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has just ordered a new tester along the lines suggested by me and I think other operators will find by trial they can make improvements in the appa ratus in use at present and ran get their improvements put in their new machines at a slight cost. A tester that you use every day is worth spend ing a little money on to get it right. I also think that we can do some thing along the lines of using a large lens or reading glass for reading the butter fat column. 1 have made a few preliminary experiments along this line and am encouraged with the re sults I have obtained. The reading glass not only increases the size of the divisions, but it makes the upper sur face of the butter fat more sharply defined. T .hall be pleased to corres pond with any one 'ho has ideas along this line. Another point is the overrun of butter. It has. at limes, an exasperat ing way of Jumping up and down and giving curiously inharmonious re sults. To chock up these freaks I have modified the Ba'ucock method a little and have found it of use in get ting the butter fat in the butter itself. Suppose you get an unexpectedly high or low overrun and want to sec how much butter fat you actually havo in the butter itself. Proceed as follows: Take a sample or several samples of the butter with a trier. Weigh out 9 grammes in a 3-oz beaker, melt the butter by placing the glass in hot water. Rinse the butter with boiling water into a wide mouthed cream bot tle reading to 50 per cent. Cool to about 80 or 90 degrees and add about 10 cc of sulphuric acid and make the test as usual. Your result multiplied by 2 will give you the butter fat in the biitter from which the overrun can be checked up. The weakest point in this method seemed the sampling, but by inspecting the butter carefully an average sample can be obtained. From my own experiments I have been able to check my cream tests within 1 or 1 < •_. per cent, and as I get better bottles I expect to do better work along this line. I always like to know what the rest of the dairymen are doing and shall be pleased to correspond with anyone who has new ideas or old troubles in the testing of milk or cream. In case any of you come to Spokane I sincere ly hope you will find time to call on me at the Hazelwood laboratory. CARE OF ENGINES AND BOILERS. By Ludwig Engelmann. 1 feel myself a little out of place here to talk to you. If no ladies were present and all the gentlemen were dressed in overalls and rubber boots it would seem more familiar to me; besides, I fear my pronunciation will receive a sharp criticism. As an apol ogy, let me tell you that I never went to school in America, being brought up and educated in Germany. The subject assigned to me by Prof. Spillman is entitled "Care of Boilers and Engines." There are different types of boilers on the market, but we will only consder the return-tubular and vertical style. The water-tube boiler has, we admit, some advan tages, but owing to its first high cost, we find only a very few in factories. In nearly all cases I prefer a horizon tal, return tubular boiler, provided it is well bricked in. The only advan tage I can see in a vertical boiler is in saving floor space, but just think how much you lose in a useless evaporation of heat. A covering with asbestos will help to a great extent, provided it is put on well and tight. In building skimming stations and cheese factories the latter type, verti cal, is generally used, merely on the ground—it is good enough—but T want to remind you of the fact that at least 25 per cent, fuel can be saved by a well covered boiler. It is remarkable that so many do not consider the so-called small losses in factories. When the separator does not do good work, the tester can show you the fat left in the skim milk, and so with the churning process, but unfortunately there is no tester that can show you so readily every day how much money goes up in the smoke stack by careless or ignor ant firing or by a useless evaporation of heat, originating from an uncovered boiler. The operator of a factory must use good judgment in firing. Don't have your boiler blowing off for a half an hour after you are through with your run. Firing is an art and the follow ing rules should be observed: 1. Clean the flues every day thor oughly; any coating left on the inside of the flues acts as a non-conductor of heat and consequently more fuel is re quired. 2. Have an even hot fire, the ash pit well cleaned out. so as to allow a free circulation of air through the grates. The thickness of the fire de pends on the kind of fuel used, the weather and the condition of the draft. The kind of fuel to be used depends on certain circumstances, as: 1. The price of wood and coal: 2, transporta tion cost; 3, time of the year to buy; 4, combustion ability of fuel; 5, con struction of boiler: 6. amount of steam needed. In cheese factories and stations wood may be the cheapest, while at the main factories coal will be better. In the eastern states I have separated 1000 lbs of milk as low as 10 cents, using screen coal at a cost of $1.50 to $2.00 per ton. In this state it costs about 25 to 45 cents. Of course this is depending also on the kind of water used in the boiler and the condition of the same, because 1-3 of an inch scale will cause a loss oi 15 to 20 per cent, fuel. When- firing up a cold boiler leave one valve open till steam makes its ap pearance, thereby allowing the cold air to escape which otherwise will act as a back pressure. As general rules, which are, however, very important, we will mention: 1, No matter in what condition you left your boiler, be sure and ascertain that there is enough water in the boil er when you start again the fire. 2. The steam-pressure gauge should stand at zero when the boiler is cold and should correspond with the safety valve; that is, if the latter is set to blow off at 60 lbs., the gauge should also show 60 lbs. 3. Keep everything about the boiler clean and steam-tight. 4. Blow off the boiler at least once every four weeks, remove the hand hole plate, wash and scrape out the boiler thoroughly; never blow off the boiler when there is a high steam pres sure, and mark with a cold chisel the hand-plate hole and boiler shell. Low water and foaming are two evils with which the operator hag sometimes to deal. First of all, keep cool and don't get excited. In case of low water remember the rule: Render the fire harmless and do not do any thii g that will lift up the water to the hot tubes or away from the sheets. Haul your fire or dampen it with ashes or dirt. If your engine is running, so much the better, as every pound of steam taken from the boiler lessens the danger. Never lift the safety-valve or start your engine. me causes of foaming are: Dirty water, oil in the boher, a faulty de sign, causing a defective circulation of the water in the uoiler, or the boiler is too small, the engine is using the steam faster than it is made, thereby drawing water over into the cylinder, which may be disastrous to the engine. If muddy water is the cause, blowing off a little and refilling will generally remedy if. if the foaming is violent, check your fire, shut down the engine I and find out the true water level. As very few factories have a feed water heater and a boiler pump, I will say a few words in regard to them. THE RANCH The benefits of a heater are: 1. Sav ing of fuel; 2. Increasing the capacity of the boiler; 3. Lengthening the life of the boiler and protecting the same from unequal expansion; 4. Purify ing the feed water. The simplest and cheapest way to fill a boiler while the macu.nery is running is a geared pump, either di rect from the engine or from the shaft. The pump in connection witn a heater is almost 40 per cent better than an in jector taking feed water at 150 raar. If the injector refuses to work, the causes may be: 1. Not enough steam pressure (generally 40 lbs. required); 2. The nozzies of the injector are en crusted with lime or other impurities (a soaking in water with a little mu riatic acid will remedy this cause) ; 3. The injector is too hot, caused by a leaky steam valve; 4. The check valve sticks to its seat. The size of the boiler depends on the amount of milk to be handled. Cheese factories getting a run of 5000 to 8000 lbs. will do well to buy an X h. p. or a 10 h. p. boiler. The same size will an swer for a station. For factories re ceiving 10,000 to 15,000 lbs. of milk I recommend a 15 h. p. boiler. As a rule have your boiler larger t^an the en gine. Of course, this depends whether you use steam turbine or belt separ- How's This? We offer One Hundred Dollars reward for any case of Catarrh thai cannot be cured by Hall's Catarrh Cure. P. J. CHENEY & CO., Props., Toledo, Ohio. • We, the undersigned; have known F. .1. Cheney for the last I.> years, and believe him perfectly honorable In all business transactions and financially able to cany out any obligation! made by their firm. WEST & TKUAX. Wholesale Druggists, Toledo. <>. WALKING, MKIXXOX & .MARVIN. Wholesale Druggists, Toledo, O. Halls Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting directly upon the blood and mucous surfaces of the system. Price 75c per bot tle. Sold by all Druggists. Testimonials free. Hall's Family I'ills are the best. UNIVERSITY HEIGHTS Educatiomal Center of Pacific Northwest. Around the University of Washington is building the finest residence suburb of Seattle. A population of refined, cultured and intelligent people is centering here because of the great and growing ducational advantages. At Berkeley (California State University) and at Ann Arbor (Michigan State University) residence lots are selling at from $1,000 to $3,000. It needs no prophet to foresee that residence property near the State University of Washington will within the next five years become as valuable as that at Berkeley or Ann Arbor. The growth of the University and of Seattle assures this. Now is the time for educational people, people with chil dren to educate, people who enjoy living in a community so fa vored, people who want an investment, large or small, to secure a share of the wealth that the rise in values will bring and homes where it will be a delight to live. University Heights adjoins the grounds of the University, and the Third Avenue electric line runs through the entire addition. Lots and streets are graded, with cement sidewalks, parking strips and excellent water. Lots can still be had at $275 and $300 each on easy install ments. Within five years they will be worth four to six times as much. A score of elegant residences, costing from $2,000 to $5,000, have already been built in University Heights. Money for building is furnished, on long time or installments. MOORE INVESTMENT CO., 112 Columbia Street * pi A QUICK, SHARP CUT £ f|N^-;]|Uurt3miichlossthanabruise,cru»hortcar £•5 I 1 nEHADIIIIIC Don,, viii, tiif 1 1 /^UtIiPKWIPm KEYSTONE KNIFE fe S^ran^Kf's the safest. Quick, «harp cut. Cuts from fonr jfiKf tE^SJ^v sides stonr'- *:"nn»t (Tiinh bruise or tear, Mftr Mod humane method of dehorn. knowr «!5k jßrwk htgbrat award World* Fair, Write ▼■* V for free circulars before t>uv'"ir. Owned »nd Manufacture! by R. H. McKENNA. V.5.. Plcton. Oni Only $14.50 For a Set of New BUGGY WHEELS with Steel Tires. Wide Tired Farm Wagon Wheels Built to Order. PACIFIC WAGON CO., Corner S. Third & Lane Sis.. Seattle CCALES. . L^iaFEirr — FAIRBANKS 11 i and VICTOR. If All sizes and prices: for /hI store. Farm and Dairy. / ■' 219 Occidental Avenue, Seattle. .rrr~x. DRINK PURE lP^Pwrt WATER Hr T »^&s by using tlu< o| w[ , (l W Bucket Pump & _ jUw^Vrw Water Purifier. on wells and cisterns. -"-ttpttltfc 'n.ijr- Will purify a foul well "^^]s(g RiP^ in ten days' use., or 0 x.S\ money refunded. fl^rs jffl| B^?^ Draws 10 gals, of I^3 IS'l' water a minute. No 'MgW, j3* w % tubing to rust, burst or §^ fU S f wear: will not rust : |t|SS 7 chain and buckets are IT Hr^/I made of galvanized ' steel can be set up in P" ' 15 minutes: will not freeze: guaranteed for five years; price $10 complete for 10 ft 50c for every additional ft. . Illustrated Pamphlet Free. POLSON IMP. & HARDWARE CO., 806 Western Ay., Seattle, Wash. •••••••••• SEATTLE, Wash.