiquated in the testing business. As soon as I read what Prof. Woll had found out about expansion and contraction of fat I made enough experiments to coh vim-p myself that ..uis experiment held good in Washington as well as in Wisconsin, then I cut a hole in my tester cover for a thermometer and I have used it ever since. And right THE RANCH J. B. AGEN . ' Creamery Butter Hand Separator Cream ~ Ranch Eggs Butter Cheese BUTTER, EGGS and CHEESE SellS EMPIRE HAND SEPARATORS NOCOMMISSrON.'" 0'""63 ""'"""'^ '" "" s'a"" ''""o "*~"° ™™™«* Chamberlain, Hamilton & Co., in? WHOLESALE JOBBERS AN D COMMISSION MERCHANTS. ■ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ On Jan. 1 the firms of C. W. Chamberlain & Co. and John W. DeCamp &Co were embraced in the above incorporation. We are now in better position than in the past to handle FRUIT, BUTTER, EGGS, CHEESE. GRAIN, POULTRY. -. . . .- Send us your consignments. Prompt attention and highest market price guaranteed. 905-907 Western Avenue, Seattle. fT 'jif'fjjSjff We Carry a Full Stock of II I CREAMERY SUPPLIES. rfr#* DISBROW COMBINED CHURNS <^f|fs§ ..Jictor Combined Churns... m3I Simpson's ButteJ Molds & Cutters Mill Dairy Churns & Butter Workers %. ItwHl FULL LINE OF WOODENWARE AN D MILK TESTING GLASSWARE. IB^^ ...Keystone Dehorning Clippers... li\ Alpha DeLaval Cream Separators ■;IJ!;:V;. 11 ;'ißSlk\* - Write for Prices. <$SBS^' Merz Dairy $uppiy Co- 311 Second Aye. South, Seattle, Wash. * *"*■ MUM** I Wish You a Happy New Year! •••••• May Dame Fortune smile her sweetest smile for you and yours during every day of 1001. May happiness and success form the team that draws you to the next milestone. Thanking you who have been my patrons during the past year, and hoping that those who have not so favored me will soon become acquainted with "The Yellow Front," I am. yours very sincerely, GEO. L. BICKEL ' »;«-.' . ' De Laval Separators and Creamery and Cheese Factory Machinery and Supplies. 143 Front St. "The Yellow Front." Portland, Ore. AVENARIUS CARBOLINEUM. The Greatest Wood Preserver in Existence. Carbollneum Avenarlus has an attractive, durable, nut brown color, and its large covedM capacity and its cheapness, makes it the best paint for all farm build ngs, such is barns naries. stables, silos. Fence posts, vineyard posts, floors, sidewalks, sleep ers etc will never rot or break down if coated with this preparation. Shingle roofs will never leak and the shingles will not rot or warp. Troughs, tanks, cisterns or cel lars will ■always be clean and sweet if coated with Carbollneum Avenarius. In cases of disease of cattle, horses, sheep, hogs, etc., it will prevent contagion being antiseptic. In chicken coc .s Carbol neiim Avena.ius will exterminate permanently all vermin. such \. •ken lice etc It will also keep away flies, gnats, etc., and mice and rats will not SwSSSaHK &S&wz& saar r sup eras, mm. *, SB '-XiTly; Bogardus & Co,, Inc. Lilly, Bogardus & Co,, Inc. 814 Western Avenue ..... Seattle, Wash.