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BUTTER VS. CHEESE COW.
Editor The Ranch, Seattle, Dear Sir —Having always been paid for my milk at the cheese factory ac cording to the per cent, of butter fat it contained, I read the article from my friend, Prof. L. Chevally, of Bar berton, Clarke county, and appearing in Pacific Homestead, with interest and surprise. This week he wrote to me, saying that the article had received prompt notice from dairy experts in the east, and that he expect ed a lively contest. It is no small thing to thus stir up a hornet's nest and disturb the waking dreams of col lege professors by an array of facts and figures. My friend has certainly good rea sons for thus rudely setting aside the accepted idea, and his opinion is wor thy of closest scrutiny, for he has spent his life at this work. Swiss dairymen are notably cheesemakers and milkers, not to mention the manu facturers of Nestles food and others —have an international reputation and Chevally graduated from the best Swiss agricultural college at Lansan ne, where he as a poor farmer's boy educated himself, advancing rapidly till he was professor in dairying at a noted school, the name of which I forget. He was selected as expert by tne Prince of Montenegro to start the factory system amongst the herdsmen of that most pastoral country of Eu rope. While there, the present queen of Italy was severely reprimanded, when as a young girl full of life, she omitted certain rules of etiquette in her man ner of greeting the professor. He was sent by the Prince to Rus sia, on a special tour of inspection and investigation of certain forms of dairying as carried on over there. For his efficiency in relation to these mat ters he was decorated by the Prince. He afterwards worked in France, where he obtained a silver medal of merit as inspector of the milk supply for the large city of Havre de Grace. Let me just say, right here, that in tnis latter country, renowned for its beautiful and cleanly dairy forms, the acquisition of pure milk is regarded of such importance that experts are chosen to continually visit all dairies delivering milk to the citizens, rank ing these milk men in classes accor ding to the positive excellence of their produce. Every man displays his grade or is heavily punished. Since he came to America, some ten years ago, he has made himself a reputation in the condensing factory as manager of the Norwalk Co-operative Cream ery, Los Angeles county, California, etc., etc.; and as cheese maker at Bar berton. I therefore send the article in question to you with the hope that the salient points of this controversy may come to the readers of your col umns and the truth be made clear to all interested. DANIEL F. BOISSEVAIN. In Hoard's Dairyman, of January 3, 1902, a correspondent "J. A. M.," ap plying the cheese factory test for the six month's test at the Pan-American, finds that the butter cow is the cheese cow too. And he says that this was true also of the Chicago test. I am convinced that if milk had been trans formed into Cheddar cheese, the re sults would not be as found, by cal culation only, for the per cent, of cheese produced per pound of butter fat decreases as the butter fat in creases. Who is responsible for the mislead ing statement that the experiments made in 1893 in the Columbian exhibi tion in cheese making demonstrated that the butter cow is the cheese cow? The experiments of the University of Wisconsin with different quality of milk showed that the richer the milk the much more the pound of cheese cost. Here are the experiments: • University of Wisconsin at the Colum bian Exhibition, 1893. No Lbs.' But- W't W't Yield of ter cheese cheese per milk fat green cured cent. 0 300 0.2 18.4 13 4 70-100 1 300 1.3 22.4 19 , 6 33-100 2 300 2 24 21.5 7 17-100 3 300 3 27 25 8 33-100 4 300 4 29 27 9 4 300 4.9 31.9 30 10 Now as everyone can see the per cent, of cheese decreases as the but ter increases: For 1.39 per cent, but ter fat the percent cheese is 4.86; for 2 per cent, butter fat the per cent cheese is 3.55; for 3 per cent, butter fat the per cent, cheese is 2.77; for 4 per cent, butter fat the per cent cheese is 2.25; for 4.90 per cent, butter fat the percent, cheese is 2.04. According to these experiments how much would be the cost of the manu factured cheese, giving a value of 25 cents per pound of butter fat. To un derstand more easily, I take 1000 >» 4-> CD • • 1 1 O s .>J & a I 8 1 o §' § 1 fc f, 1 s .§ 2a«i • ° I zi +» 3 8 3 a to •- at o 5 v .a o % fa to < (I, J ' O 1000 520 2 25 $ .50 4 7 ' 10 6-100 1000 180 13 25; 3.25 63 30-100 5 29-100 1000 2 20 25 5.00 71 70-100 6 97-100 1000 8 30 25 7.50 83 30-100 & 76-100 1000 4 40 25 10.00 90 1111-100 1000 400 49 25 12.25 100 12 25-100 The 4 per cent, milk cost the factory II 4-10 cents the hundred pounds less than the 4.90 per cent, milk, a tre mendous difference. How would it be with per cent, milk? The yield obtained by the Univers ity of Wisconsin is rather small, us ually 4 per cent, milk yields full 10 per cent, cured cheese (Cheddar). Of course, milk testing less than 3 per cent, is out of question for cheese caking. Such an important question ought to be taken into consideration by all dairy schools; but experiments should be made in a larger scale, 200 pounds of milk for example. I do not believe in making experiments with fixed milk by adding cream or skimming; but milk must be pure as the cows give it. Southern California presents the most favorable field for experimenting, the milk being very rich; it would be very easy to find in the same cream ery 2000 pounds 3.80 milk, 2000 pounds 4 per cent., 2000 5 per cent, and 2000 pounds 6 per cent. The Downey Co operative creamery working 12,000 pounds a day average over 6 per cent, butter (churn test). In Switzerland, where only cheese is made, the milk is not tpsted for fat, but omy for purity. The milk, of which is made the famous Emmen thale cheese, does not test over 3.80. In the factory F have charge of the milk is paid according to the butter fat test, but I am thinking that this is not the way to do, as it will lead the farmer to produce butter instead of cheese. —L. Chevally, in Pacific Home stead. THE RANCH. J. F. Adams TEA AND COFFEE COMPANY, 1205 First avenue, Seattle, Washington, are offering great bargains in Teas, Coffees, Spices, Baking Powder, Extracts and Groceries The following are special prices for 10 days to get better ac quainted with the farmers of the Pacific Northwest. As to our re sponsibility, refer you to Dexter-Horton & Co., and Boston National Bank, Seattle, and Exchange National Bank, Spokane. American Cane Fine White Granulated Sugar, 20 lbs for $1.00; 100 lb sacks, $4.65". Beet Granulated Sugar, 21 lbs for $1.00; sacks 100 lbs, $4.55. Sugars are very low and are liable to advance any time. These prices are made subject to market changes. COFFEE SPECIALS. Adams' Queen City Blend, fresh roasted, worth 15c lb; ..9 lbs $1.00 Adams' Leader Blend, fresh roasted, worth 20c; special ..9 lbs. $1.00 Adams' Franklin Blend, fresh roasted, worth 25c; special ..5 lbs. 01.00 Adams' Special Combination, fresh rstd, worth 30c; spcl ..4 lbs $1.00 Adams' 35c Java and Mocha, fresh rstd, worth 35c; spcl 3 Vis lbs $1.00 Adams' 40c Java and Mocha, fresh rstd, worth 40c; spcl 3 lbs. $1.00 TEA SPECIALS. 40C Teas, special 3 lbs for $1.00 60c Teas, special 2% lbs for $1.00 75c Teas, special 2 lbs for $1.25 Adams' Best Baking Powder, in lbs, guaranteed to please you, $1.90. Extracts, 8-oz bottles, Lemon Extracts, 65c. 8-oz. bottles Va nilla Extract, 75c. Ground Mustard, 25c lb. Ground Allspice, 25c lb. Ground Nutmegs, 50c lb. Ground Cinnamon, 40c. lb. Ground Cay enne Pepper, 35c lb. Ground Cloves, 30c lb. Ground Ginger, 30c lb. Ground Sage, 30c lb. Ground Savory, 30c lb. Ground Thyme. 30c lb. Ground Majoran, 30c lb. Ground Maice. 60c lb. Beans, Small White, 4c lb; Sack, 70 lbs, 3%c lb. Beans. Large White, sack lots, B%C lb. Extract of Beef, 4-qt jars, worth 75c; special, 45c. Crackers, i^-cases Soda Crackers, called 10 lb boxes, hold 8 lbs; special price, 45c. Oyster Crackers, Vk-cases, 55c Ginger Snaps. VA-cases, $1.00. Catsup, Snyder's and Blue Lable, regular price, 25c; our special price, 20c; 5 bottles for $1.00. Cocoa, V-j-Ib tins, worth 30c; our special price, 2 cans for 45c. Cheese, full cream, 14c lb. Candles, 10 gr, 120 candles, in box; per box, $1.60. Condensed Milk, Eagle. $1.70 per doz Carnation, $1.00 doz; $4.00 case. 4 doz Pratt's Oil. 10 gallons in case; price, $2.15. Evaporated peaches, 14 lbs for $1.00. Currants, 10 lbs for $1.00. Prunes, 12, 15 and 25 lbs for $1.00. Oat Meal, 10 lb sacks for 35c; 90 lb sacks, $3.15. Canned fruits, assorted cases, 2 doz in case; per case, $2.90. Canned Tomatoes, gallon cans, 1 doz in case; per case, $3.00. Canned Corn, assorted brand; per doz, 90c; Banquet Brand, $1.10 case, 2 doz in case. This corn is worth 25c per dozen more than we quote it at. So send in your orders at once. Canned 'übo aad :zop aad qr\s 'iioui[bs lOc- Sardines, Domestic, 50c doz; Trnported, $1.10, $1.50, $1.75 per doz. These imported Sardines are worth $1.00 per doz more than quote at. Hams, best Sugar Cured, any size you may want, 13c per lb. Bacon Backs, IS%C per lb. Best Breakfast Bacon, 15c lb. Laundry Soap, Smilax, 100 bar boxes, $3.25. Emerald, 100 bar boxes, $3.25. Savon Soap, 1 lb bars, 100 bars in box, $3.90 per box. i If you don't find quotations in this list on the goods you need write us today and we will send you quotations by return mail. J. F. ADAMS & CO., 1205 First Aye. One-Half Block South of Post Office. We roast our own coffee fresh daily. 7