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THE AGE AT WHICH TO MARKET SHEEP. By Prof. Thomas Shaw. The most profitable age at which to market sheep will depend upon vary ing conditions, as, for instance, the kind of sheep grown, the object for which they are grown and the nature of the market. But, generally speak ing, it will be found profitable to mar ket them young, much younger than most persons usually suppose. This, at least will apply to farm conditions, though it may not to so great an ex tent to conditions on the range. The cost of production in lambs would seem to be governed by the fol lowing law of development—viz., that increase is made less rapidly as the birth period is receded from, and at a greater consumption of food. This law would seem to be applicable to both cattle and sheep, but not exact ly in the same sense to swine. It is not true that a young pig while yet in the dam can be made to gain as rapid ly as it will gain when six months old, whatever may be said of the relative cost of the gains made. In feeding at the Minnesota Experiment Station we have found that a young lamb may be made to gain about a pound a day during the first 30 days of its life when the dam is a good milker and when she is fed on milk-producing foods. In one instance in 1890, a Southdown grade lamb from a grade Dorset ewe weighed 39 pounds, if memory serves aright, at 26 days. Such a rapid gain I have not met with from any other source. Gradually the gains diminish as the age of the ani mals increases, and in lambs it would seem to diminish even more rapidly relatively than in cattle. The seven grade Southdown lambs fed by the Minnescota Station for Chicago last year made an average daily gain of .50 pounds by November 18, when they were on an average about nine months old. The two largest and best South down yearling wethers, 516 days old, at the date mentioned, had made an average daily gain of only .'5 pound. It is thus apparent that with lambs of the types mentioned, where it is possi ble to gain a daily gain of one pound per day for the first 30 days, or for the first month, the average gain per day for the first nine months will not ex ceed on the average one-half pound per day, and at the end of twenty months it will not exceed one-third of a pound per day. And it will take more food to make the increase as the birth period is receded from. The greatest relative consumption of food to make one pound of increase in wethers one year old or over has been nicely demonstrated by experi ments conducted at the Minnesota sta tion. In the trials made it was found that the wethers consumed nearly 50 per cent more food to make a pound of gain than was consumed by the lambs. It is very apparent, there fore, that the person who rears the sheep which he feeds will reap larger profits from growing and feeding lambs than from growing and feeding wethers. But it may be possible in some instances to make large profits from feeding wethers than frfom feed ing lambs, when the stocks are pur chased, notwithstanding what has been said above, owing to the effect which advance in value because of the fattening may exercise. For instance, if a wether, when bought for feeding, weighs 120 pounds, and the advance in the selling is one per cent per pound because of the fat laid on, the increase in value on the weight purchased will be $1.20. Now suppose a lamb purchas ed at the same time weighs but 80 pounds, and the advance in value be cause of the fat laid on is also one cent per pound, the increase in value from the source named will be but 80 cents. The advantage, therefore, which the wether will thus have over the lamb because of the greater weight, under tne conditions named, is 40 cents. But it should be mentioned that when judiciously bought the ad vance in the value of the lamb be cause of the fattening process is likely to be greater than in the case of the wether. But the above comparison will show why some feeders at the stock yards would rather feed wethers than lambs. It is evident, therefore, that the grower of lambs on the arable farm should aim to market them when young. How young to market them will vary with conditions. Milk lambs will bring the most money, probably, when they weigh from 50 to 60 pounds alive. If the dams are good milkers and if they are properly fed, the lambs should reach the said weights in from 70 to 90 days from birth. It is pretty certain that it will pay better to selll lambs that come early, as for instance, in February and March, at some period short of the weaning season, especial ly if they are plump and fat, as they are then likely to bring a higher price per pound, and it has cost less to make one pound of increase than the same would cost if the lambs were not sold until several months later. When farm-reared lambs are not sold while yet on the dams, the aim should be to have them ready for market not later than October 1, that is to say, the aim should be to fatten them on rape sown for the purpose, or on rape and clover, or other green food. In no other way can they be fattened so cheaply. They also come into the mar ket before the rush of fattened lambs is on, and should, therefore, sell for a good price. They are also out of the way on the farm before winter sets in, thus saving expense in food and in providing shelter, and because they are out of the way, it is more easily possible for the farmer to fatten other sheep or lambs if he is so minded, later in the season. But what has been said above may not apply to range conditions. The ranchman usually gets his pasture for nothing. If, therefore, he has plenty of it, he will get more for a sheep that weighs 100 pounds than for a lamb that weighs 60 pounds, hence it will pay him better to sell the lamb as a matured sheep than as a lamb, unless he gets enough more per pound for the lamb than for the matured sheep to make up the difference. The price paid for wool will also influence this question. If wool is dear it will pay the ranchman whose pastures are free to increase the number of fleeces as far as he can, hence he should not sell his lambs. But he may also find it advantageous to sell lambs. If, for instance, his grazing lands should be overstocked, or if his winter supplies of food should be short or precarious, it may be to his interest to sell the lambs in whole or in part, some seas ons, at least, to prevent overstocking, one of the greatest evils that can be fall the stockman on the farm or on the range. Happily the markets of today are THE RANCH. SHROPSHIRES A few choice yearling Shropshire Rams and Ham Lambs for sale; also a few Ewes, and Yorkshire Pigs of both sexes, Bred from prize winning stock. E. A. KIPP, Pioneer Farm, Chlllwack, B. C Grandview Farm. ENGLISH BERKSHIRES Or the large Canadian type, size, puality, finish. Pigs will be recorded in the Ameri can Herd Book. Thirty choice young pigs now for sale. SHANNON BROS., Cloverdale, B. C. SPRINGBROOK FARM. THOS. W. BRUIMK, Proprietor. ST., Cotswold Sheep Angora Goats, Poland China Swine, Barred P. R. Chickens. EOLA, POLK CO., OREGON. P. B. PETERSON, Cedar Mountain, Wash . Breeder of Red Polled f/t^mmm i^g^a^ Cattle. The best dual £■ purpose stock, for El (It-is booked for young stock. Two yoiint *^P l"wessß?' ready for service. KiOSk/ Mountainview Ranch rtßUßjaH^Hfr Registered Jersey Cattle BMH^^^Hfa the greatest milk and but- EL ter producers in the world. H^ 111-mi of herd is Royal of ■TO Spokane, son of Royal Oj ■^ Bellvedere. ■ P^ Fechter & Janeck ■Hl^Hr North Yaklma, : Wash. MOUNTAINVIEW FARM Poland-China Swine All stock registered. Hogs can be seen at the farm near Giesham, Or. Writ** us for; prices, ped igrees, etc. HBH W. W. COTTON, Worcester Bldg. Portland, Oregon The Choicest ¥%SsW^ HULOItIN UAI ILt! Milk and But- Bjf&'ff lor Breed in the World. Write to —a Wis.LiveStockAss'n.Appleton,Wis.,U.S.A. Lake Side Stock Farm HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN CATTLE Of the Best Butter Making: Strains for Sale. Service bull, I>unae Oregon de Kol, sou of Olothllde Lunde Artis. Official butter test, 20 lbs 4ozin 7 days. Be Is assisted by Clothilde Grace's Sir Hengerveld, whose granddam was Netberland Hen(?ervel<l. with an official butter test of 26& lbs in 7 days, her milk averaging 3.92 per cent fat. ;, P. A. FRftKES, Scappose, Ore. T. J. TRAPP _ New Westminster, B. C. " STOCK AUCTIONEER SHADELAND FARM COLLIES C. 0 NAIRN, Ballston, Ore., Prop. gf|f Verona Pale Face, 60729. The Largest Collection of Pure Bred Col lies In America. 32 Years a Breeder of Best Working Strains. Known to Stock men Everywhere. Puppies For Sale. Send for Catalogue. Free The Ranch can secure for its readers reduced rates on most newspapers and maga zines. Write us for rates on the periodicals you wish to take. EL LEND ALE FARM TAMWORTH HOGS, DUROC JERSEY HOGS, HAMPSHIRE SHEEP, DORSET HORN SHEEP. PURE BRED STOCK AT REASONABLE PRICES REED A SOU, Moscow. Idaho. YORKSHIRE and Poland China and Berk shire Pigs for Sale. Pairs not akin, $25. Single animals of either sex, $15 each. All of best strains of breeding and eligible to reg istry. Better buy now while they are young and save heavy express charges. We are selling fast and will be cleaned out by October first. Address The Agricultural College Farm, Pullman, Wash. A. J. STREET, Ghilliwack, Br. Col. Registered Jersry Cattle won at New Westminis ter 1900—1st on 2 year-old-hull, Ist on yearling bull, Ist On herd, some choice stock for sale. BROWN SWISS CATTLE I have the second larg3St and one of the best herds of Swiss cattle in America. McJohn, No. 1120, first pre mium and sweepstakes bull at six lead- Ing fairs at head of herd. Stock for sale. Correspondence solicited. T. H. INMAN. Hanover. Wls. HOLSTEIN BULLS FOR SALE Several choice young Holstein bulls now for sale. Registration papers fur nished. Address Meadowbrook Farm, Snoqualmie, Wn., or Chamberlain, Hamilton & Co., Seattle. WEBFOOT COLLIE KENNELS. I have for sale some of the best bred collie puppies on the coast. All eligible to registration. None better. Prices are right. Photos on applica tion. All breeding stock registered. Book on training and care of colliers given with every purchase. Price 50c. H. K. Metcalf, prop., Halsey, Ore. jerseTbulls FOR SALE —The fine Jersey bull, Recorder's Best Son 48582, bred by H. C. Taylor, Orfordville, Wis., dropped June 28, 1897. Solid color, black ton gue and switch. Sire Recorder 29239, by Combination 3d he by Combina tion. Dam of Recorder is Brown Bes sie 74997, champion butter cow at the World's Fair. Dam of Recorder's best Son is Tapestry, 56607, with a record of 23 lbs., 12 oz. butter. I have also one yearling pure-bred Jersey bull en titled to registry, and three yearlings not to be registered, but of the same stock. Address L. R. Hansen, Flor ence, Wn.