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Testing of Creamery Glassware In the article entitled "Inaccuracy ol Glassware." by Mr. A. C. Beebe, chemist for the Hazolwood company. published in your columns August 1. Ik mentioned the deplorable fact that, like many other users of creamery glassware who take the pains to test i*, he finds a number of inaccurate bottles among his orders. This, I might say, applies not only to bottles, but pipettes, acid measures, etc., which should be given a thorough testing, as they are not always as care fully calibrated as they should be. I am not in a position to discuss the establishing of testing stations or of having this work done by dairy com missioners, but speaking from a deal er's standpoint, I do say that every dealer should make it a practice to test each and every piece of glassware before the same is allowed to leave his place, and to turn back at the expense of the manufacturer all that are not right. This, I think, would do more toward advancing the standard of ac curacy than anything else. I must say that I think the present state of affairs is anything but just to the creameryman. To be asked to pay ai: extra price for the best grade that is said will pass "experiment station tests" is bad enough, but for protec tion's sake to be put to the additional expense of having each one retested at 5 cents each, beside the transpor tation charges, is outrageous. Should my business in creamery glassware ever reach that point where it will warrant me to manufacture my own bottles, and where I can have the company's name blown in each one, I shall certainly offer a substantial cash premium for every one that is found to be at all inaccurate. As It is now, we recognize but two classes —those that are right and and those that are wrong; the former go to our customers, while the latter return to the manufacturer. Until the time arrives when all dealers will be stow time and care upon the testing and who are willing to guarantee Jjheir glassware strictly accurate, the cream eryman must either hunt out the ones who will stick to their guarantee or do the testing themselves or have it done elsewhere at their expense. It is impossible to exaggerate the importance of such glassware; by its use and care in reading the result of tests, you will neither cheat yourself or, what is much worse, your patrons. Mr. Beebe in his article gave figures to show to what extent this gain or loss will amount to in a short time. leaving out the theoretical formula and confining ourselves strictly to practical methods, such as can be eas ily used and practiced in any cream ery at a small expense, I will give t;ome simple methods of testing which I think best fitted to the creameries and even in large laboratories for the detection of inaccurate glassware. These methods I have employed in testing all glassware sold by our com pany, which for cheapness, rapidity and accuracy cannot be beaten. The results are that we have no complaints chalked up against us, even by the most exacting companies. At times when it has been necessary to test as many as five or six gross, it was simply impossible, with the old methods, to do the work thoroughly, and to test for more than one point on the neck, inside of a couple of days. This led me to further experiments, LOUIS F. the result of which has produced my "N. H." tester. With it, it is now but a small job to do this work, requiring but about one-tenth of the time previ ously consumed. As these little in struments have been so highly in (iorsed by dairy commissioners and by Prof. K. H. Farrington of the Univers ity of Wisconsin, who recommends it to every user of the Babcock tester, besides being in use in dairy schools and some of the largest creameries in this country and Canada, all of whom are entirely satisfied with them, 1 think I may be justified in describing them and the simple manner of use. For quickly and accurately testing the accuracy on the neck of milk bot tles, use the "N. H." Milk Bottle Tester." This little instrument (the applica tion is shown in the accompanying cut), which will test for the 5 and 10 per cent marks without removing it from the bottle, is substantially made of brass, and, moreover, it is always ready for use without auxiliary attach ments, such as pipettes, mercury, corks, etc. To make a test, all that is necessary is to fill the bottle to O with milk (water may be used, but it is not recommended, owing to its greater capilliary attraction to the neck.) Then slowly lower the tester into the bottle until the liquid rises about half way between the two sections and at that point should be the 5 per cent mark (as in the accompanying cut). After that point is tested for and [tfl accuracy established, lower the rest of the tester until the milk rises about one-eighth of an inch over the top of tne upper section. If the top of the milk is exactly even with the 10 per cent mark and is right at the 5 per cent mark, then the bottle is correct. For testing the accuracy of cream bottles, 1 made the "N. H." tester in three sections (as shown in cut), for testing the 10, 20 and 30 per cent marks. It is used in the same manner as the "N. H." milk bottle tester. Russian milk and cream tubes are tested on the same principle by the "N. H." tester in two sections. They require ■ special piece of apparatus for holding the tubes while testing; THE RANCH. this latter is furnished with the testers. How many users of bottles and tubes ever think to test them for other than the extreme points? Did you ever stop to consider that there is just as many chancel for errors between these points as there is at them? This is due to the fact that glass tubing from which the necks are made always has more or less of a taper to it and this, with any possible lost motion of the graduating machine, will cause varia tions in the spacings which, however, may not be noticeable to the eye, but by testing win be found to sometimes exist. To overcome any possibilities or* this, the "N. H." testers are made in sections to test certain points where these errors are most likely to occur. Since the butter fat is liable to rise into any portion of the neck, you will see that it is just as necessary for these intermediate points being exact as it is for the extreme ones. By leaving the bottles, milk and testers together for a few minutes their temperature will equal that of the surrounding atmosphere, which is essential for extreme accuracy, al tnough should the temperature of these vary from five to ten degrees, no difference in the readings is notice able. Pipettes and Acid Measures. For testing these I do not know of any method more accurate and rapid than to use one that has been thor oughly tested and you know is correct. Fill it with mercury to the mark etch ed in the glass and run it into the one to be tested. Be careful to hold your thumb tightly against the opening at the bottom. TEMPERATURE AND TESTING. A. C. BEEBE. A little over a year ago Prof. Wall pointed out the difference in the read ings of the fat in the Babcock test caused by variation in temperature. Any one can easily prove for him self that such differences exist and see that it is necessary to adopt a certain temperature or rather temper ature limits so that the reading of the buiter fat may be right every time a test is run. There seems to be some difference of opinion in this matter of the proper temperature. One noted professor of dairying wrote me that he preferred 120 degrees. : Another, equally noted, wrote me that 140 was the correct temperature. According to the best authorities that I can find it should be in the neighborhood of 130 degrees. It seems to me that the matter is well worth investigation. The head chemist for the department of agricul ture at Washington, D. C, wrote me that the subject was an important one and deserved careful study, but that the department was too crowded with work to undertake it just at present. It will be a nice piece of work for some experiment station to compare the tests at different temperatures, and the dairymen in general would appre ciate having the matter settled. In order to see what differences I got in actual practice, I made a series ol' experiments with a number of creams of different butter fat content. I first read at a temperature of about 140 degrees, then allowed to cool to about 115 degrees and read a second time. Then I put in the tester and heated to about 190 degrees and read again. The bottles I use being large necked, I was able to read easily to half per cents and to estimate quite accurately to quarter per cents. Of OOttTM 1 got some abnormal results, due to unevenness in the lower fat sur face, which is sometimes quite irregu lar. Below I give the tabulated results: Temp. Temp. Temp. 115 140 190 Degs. Degs. Degs. lrt per cent butter fat. 16% 16% 17 per cent butter fat. 17% 17% 18% per cent butter fat. 18y 2 18% 18 per cent butter fat. 18 18% 19V-j per cent butter fat. 19% 20 1814 per cent butter fat. 18% 19 19 per cent butter fat. 19% 19 Ms 22% per cent butter fat. 21ft 23 21% per cent butter fat. 22 22% 21 per cent butter fat. 21% 21% 20 per cent butter fat. 20% 20% 23% per cent butter fat. 23% 24 25 per cent butter fat. 25% 25% 27 per cent butter fat. 27% 28 26 per cent butter fat. 26% 26% 25y 2 per cent butter fat. 26 26% 20 per cent butter fat. 26% 27 23% per cent butter fat. 23% 24 27% per cent butter fat. 28 28% 29% per cent butter fat. 30 30% 31% per cent butter fat. 32 32% 33 per cent butter fat. 33% 34 34% per cent butter fat. 35 35% 33% per cent butter fat. 34 34% 34V4 per cent butter fat. 34% 35 31% per cent butter fat. 32 32% 36 per cent butter fat. 36% 37 38% per cent butter fat. Z? 40 39 per cent butter fat. 39% 40% 44% per cent butter fat. 45% 47 43% per cent butter fat. 44% 45% 41% per cent butter fat. 42% 43% 46% per cent butter fat. 47% 49 Roughly speaking, a difference of 30 to 40 degrees in temperature when testing these creams —say from 15 to 25 per cent butter fat, will make a difference of one-fourth of one per cent in reading. In creams from 25 to 35 it will make a difference of one half to one per cent. In creams from 35 to 45 per cent it will be close to one per cent. In some experiments made a few months ago, but which I am not able to give just now, I found that with creams running from 45 to 55 per cent the differences ran from \V-2. per cent up to 2 per cent. This is certainly a subject that needs in vestigation, and I suggest the advisa bility of solving it at some of the va rious experiment stations in the coun try. It is a matter of dollars and cents to both shipper and receiver of cream. It also means that all testers ought to be fitted with a thermometer, so that the temperature, when tesling, can be watched. Also, some sort of damper arrangement and steam in let are needed, so that the temperature can be regulated while the test is being run. An easy way to get at the tem perature is to screw a piece of pipe into the side of the tester and then put an elbow on it. A thermometer can be fitted to a rubber cask and the cork inserted in the elbow. By this means, which any one can arrange for less than a dollar, the temperature can be carefully watched. A damper can be made by boring holes in the cover of the tester and covering them with a piece of tin, making a contri vance similar to a stove damper. In most cases it is sufficient to bore the holes in the cover near the spindle and then regulate the supply of steam so that the temperature of the butter fat, when it comes out, is from 130 degrees to 140 degrees. I think that this matter of the reg ulation of temperature is one to which sufficient attention is not usually paid. To prevent errors and to get tests out accurately I believe that It must be carefully attended to.