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The Inter-mountain farmer and ranchman. (Salt Lake City, Utah) 1902-1902, February 11, 1902, Image 1

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Vol. I. No. jL Salt Lake City, Utax, Tuesday Mousing, February 11. 1902. Price, Five Cents. W
Ikousands of new farms '
Hstern View of the Great Results to Be Achieved in the
H West Through National Reclamation of Arid Lands.
HrarlnR the present tension of Congress
H-arefnlly pHnncd campaign Is to be
ftde In both honsoB to procure the
BBn?)' n ce iry to maku a suhstantial
H Inning nt the , e-tt work of recHlm-H-
the nrM lands of the est by means
irrlga'ton f is the Drookljn Kagle.
H this itt mt Is successful as It Is
MtislrWf 1 nlmost to he sure, it will cre
Ht no new dram upon the resources of
K Gov rnment. The necessity money
Ho h obtalne 1 by setting aside as an
Hfl;aMon fund the money which is oh.
B ed from the sale of public lands At
'tnt his money Is turned oer to a
Bcrnmental fund where It lsaallahlo
Bthc general purrc- s of the Govern
ftit Th-,e purposes as a rule, do not
Bulre the m. of the sum so that it
B Idle as an a umulited surplus In
BB opinion of tlioie who ar Interested
BBhe sue es of the Irrigation meisures
BB) diversion of the money will not be
BB while the good that will be done
BBStne uWntlrn of the money for irrl
BBllon purposes Is slid to be lncalcu
BBJjle BBB is incdrd that Pro ildent Roose
BBCt will makr an Irrigation law of com
BBfthenshe proportions one of the fea
BBtcs of his ndmlnstn'lon The mem
BBws of Con r ri from seventeen States
BBk lerrlton s concerned In the subject
Irrigation thoroughly understand
BBs' NNI" ha the White iloute support
a practl I and comprehensive
V can bo pics nt a and they are in
flbtrlously at wntk trilns to agree on
leajure The Ftatc and Territories
Klgnated b the rt cut Irrigation con
BBw9'1 to father th bill are North and
HHfith Dakota Nebraska, Kansas Mon
via, Wyoming, C olorado New Mexico,
izona. I tah, Idaho, Oregon, Wash
:ton, Nevada, California and Indian
( veml'ice the beginning Of the session
Bf Senators, Representatives and dele
j'efi from these States and Territories
ve lieen holding nlmost nightly meet-
for the puip.'e of agreeing upon n
JBJ There have been nil kinds of
tHltchlng and changing of positions but
jlast a practical agitement has been
hed The hill will be Introduced In
Senate hj Senator Hansbrough, the
ilrman of the Committee on I'ubllc
nds, and will he terorted ns a substl
e for a dozen hills now pending nn Ir
atlon Delegates fiom nil the Statei
fl Territories inteiested will meet with
committee of seventeen and put
msclves on record as favoring the
Bfrhe Western members will hold as a
Misistent rollcy that the West has as
Hich right to demand aid In promot-
irrlg tlcn as the Cast and bouth
v' to exp-r Tederal help in Improv
HK the wuiei vas. It Is known that
H Semtoi Carter of Montana talked
H rivers and harbois hill to death nt
M last session of Congress, because, of
B refusal uf Congress to even consider
BBBl Vu "?' cnnSf' lence to the nr West.
HH the Senate the. Mends of Irilgutlon
SBE1 count upon twenty-six posltlvo
,",aJre.n,ilh hlch cannot be over-Ic-il.
IhL bill whlih has been vlttual
Hagrced upon follows clonelj the provl
BBS??. . '.V." "nhroiiKh 1)111 Introductd
l" the seion With soma dozen
Bl,?.?!,0"',? '"I18 PWrtlns for irrl-BM.-,?
the Hansbrough b'll was ie
BBlmh '"I'l0 .milee of seventeen
Bmbera of both houses unofficially, se
Bfll Th.'!8' .UIn n" l"ll.utlon mens
BBW. .r' parf ?f ,1B I'residenfs rnets.
Bflln .hm.nSi,Uh JhB ""hject at Irrlga-BW,1f-h.."'li0.'V.c'""el
this commlttea
BBlrniioMC!l".t ,he tollcy "c "ie admin
BBlkhin. I,n,.h0 ubiect. After much
BBmnt., I lnl?re,lt'i he committee, of
BBlenP han",u?ttl1 u ,,ln lci P
BBmnv'ii1 ,nes"i compromlsa of the
BBffiSL .ertcs ot "Plnhiri which pre
'led as to the prorcr manner In which
BBlitrni i.fvH""-ni ,'ontended for Btuto
BBftd annfl,""1 10,k' ,l10 WUter Und "l8
BBfco'ntro nr'f eme".1; 'OUB"t for reQe"
coiitrol uf t,o entire mlcrpilse
BBW,I15tori?1,anabroiiBh of North Diko-
BBl Senali",1? ,l"C,!1(!nt rr ' " '
W benate. sal 1 n, dlscusslni,- tlio mat-
bbIi as it ?nr' f,':cU:r ln fnvor " the
BBliolv !!fi i of,e,v"'teen Is thut mo
BBK 1,,',,,".? " ba Impossible. This
BBYinr ?h!j0,en,enr after the complo.
BBU3tt 3 0t th en-at West will, nn
BBVles ami ', Wl'to-'lo population
lBfcu N'SIJ ?? f K,lnsa Colorado Art
BBf north ,i'rxlco nntl ,he stlltes """
IHnM or '1"1'1,"est. nd this wide ex
BbI neaihiLrtor'J1" '"-"'me one of
BBl vJhn i e ' n'1l ,l,OH' important of
BBlieruiK,,ro,"u,.y' 'rh0 'HI' has ben
BWesult w"Vn ln "'" '"eit "f uch
BBtrfdltlon Mr h0 Prodded against any
es" rrH"Lnr'llr".,wn'1-1' will .onvut
f lrr'K ed settlrns Into grazing
BBl -th 2mi,Ve ""ht them reservtnl
'rovvirh?,1.'..""''.-,""1'1"1- who "I" k
BBl ?. Ke tn" dMert blossom like
BBlteil lan,l uinm' Judfc""-t Mils Irrl
BBTultuia i .IJi'i becom8 tho greatest ag
BBT lield tcUon of ,lle ""I""' ",oth "
at yleMPwnnChrr. ""I"" ,'1 ,he ic
BBjnd ' brlntt tne ner of the
BVnnarffSan. .Ueed,r of Kansas has
on a cnn?V .Hu '" "i far "c na-
MlnTJ"" f "1" uorl!- d J8 OP
rre8sa,n?ta,p''roP':'1''on '" ""-tion by
Blot rLSlch wouTd enlarge the pow-
'lans nni80""0"" an rlnif of pol.
tstern V,1" 1-T ' nn of tho
BBTwible ihn " nr Territories It Is
!? ivi5 i' ln def0",nce to Mr Iteeder
ould inEft'im,!n,al iTlBatlon hcheme
'B In wL'i? ""lISKliiB "f nn artesian
BBlie ul nu,rn Kansas to demonstiate
BBVouni ,f-?f adeelopment of under
BBVtir.!a,'r.now "'i replenishing the
'," of surface stieains
BBln !,". unrtfr. consideration for pre
iiBtion to Congrera provide for the
working out of seven distinct ptojects
These plans necessitate the ependi
Hue of between $4 000 000 and 5 000 00)
This money, as will t resent ly be ex
plained will bo meily Invested In th
lirlgatlon project and will be repiid to
the Government
Geneiallj speaking, the plan Is to
construct large reservoirs on certain of
the Western rivers that nave periodical
Mood tides. All of the rivers thus se
lected ale so located tnat water can
be led from them either direct or
through reservoirs, to wide stretches
of arid land that are now barren be
cause of a lack of water. The chief
of these reservoirs will be built at San
Cailos, on the Gila river, In southern
Arizona. If the bill Is passed and the
work undeitaken this particular res
ervoir will cost Jl 00000O, but It will
render 100 000 acres of desert land fer
tile and easy to cultivate, beside pro
viding plentj of water for the Indians
of that legion
Another reservoir would be built on
the Carson and Truckee rivers, Ijlng
In California to irrigate some of the
arid lands of Nevada This reservoir
would cost only $i!0O00O hut would Irri
gate and rcider fertile as much land as
the larger reservoir nt San Carlos Oth
ei reservoirs would be constructed at
Kings river, in California, the Hum
boldt liver, ln Nevada, on Rait river.
In Arizona, on the Bt Marys river. In
northern Montana and on the Gunni
son liver. In central Colorado Onlj the
principal reservoirs pioposed have
been enumerated In the foregoing
Nevada, which is one of the Mates
destined to be improved by the piovl
slons of the Irrigation bill, furnishes
one of the best or worst examples of
tho effects of ardity upon progress and
at the same time furnishes the advo
cated of Irrigation with ono of their
most powerful arguments ln favor of
GoTernmental control of tho Irrigation
of the arid lands of the West.
The friends of Irrigation declare, In
short, that the poverty of Nevada is
due to the greed of land speculators of
the same class that now advance Ar
guments for the Individual Stao con
trol of Irrigation matters
In Nevada there are onl about 40 -000
people the population has de
creased In the last ten ears and to
day Nevada can barely support a State
government. A blight has fallen upon
the State and the reason Is not far to
Instead of taking her school land
grant as other States took It, that Is to
ray, the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sec
tions Nevada held out for a grant ot
2 000 000 acres, with the privilege of lo
cating the grant whcie she pleased
Tho icsult was that a gang of land
sharks bought up the votes and pow
ers of the State officials, acqulKd the
school grant lands for a millionth part
of Iheli value, anil thin proceeded to
locate the grant 'where they liked'
which was on both sides of ever
stream and water course In the Stati
of Nevada ln consequence of this,
theie is today not a single quarter sec
tion of land ln the whole of Nevada
upon which a settler could And the
necessary water or upon which he
could locate and build u home
One of the best examples of the won
ders already worked by lriigatlon of
arid lands Is a matter of record One
ear ngo the destrt of Coloiado a
sandy waterless uml apparently useless
tenltory was absolutely unpopulated
Life could not exist upon It. Today
moie than a thousand persons have
their homes on the land und hundieds
ot other families ure only awaiting the
anival of the pieclous water at ttulr
lespeitlvo farms to take possession of
a section and bcfcln the cultivation of
the soil Indeed, the settlement of this
tntlio district is progressing so rapidly
that the population of the desert part
aluue Is Increasing at tho late of ten
persons a day, whllo the general rate of
ciop Increase Is lislng steadllj.
lirlgatlon has, In fact, produced such
wonders In tho uild Ian Is of the West
that In almost every State west of tho
Mlssouil river the Interest in the sub
ject of nn artificial water supply for
agricultural purposes has eclipsed all
utheis as a question uf public policy,
AM lhr onttmrtlnsm fmmerlv devoted ta
All tho enthusiasm fonnerly devoted to
political and moiKtaiy questions Is
now ccntuied ln the discussion of lrii
gatlon I'sitally theio ale bitter oppon
ents to eveiy measure proposed, but In
this matter tho opinion of tho West
sttms to have become cij utilized in
to such unanimity that detei mined ad
versuileB aio hard to Und Tha few
opponents who do exist uro holders of
large traits ot land, held nt Infinitesi
mal lentuls und used for gracing pur
poses, which, undei the lirlgutlou plan
would be cut up Into small fatins and
The objott of those who advocate ir
rigation ut wholesale Is, brlelly, to ac
complish tho letlamatlon of more than
one hundred mllllo 1 nines of slid Ian is
In tho West, evtiy ucie of which It la
claimed could ba made fertile and
tillable It storm water that now goes to
waste could bo stoied and led out upon
The advocates of irrigation say tot
theie uia many ways ln which thla
mammoth work can be accomplished
The consensus of opinion In the West
is that It can best be done by tho Gov
ernmentthat lirlgailon Is, in fact, a
legitimate part of the Tedoral tunc,
tlon Theie uie already in existence a
great many Irrigation companies and
It would not be dlHlcult to raise sum
dent capital for much of the woik o
he unlTtsken bv a private corpora
tion This, however, the West em
practleallj does not wnnt
The people ot tho West do net forget
that there aro among them Interests
which may he expected to be antago
nistic to a national' li ligation polUy
Those Interests consist of tho people
who make an organized industry of the
absorption ami conversion of the public
domain Into prlvati ownership That
business Is going on actively today and
U about'fhe only thing which tho advo
cates of Irrigation llnd In tnelr way
The FMral Government owns and
controls all tho rest ot tha urld and des
ert lands of the West The advocates of
Irrigation say that fully 100 OuO 000 acres
f this land could be rendered fertile
and optned for settlement if water were
brought to It Apprehending the dan
ger whUh might be expected to result
If the Irrigation of this country was
undertaken either bj the Stutes or by
trlvate individuals a number of promi
nent and Influential Western men have
determined to try to obtain Immediate
Congressional nctlon They are even
afraid of waiting for another session
Thiy say that the fate of Nevada Rhows
whnt would happen If private specula
tors were allowed to tal'e charge of the
irrigation works and that the samo
State demonstrates the almost unlver
sal Inability on the part of the various
States to look after the matter properly
themselves It Is, unfortunate), i-as
enough for Slate Legislatures to be
Induced to make gfanto of public arid
lands, if they have the power, but It has
never been found easly for the peoplo
afterward to resume their rights In such
territory The thing w hlch the friends of
Irrigation desire Is lh" greatest good
of the greatest number They do not
wish to create great Ungated estates or
fruit plantations, hut to make number
less small and well Irrigate! farms
They wish to see the Irrigated territory
held for actual settlers only If that is
done It is predicted that the whole West
will be populated as quickly as Okla
homa was settled and with the same
class of people Towns will spring up,
weilth will be created, and there will
be created new and wide demand for
farm Implements, vehicles, and the
other necessities of an agricultural
Necessarily, It would be Impossible to
Irrlgatn all these lands at once It
would be a matter of years, but engi
neers say that it could undoubtedly ho
done Some of the best authorities up
on Irrigation In the world men wha
have marfb fertile the arid lands of
South Africa and India have visited
this country examined the land and
declared that few countries offer better
opportunities for scientific Irrigation
Under the plans suggested to Congress
great main line canals are tn be built.
Some of these will connect directly with
reservoirs while others will be carried
through tho arid territory ln such a
way that settlers can run their own Ir
rigation ldtches and laterals to connect
with tho main canals Tha reservoirs
will be used to store up the flool waters
of the Western rivers and creeks some
of which run bankful! for part of th
jear ami are as dry as sand the rest of
the time. Irrigation exports say that If
all the water that la aliened to go to
waste in the form of flood waters could
be saved there would be enough of It
to convert the whole of the arid lands
Into rice marshes If necessary
No one Is a greater friend to the Irri
gation plans of the Westerners than
President Roosevelt In this he Is well
rupported by the Secretary of the In
terior, who devoted the greater part
of his last rerort to a thorough discus
slon and explanation of the need of ir
rigation In tho West He gave his en
thusiastic Indorsement to the plans pro
posed before Congress President Roose
velt, In his travels recently in the West,
had plenty of opportunities to Judge of
the necessltj for Irrigation His long
residence In Wyoming also gave him
many chances of hearing from the set
tlers themselves their views on the
subject of irrigation In his last mes
sage to Congress President Roosevelt
hod many Interesting things to say
about the need of irrigation, and
showed h.mself to be one of the most
advanced thinkers on the subject. Many
people. In discussing the matter, have
hesitated at considering irrigation as
a legitimate function of Government,
but President Roosevelt has no such
scruples In his message he says, in his
downright way "Irrigation Is propeily
a national function, at least In some of
Its features It is ns right for the na
tional Government to make the streams
und rivers of the arid region useful by
englneeilng works for water storage as
to make useful tho livers and harbois
of the humid region by engineering
works of another kind Tne storngo of
the waters In reservoirs at the head
waters of our rivers is but an enlarge
ment of our present policy of river
control, under which levees uro built
on tho lower teaches of the samo
'The Government should construct
and maintain thcte reservoirs as It does
other public works. Where their pur
pose Is to icgulate the How of Mreusis,
tho water should be turned freely into
Ilia ihunnels In the dry season to take
the samo course under the samo laws
as the natuial How
'The reclamation and settlement of
tho arid lands will enrich every portion
ot our country, Just us the settlement ot
the Ohio and Mississippi valleys
biought prosperity to the Atlantlo
That Is tho opinion of tho Piesldent,
nnd, bh can ba seen, his statement cov
ers the ground veiy thoioughly. Ho has
overlooked none of tho Important puhlio
features of tins undertaking and his ad
vocacy ot the Irrigation plan has pro
portionally delighted those who have
been bittllng foi tho irrigation bill In
Washington Ihey die the moie pleased
because, thej peicelve that tho President
haa uIm) been alive tu the danger appre
ciated by few L'uatern men the clanger
ot having the undertaking fall into the
hands of land sharks and speculators
Piesldent Roosevelt clearly perceived
this danger und added to his messige
on Irrigation this significant warning
"At the verj beginning tho Govern
ment should make rltar, bejond the
shadow of a doubt, Its Intention to pur
sue this policy on lines of the broadest
publln Interest, No reservoir or ennnj
should ever be built to satisfy selfish
personal or local Interests, but onl In
accordance with the advice of trained
experts after long Investigation has
been shown Iho locality where all the
conditions combine to make the woik
most needed fraught with the greatest
usefulness to the community ns a whole
There should be no extravagance, and
tho belleveis In the need of Irrigation
will most benefit their causa by seeing
to it that It Is free from the least taint
of excessive or leckless expenditure of
the publlo moneys ' ,
Ono of the things accused ot hindetlng
agriculture In many of the Western
States has been tha 'lack of suitable
soil " Ab a matter of fact, say the irri
gation experts, the trouble is hardly
ever with the soil Crois ot a sort can
be made to grow ln almost pure sand,
piovldlng the sand Is wet enough What
Is wanted In the West, they sal. Is not
better soil, but more watel Curiously
enough, much of the randy charactei
of eel lain Western plains Is actually
due to water. Long ago these sandy
wastes were covered with water Into
which streams ran These rivers an 1
streams brought with them quantities
of silt suspended In the water The silt
settled' at last, forming the deposits
of sand which now' hinder agriculture
This is particularly true In the desert of
the Colorado, which, so It Is alleged,
was formed entliely bv the deposition
of silt at the deltu, or D -shaped piece
of ground at the mouth of the river
Olten enough when this sand or silt
Is washed avvaj, good workable earth or
elay is found beneath There ar' of
course, many pieces where the dead,
useless hopeless sand lies upon solid
rock That sort of land Is praitlcally
useless, but It fortunately forms the mi
nority of the acreage of the aild lands
All over tha settled Stairs ot Nebraska
and Kanras, and even further east to
Illinois and Ohio, there are thousands
and thnurands of acres of this sandy
sell which would be arid and useless if
it wero not for irrigation A handful of
earth taken from a Held bearing a plen
tiful rrop In Illinois will often if ill led
out be found to resemble clorely a
handful of earth taken from the worst
of the arid districts of the West. All
that is needed to make the atll land
bear good crops is water. There are
miles of territory In Wyoming, for In
stance, which now support nothing but
sagebiush, which could be made to pro
duce valuable crops -if water could be
brought to them
There seems to be no question of the
actual utility and profit to be derived
from Irrigation By means of Irriga
tlon the fanner Is lifted at once from
the position of a mart dependent upon
chance to one who practices an exact
science. At present the farmer of the
West Is at the mercy ot the rainfall
The dreaded 'drought ' Is upon him
With the Installation ot a main line ca
nal tapping an unfailing water supply,
the condition is changed over the entire
conutry side Crops can be counted up
on as surely as the Interest upon Gov
ernment bonds
Another most decided advantage of Ir
rigation Is that It produces finer, larger
and mora luscious fruits vegetables and
grain than can be obtained by the ' wait
for rain" process Just as the garden
that It watered regular! s produces bet
ter flowers and foliate than one which
depends upon chance showers, so the ir
rigated farm bears better crops than tho
farm which depends merely upon the
rainfall bo great Indeed, is the dif
ference between the productivity of an
Irrigated farm as compared with one
that Is without watr supply that If the
Government finally undertakes the work
of irrigating the arid lands It Is likely
that the standard for allotments will be
changed At present a settler is allowed
to lay claim to 160 acres of land. It be
ing widely believed that this amount of
land is necessary for the support of a
famtlj When Irrigation la practiced,
It has beeiif oncluslvely shown that half
the acreage of land eighty acres Is
ample for the support of a family, ow
ing to the greatly Increased amount of
pioduce which can ba obtained from the
giound When the Government scheme
of Irrigation Is carried out It Is probable
that In most districts the land will be
subdivided Into farms of not exceeding
twenty acres Upon these farms the
settlers will be able to raise fruit, poul
try and green stuff Some stock will
probably be kept at least enough to
provide butter but, in general, stock
farming will not be followed because the
land will be too profitable for agrlcul
tural purposes
Eastern merchants, who were at first
inclined to oppose the wholesale Irriga
tion plan because they had a hazy idea
that It would interfere with Eastern
farmers have been converted to a bet
ter faith They now comprehend that
every article used by the settlers upon
the urld lands will have to bo put chased
In tho citlss. and that the East will get
Its full share of this class of trade. The
produce of the Western furms will not
come Into competition with those of the
East because the Western divide of this
continent and the Asiatic market is ex
pected to create a gi eater and more
piotltnblc demand.
A soman's Iiw of raUInff nni carlnc
for poultry on tho farm arnl In the vllUg
or town Is ghon to tho reader of the
Inter-Mountain frarmcr an Ranchman.
BhO 831,8.
Chicken-raiting neems to bo beet
aiUptetl to u woman's sphere and et how
few there aro, comi uratlvely vpcaklng,
who enyage In It Tow men, unless tl uy
made It their ixcUnlve buslncca, would
elvo the time and patient e necessary to
tho many little detalla connected with
poultry-raising Tho bulk of the poultry
and egg supply of tho United States de
pendft upon tho farm flocks, or the pen of
a "few hens" kept by the town Individual,
l'oultry-ialslng Is conrldered. perhaps ono
of tho least Important biancuts of hus
bandry, jet nation.il statlrtlcs show that
tho iroducts of the poultry nrd aio
among tho most profitable. In agrtculturo
Unite not quite t-n great In value us hay
or grain-raising, the r outtry Income It es.
tlmatcd at settvrnl hundred million dollars
unnjally In the United Htates Ait) wo
man who Is fortunate enough to own a
comfortable chicken-house und a flock of
f;ood htns has tt in her power to make a
Ittle mone), Ono of tho moat Important
essential Is Ueanlinr-sB, and that means
clean quarters, clean food pure w dter and
freedom from ermln Tho chlekt-n-houne
should be warm and llRht. and the food
shuul I bo pl eit regularlv Especial atten
tion should be glui to the drlnrtlng water
Nearly every case of cholera In h flock of
hens can be traced to tho foul condition of
tho drinking water and pans Fortunate
are they who hac running water f r
fowls but when pans aro used they should
be frequently Bcruhbed with hot au6 es
nectrilU in hot weather On no account
keen ducks with chlrkens for ducks be
foul tho water and make It unfit for hens
ta drink An egg U composed largely of
water so It can readily bo ren how nec
essary It la for the water supply to re
pure . dalir who can warrant very
egg sold will realize at least & eentn aboe
th regular market price We alt know
what cA6o eggs are and some of us, at
It ist, know that "fresh ranch eggs' are
rot 'always what they stem Truly fresh
?gs nof-r have to go ibeggh c for a cus
tomer, the demand olwajs exceeds the
A "nest eyg Is not necesbiry, but If one
Is used, let it be china or an empty shell
filled with plisterof parls Then at nUhl
when the eggs ara collected, sou are sure
that nil are fresh newtrti of patent egg
food Scalded bran and shorui meat
scraps, brokm green bona or burned bone,
chopped egetnlles and scalded ha or
gra nilM-.l with a little bran will dls
count an igg foot i wr lnei tcJ nd our
fowl will bo helth ho would care to
tU the tggtt ni tIf-Bh nf do lied towls" A
little red pepper given ocruidonalU In their
ft od Is all the ti.mulint the nee 1 hen
ilntera tars among u tlok see first
that e.erthlnjr itrinlnlng to their sur
roundings Ik clean hcald n packige of
garden r ie do be hid ut any drup Ktore)
and mix with tlutr soft feed for a week
Tut a lump of asnfoctlda In their drinking
water If our flok Is lou und mites
appear on the underside of the roosts, up
pl melted Inrd to eer portion of tho
rcoBts, top, bottom rides and ends, re
pent for srwral mornings and you will
soon destroj them A brush or swab must
be used ln nppljjng the hot grease Cilse
the hens plent nt .inrcs to wallow In und
sprinkle nhs or fine lime under the
roosts This Is nn old lice rcmed an lone
thit reer falls Women who attend to
poultry themseleB will find tbat the
not onl gain tlnanclallj but they will
fain thit which mono cannot bu
ealth Hasten tho dai when the ruling
fad shill te outdror work for women nnd
rlents of fresh ilr Then we shall hnt a
healthier, hippler handsomer nnd more
contented nco of women As to the test
kind of fowl to keep nearly eerj one his
their favorite But It has been my ex
perience thit a hen of no parttculir breed
a morgrel or scrub If well taken care of
will exeel her petted partnered thorough
hred sister In the ess contest As to the
different nrletien nf fowls the apes and
methods of mirkettng them as well as for
pouttn raising on a much lirger scale
nnd also tho care of turkes ducks and
geee. th entire subject Is bo lirge it
would require much time labor and expe
rience to discuss it properls And the.se
phates of nmilm -raising aro left for In
ture consideration
Treatment of Poultry Diseases.
I am opposed to poultry doctoring I
believe that each poltrmin should hae
a good know led se of diseases their cause
and preventives, but to begin a rigid treat
ment as soon as a fowl la Indisposed or to
attempt to cim for one that fs suffering
from a contagious disease Is not onl a
waste of time and money, but a foolish
There is a long list of diseases, If wo
ma j Judge from the arlous poultry books
written on tho subject but In reallt they
can re clasttiled under a compintlel
srrall number of heads It Is not my ob
ject to give an essay on diseases but
rather to take up the more common forms,
show how thev can be more or less pre
ented and to fci th most common
sense treatment If ther'lo exist
The most common disease in the poultry
jard and thnone which puzzles the begin
ner the most is rojp Genuine roup la
deadh But two thirds of the cases pre
sented are not roup but rather some
symptom leading up to It
Dr Sanborn In his book Farm Toultry
Doctor. as 'Tho word roui Is proba
blv derived from croup, an Inflammatory
disease of tho larjnx ind trachea in the
human blned Itoup is a purulent ca
tarrhal a nee tlon of the air passages
There are a number of ciusen for the
presence of roup, prominent among whlrh,
aro close air extreme variations of tem
i era ture between clt and night, damp
houses draughts. Improper food nnd
filthy water
,Dr Eanborn also says it I contagious
disuse, and large numbers havo been lost
from tho thoughtlew Introduction or a
roup) bird Into a, healthy tlook Over
feedlne or underfeeding, stagnant water
an) thing ln food or drink that lowers the
ltillt of the fowl Ib one factor that
sometime ends In roup A dimp location
of house a leaky roor or cracks that ad
mit draughts rftvn leid to catarrh or roup,
says tho doctor A henhouse that la
cleaned out seml-occaslonally. esieclilly
If damp. Is a good breeding place for ca
tarrhal diseases In-breeding (the closer
the more danger) weakens the vitality so
that catarrh too often llnds a ready vic
tim While roup Is one of the worst dUeasea
that cun enter the poultrv rd jet nt
the same time beginners are ait to be
come alarmed when there Is little need
Jf It Watery eves sneezing, distemper,
swelled face canker In the mouth heavy
ths ailments that are easily cured Too
often they aro classed aa roup, which Is
not a fact, although they are symptoms
which, if neglected, will lead to roup
Treat these symptoms nnd remove the
causes us we have enumerated, and you
will never have to battle with roup
Watery e)es, sneezing nnd distemper
can be checked by giving a one-grain
(iulntm till each night for thrcu nights
ond a half-dozen drops of aconite to every
Xlnt of drinking water
Swelled face is successfully treated with
an ointment made of one lublesroonful of
melted vn?ellno nnd one teaapoonfut of
Johnson a Anodyne Liniment Keep the
two well mixed bj stirring
Canker ln tha mouth culls for a more
dlfncalt treatment Wash tho head und
eves and swab out the mouth and throat
with a bolutlon of chlorite of potash and
alum, equal pat Is, containing one-half
alum, equal pans, containing one-half
vvuter, and remove the ulcers with a quill
Then nppl powdered borux to the places
left bare to be teneuted twice a dav
I or heuv breathing and rattling In tho
throat we havo found that nothing acts
so quickly as two or three drops or John
eon s Anodvne liniment In a teaspoonful
of glycerine Olvu this dose each night
until a cure la effected Thl treatment In
equall) good for couching
Kerosene In tho drinking water say
rood tableenoonful to a rullon of water
la also good for colds tho only objection
to Us use belnr that It Is so distasteful to
poultry that they will do without v uier
rather than take the dose We prefer tho
use of aconite 1os mentioned above An
nuo, being a de idly polso i care must ic
tiken ln liandllni. It und ulto In giving
the dose Do not give moro thun twelve
drona In a quart of wnter
Wo havo founi In twentv ears' experi
ence with poultry, thut where wo watch
and treat the above a Iments wo do not
have the roup Uetoro we thoroughly un
derstood the uutmo of the disease we lost
heu-vll) over) full but for fulh ten years
wo havo been able to 1 eep the dreaded
dlseuvo nt bav A thorough understand
ing a caieful watching and prompt licit
ment of tho slight allirents will prevent
much trouble und loss m this direction
We doubt If ever a case of roup was
cured It la possible that the birds uppar
e uly recovered but the truth Is that wnen
roup once tiikea hold of n bird it will ever
contain germs of the disease
Never breed u bird that has tx.cn
"cured of roup
Tho very best remedy for tho genuine
( laeaso that we have ever found Is a block
of wood nnd a good, harp hatchet
The roup scare In the poultry ard la
"cholera " There aro moro cases of
cholera rcpoited than really exist Indl.
gcattion and lice kill the majority of these
fowls und cholera gets the blame
Jn cases of Indigestion the fowls are
sluggish appetite poor, tho droppings
scant and unheullhy and the crop no ft
Indlgiistlon Is caused by lack of sharp
grit injudjrlous use of grain nnd a debili
tated system
City? a fcood family liver pill each night
for Ihrra nights ln succession feed
chopped onions nnd ln eere uiies adi
ten drops of nitric ncld to a quart of
drinking water
Cholera is of ml a 8 initio origin, enldemlc
and verv contsglous The principal caused
are overcrowding tuC sanitary minage
mnt nnd unwholesome or Irregular food
Of all diseases cholera Is tho least under
stood as many cf the symptoms given are
also tdrttnd with other troubhs like
Indigestion enteritis etc The erern il
symptoms of a cholera patient are a de
jected sleepy droopy uppeurume 'Ine
bird does not plume Itself and his a great
thirst, It has a slow, staggering walk nnd
I gasps frequently At times the bird falLi
down from weakness lhe comb and wat
tles become palo at times nnd then dark
Tho droppings are at first elthvr of a
4 "
In a ntatemtnl announcing the publi
cation of thi Intcr-Mountaln Farmer nml
Ilnpchman thfi publlrher suggest that
the common belief that mining In almost
the eclulM lnteret of I'lnh Wvnmliur
Idaho .Sracii nnd petern Coli rnflo Is
ftomenhat nn error An Indicated th
arlous branches of agriculture uch o
general farming rtatning anil the. nl
Inf? of cattle, horeesi sheep, awlno nnil
poullr) tORelher nlth the cultlatlon of
fruits, the Browing of heels tomatoes
corn, potdtoes pea, berries etc anil
their preeervatlcn or mmufacturo Into
sugar or canned goods hxva become of
equal alue In the amount of annual pro.
ductlon and the number of reople em
plojed as In the mining lndustr It is
probably truo that but fw people out
side of thoie engaged In It reallio the
real importance of firming In the arid
region Prnhibly few stop to culculite
how much hard work and how long It has
tlKen lo bring an unsubdued desert plain
or tlley Into a high state of cultlvitlon
I Irit to clear off the wild hruh and level
the surface, then to fence, plots pla it
nnd cultivate the dry nnd unfertlllitd
fields but more than this to control and
divert tbo running waters from some
mountain dream lake or channel nnd
distribute a carefully-measured and equal
poitlon of moisture through and among
nil the furrow rows and rojts of the
&nln phnts, trees or meadows of the Ir
rigated nelds gardens or orchards The
Interests of agriculture horticulture,
stock raising poultry-raising gardening,
bee culture, silk culture Mm culture and
man other branches of husbandry are
stisceptlbln of Immeasurable development
Take for eramplo the sucaens of hcet
ralslng In Utah alone, thi past season
SKiiOOon pounds of sugir was produced,
and thus a direct saving was, made lo
tho people of this Stato of 1 "'lOfKD which
heretofore hod all been sent awa lo out
side points Suppose again that all the
woolen goods used within the Htate were
of home manufacture and tint all of the
dtled fruits canned goods and preserves
wrre of fresh fruits from our home or
chards, nnd also made with our home
sugar -v hat a recrue this would bring
to TJtsh alone W hat If the raw hides and
pelts, the furs nl tho feathers wero utll
ued and after tanning or dressing, were
made up In articles of wear and utility
right at home suppose further, that the
seeds, the roots, the fruit tree and flower
plants were of careful selertlon of full
acclimated home varieties nnl wero fresh
end true to rcpra .nation how many
millions of dollars would hao been snea,
and how trnny thousanl more pr ispcrous
recplo would each of lUfm Btitea con
tain than are found today? Thm enrry
this same proportion Into corj depart
ment of the Industries of agriculture,
take for another example the amount an
nually sent out of those mountain States
for packing-house pr6ducts meats lard,
oleomargarine etc, and It amount to
millions of dollars i year Most of these
things could be produced ond tho results
and benefits der!ed hi our own people
bo we say again that these Interests could
be Increased and built up Immensurnbly
Another point of lew tho Intermoun
taln former should take In marking out
his plans and programme for Hie ensuing
crip ear, und tout la this Whatever Is
worth doing, or whateer crop Is worth
rolslng shoulJ ba tho bost should bring
the highest results ond be of tho beat t a.
rletjl It pass always In the first place
to have a well-considered plan for each
greenish color or like ' sulphur and water,
und afterward they become thin and
frothy I'rostratlon comes on and tho
crop fills with mucous and wind, the
food does not digest thcro Is heavy and
quick breathing, tho eyes close, and In n.
few hours the fowl is dead A post
mortem of the fowl will llnd tho gizzard
lllled with drled-up food sometimes with
a greenish matter, and the crop Infl-ited
with sour mucous und food Tho Hvtr
is enlarged und flabby, und so tender that
It can be readily mushed In tho hand Is
generally split open und In Jery casa
much congested the trop nnd Intestines
are Inflamed ond tho latter nre tilled
with grientsh matur The heart Is also
sometimes enlarged ...
If you should no so unfortunate ns to
have the reul cholera In sour Hocks, apply
the 'roup rented we give ubove viz,
the block und hatchet
J he most iholera SLares come from the
sections where corn la almost tho sole
diet This continual feeling of corn pro
duces Indigestion, nnd li e fowls at tho
sumo time being moro or leso worried with
lite die In i suspicious manner
Other nllments In tho poulliy yard are
anacml-lack of blood Tbero t a gen
eral protratlon depression bloodless
look esteclally about the eyes, comb and
wattles, the comb is pallid cold und In
cllncd to lop over, tho mouth and tonpuo
white, limbs cold and thighs somewhat
"Tonudy-A family liver pill eaih night
fu three nights In suctecslon Add u
teaspoonful of tincture of Iron to a iiuurt
of drinking water , . ,
Apoplesy and vertigo nro ery much of
tho same order 1 here la a rush of blood
to the held, caused by being too fat,
hotedltary tendenes, violent exercise by
bt ng chased Intense heat Indigestion and
straining esueclilly in luslns hum, ibxy
nie frequently louiid elead on tho nest
The blood rushing to tlio head the fowl
feola dizzy Biatttra as If ,'Uunk 01 runs
about In circles tuldird uaa that
It under these circumstances tho amount
of blood In tho head bo Increased the
brain suspends its activity and the fowl
falls senseless w hen the blood lions away
again tho fowl will mover unless the
Influx of blood to the brain his been so
strong as to burst a blood vessel In which
case the towl trw l'e it time or If It
recovers, mu recover with part uf the
tern brain so mpa thut that putt of
fro be'dy which !; co lid with this part
of tho brain cannot hi una. or, ns wo say,
"fTeduco'the fat bs feeding a low; diet f( r
about a week Teraporars relief can be
given by holding tha bird b head under a
tunam of cold wator for a few minutes
and then keeping It nlono in a tomewhat
dark place
Wustlng of the liver is a somewhat
common ailment In. the poultry sard Tho
bird grows light in weight, depressed
drowss The evacuations ure of a bilious
order ending In a black or blood stained
condition In man cases the bliJ roes
into a stupor and dies in convulsions.
There Is no cure
I oul, damp and dark houses nnd over,
crow ill m the same, Impuro water, de
cased food, Isck of sharp grit and vege
table food are apt to produce catea of
baldnee? white comb scuivv or Itch
There Is a scurvy appearand i to the
comb wattles hsad nnd neik with a
gradual loss of feathers from the head
and neck
(live a phvslo of a teaspoonful of cm
tor oil Add a teaspoonful of tincture of
Iron to a quart or drinking water and
anoint the scurvs parts wtlh vaseline
The above practically takes In the ave.
rage aliments In the poultry yard and the
majority of them can bo prevtntcd.
nnd (cr ir Tho coming year should HiiKH
nlwavn be mtdo a llttlo better in ome &fH
way than the past year for experience Is 111H
a dmbln Inmp to guide our feet If we tfMH
will onl foil w Its light Where mistakes &H
havo bren inide they rhould be avoided. ililH
where pucrens has been secured the ea- iilH
son for sun ess f-hould he known and vliH
cen hrtter rtsultn attempted For ono SilH
and nil the farmers nnd fruit-growers. fliH
poultr rutfer and gardeners ought to MH
study how to tlnd the belt markets for tillH
their prndurts or at least learn where, MH
when and how the best prices can be ob- MH
talned One local girdener informs tho ilH
writer that he produced almost M per rfiH
rent more prottt lait season from a new flJi,H
arlety of tomatoe than In any previous inH
year It was earlier brought higher K.flH
price and produced more than any other frlsH
gardener ln hH vicinity rerdved In one JjiH
district a number of farmers made a PiH
specialty of luttrne seed having a good. LKsH
first crop of ha then a good second crop K'H
of need and a in nil third crop of atfaJfa HH
for feed The peed crop brought from $25 lH
to fi& per acre benldes the hay N.HH
This reminds the editor that the past riH
two years have been remirkabU in the fcriliH
way of price nnd profit to the Amerl- iHH
can fanner The fact li, agriculture 1 &nH
the subctnntlal basin of our national OH
wealth and prosperity Our balance of ?IH
trade with foreign countries grows large 1H
h out of the exports of grain cotton. IH
meat products and thn iroducts uf the iH
soil Ai a unit the American farmer has M
become rich and Independent In the past iH
three years compared with the depression '(HH
and low prices of the previous ten years LiHH
It is in a thankful and grateful spirit ViM
that the writer makes the statement, for M
no class needed and deserved a ch4nge ,H
for tho better more than the farmer Lo- M
cally look at the prlcea farmers are re- jH
cctUng where tributary to the Silt Lako w H
m-irket Alfalfa til to $12 a ton, timothy IH
hay, $15 to till per ton, potatoes, &n cents IH
to U a bushel, tipple, from J3 to U ft H
biiFhel whe-it 80 cents a bushel, eggs, H
poultry butttr, egetabtet nil In tho H
same ratio in the regular retail market. H
With prosperity general. It seems on iiH
opportune time for an agricultural paper H
to ectahllth itself In the field outlined M
herewith It fs the Intention of the pub .IsiiiiV
Ushers nnd editorial writers tn get In "liiiH
touch with the people on the farms and H
with all thov who follow rural occupa B
ttons The subscription price has been H
made Ion onty SI a year it Is the Int-jn- IJSH
tlon to give all tho general newa of the M
day, and eperally to treat of tre live H
tonirn and subject Interesting to the ln- jH
telllgent and progressive people of the fllssss1
mountiln Bute ihe household partlcu- Vkssssl
larlv should all. And some department of Jssssl
peculfai Interest to each member of the iliH
family And It Is the wish to make the M
paper actually useful, to make It an edu- jH
cator nnd a real bene.lt to all Its readers. ibbbbI
As st ited tn the announcement "we H
solicit from farmers nnd ranchmen every- WM
where communications upon tho practical IHH
production of all articles from tne soil IibbbbI
grain, gracs sugar beets, fruit, flowers. lH
garden products and al-o all live stock lsH
and fowls nWu fish and anything of In- WM
tcrest rotating to wild game Our col- Uifl
limn will be open to you As rapidly aa BH
possible we will procure and publish news SH
nnd nrtlclrs from thooe specially versed IH
In the eclonre of ngrlculiure rmlt-cut- lH
ture, itorleulturn and live stock Special fH
featurts will be ndded from time to time. fH
end we h .pe to make of The Inter-Mcun- H
tMn 1 nrmr itnd Itunchman such a pub- .--
Mention as will not only be of great ln- B
tcrest but of vast service to our farmers fH
and ranchmen, and which will encourige B
tha rapid development of our farming
and range country.
It Is Important that the fowls have M
clean and cheerful houses, free from IsbbbbI
dampness and bad odors l4Vafl
It Is equally important that the best IibbbbI
of food water and cure be given them, HH
for disease la almost as a rule caused by iIbbbbbI
some carelessness In this respect iIibbbbI
inert must be a freedom from lice, for ubbbbbI
no bird, well or sick can thrive when pes- bSbbI
tcred to death with Insects IIbbbbbI
.ever trued u bird that has ever had a
serious ailment Let your stock be abso- MbbbbbI
lutely sound In hetilth With hardy stock. &
comfortable houses generous range, pure Ibbbbb!
food and water and the best of care you HbVI
will not only drlvo disease away but IibbbbI
will bo adding treatly to your success tlH
M K Boyu, la American Poultry Jour- IbbVI
Care of Bees During- Winter. IAbbI
The majority of farmers pay but little ibbbbb!
attention to their bees during1 tha cold M
winter months, leaving them on their
summer stands without any protection IibbbbI
fiom tin told winds and storms In lo TbbbbbI
calltlea where tho mercury reaches 10 and Ibbbbb!
t below xero we should give our bees IsbbbbI
comrortable quurters as well as our other IibbbbI
stock, says the Modern Farmer and Busy Sbbbbb!
Bee IH
J.U us wake up to the fact that we aro H
living ln a progrtsslvo age. and that apl- M
cultuie Is not 'left lehlnd In the race ' lbbbH
1 hope the time Is not far distant when bsbbbbt
wt tfhali ht done with all the oil boxhlve B
and brimstone methods of tho past mM.
Let m- advise all our friends who are fM
thinking of keeping u few bees on their IH
furms to tct ome of the modern movable Ibbbb
frame hives which ure sold by all our wbbbV
bee-supply dealers ut very small cost, and LbbbbI
so take advantage of tne valuable tm- M
proiem?nts which have been made a Ion; M
the bct-linc M
When to .Dry the Cow. 1
How far Into the gestation period M
should a cow 'a milk bo taken Tor table M
ubo? C V. It. H
There Is a great difference of opinion H
on this matter, Many claim that they M
milk their cows and find the milk good M
up to two oi three weeks before par H
turltlon, whllo otheia practice drying M
tho cowb ono or two months before that
petlod Giving milk is p. great draft on .M
the MItnlly uf the cow und fthe should JR
have a period of rest and recuperation,, vTbbbbI
before the peilod of parturition. aiT bbbbbI
beginning tho work again. This la If i- m
poitmit, no odds what the quality fof IbbH
the milk for table use aa our rorre- bbH
spondent suggests One to tvo months H
has been found a reasonable period for iH
rest, and the quality of the milk and lH
capabilities of the cow are the better M
for it Indiana rarmer. 'JbbbbI
Utterly Ee,flih H
Mother Do you thrc his love for M
ion Is unselfish H
Daughter ivifeetly The other ntght lH
he let me sit to long on his knee tha1 hn ' jH
walked iam for ten m.mUe,T-New bbbbb1
ork Wekly, IibbbbI
aA.sTonx-a. H
Beau th y? B Yctl Have A!ays Bcujl H

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