OCR Interpretation


The Inter-mountain farmer and ranchman. [volume] (Salt Lake City, Utah) 1902-1902, February 25, 1902, Image 1

Image and text provided by University of Utah, Marriott Library

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/2010218500/1902-02-25/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?


Thumbnail for

Vol. T. No. . Salt Laki: City, Utah, Tuesday Morxixg, Fkuouahy l'o, moii. Pincn, Fivi Cents.
SPECIAL INTEREST TO
FARMER AND STOCKMAN
Cows That Do Their Best.
mi cess or failure of the dalry-
III generally depend very lirge
i the hip Hint la given to hln
n I nn the comfort nml fnvora
.11 lions with rt hi li lip suiiounds
,s flood dalrslng icqulros com
t stabling, pi'o.l bedding mi lit,
in to cleanliness, imcli en tll
will furnish Kood nir, the kind
tmenl iif th enw, with, wo
xmlse In the open ah, except
:ih weuthei Is quite severe, suss
u Block lndiciitor.
milking Is mi Important tac
tile innnngtiuent of lows, for
i good low Is prevented from
rer best by the unklndncss, or
le roughness that Is not meant
IS, on the part of the mllkei
Iking should be done legutaily
1 hours cull das, milking the
i the herd In the same order
far as possible by the same
The milking should be rap
ic as rapldl). Indeed, lis Is con
wllli sentient, iind the milker
l,el all the milk ciuh time,
sc he will llnil the yield giadu-.
re.nlng As n means to ecurp
I jlcld of whkh u cow is min
ding Is of the highest impoil
t should be liberal mid piopur
to Hit sleld of tho milk tint
gins 'the comentratid food
alum rhould constitute from n
i a half of the total dry matter
iU unity It should amount to
the animal will mt up ilean,
quality should be nnn-fattm-.
vailed In anordanic with the
nullity of the auimtl Tot
, iowh that havo no lonstttti
endimy to I ly on fat can, In
st lr eiy sufily fed a laiger
of lorn, while liu having tills
S should be fed less lorn the
Le being m ide up by the use
! highly nitrogenous prodtut
gluten meal, oil mtul or Klmllar
irts Tho feeding should be as
hi the milking, and o fur us
irkct conditions will pcimlt
have vurlct. It Is also u
Idi 1 advantage to hive suicu
the fud, and heieln lies the
tho silo In limes when there Is
uic Water Is an lmportnnt
the dairy management, and the
ould be that the cows have
if watoi and of n kind that the
d his lamlly lould drink them
tlthuut distaste
Dairy Cow and tho Herd.
Ilowing Ih fiom an uddiess by
M Connei, assistant agrlcul
f CI mson lollegc, South Caro
daliylng modern milk tow Is the tesult
ling, fiedlng und scleillon. She
a so bud and ulictid lint she
mrted fiom the original plan
lealnr nnd Iioh been made Into
il puipose animal, that is, she
i all her sin plus food Into milk
t-r fat On thu othe i hand, her
ho beef tnvv, lonverls neatly
surplus food intu llish and fat,
th has a form best suited lor
k 'lht true typo of the diliy
wedt,e sliaped. while the beef
e tanmtlar In form, so that thu
amounts of the cholct si tuts
put on the frame, The dilry
u Id c irry no surplus ilcsh or
The business i arts are devel
the greatest exent. namely, the
- apiniatus nnd Hie udlei.
ecllng n iow for thu dalij I
a i lose attention to the dilr
It ou wcro selecting n horse
racetrack ion would not select
, hlocky hoisc, but one that Is
iUIi ott tho Mound, light In
id rathei thin ho wltli the
ivvi select one sultid foi doing
k In hand W hllo i,ood diliy
iii not nivvusn Insure it good
It Is one of the best indications
:onomkal producer,
biee 1, 1 have nothing to say.
are producing buttei foi the
ket one of the smill el ill
If you are pioduclng milk for
hot, ret one of the heavier
oughlued herd Is not essentlil
us In fact, 1 would not idvisc
;peilencd m-in In het,iu with
'd cattle, but buy up the best
iws In your nolghbnihood and
od slio for bull ling up the herd
make the mlHtake of buying n
re Oct one thil will rilse Hie
I of oui hird every jeir As
th legistered ones,
lug a herd to slait with many
e are encountered if a man
od cow nnd ho knows I 'io win
'. with hu nt a icii'oniblo
lso sou c mnot depend uon
ments of the seller as to wlnt
will do These inlsstttenu ills
irally unintentional, but some
icy are not As a mlo they
the amount of milk pioduied
uro It foim nnd all.
Kli you have used the i union
g sour Ik id It would bu will
nn in c mini with each cow
lie fond fclven hei and the milk
for It, and if jou aie making
ir mat Let, test tlin milk by the
list nnd see If she Is pnvlng
hoard and keep As soon ns
satisfied that she is not, sell
stlato this point I will relile
Incident that camo under iny
Ion seme yean igo A man
i laige number of mws for
illk to supply n newly ere
.1 lie went out over the
j io buy fnur-gnllon inns, well,
pdy had foin-gallon iuhs to
jKAfter tho herd had been collect
m tho test applied It was found
Mout IB per cent of them did not
mr their feed In other words.
f Per cent of his herd were
B Oreat Cattle Exports,
department of Agilculturo says
Bort trade of i utile In tho United
for the fiscal year Juno 30, l 31.
i greatest In point of tho num.
Buttle ixpoitid of nny ear In
M Tho total to all countries
Hted to 159 218 head, nlueil at
Hp0. fif th),, number 37il3S0
almost S per ci nt. were
u to the transntlanlio trode,
Pieat Ilrltnln ns the destination
Mfst Indies and Ilermuda took
Mliead and almost all the m
IWi was consigned to the various
H" of North and South America
Mjirgcst total export tn all coun-
ny previous jeur wcro In 1698,
l"1"' "mounted ( 439255 hottj
with a declared exroit value of $3i .
SJ7f09 Hxports to nil countries fioin
Canada now the onl lompetltor of
the nnllid Str.tes In the Important
trnnjntlnntlc trade shown! " filling
olf this year fmm those of the pieced
In? Ilfcal yiai of 17 7 per lent nnd
amounted to onls 1C9.07D heid Of this
total Hi 010 head, or about 71 pel cent
1 of tb(i entire expmts weie shipped to
Oie,u Hiiinln Of Hie lem ilndei theio
weie tinnipoiled ncinss the borders
Into the I'nlled htntes 1(1 ;r, head, of
whlib nbnut 41 per cent were one ear
old or le3 and ivldently designed as
slockeis for firms In the t'nlteil
States The largest erports from Can
ada In nny previous eir were like
wise In 1S0S when the total to all
countries amounted to 213 010 head
vnlued nt JIJII !":
Food Eaten by Sheep nnd Cattle.
It Is sometimes nserted that cnttlc
and sheep require the simo amount of
feed per thourand pounds of live
weight. The stntement seems not to
be well founded. In some experiments
nt Iowa station the cittlc consumed
19 6 pounds of diy matter er thousand
pounds of live weight, against nn aver
nge of 29 07 by the (lieep Itnth sheep
nnd lattle were on lull feed The sheep
made a dilly gain of 3 71 pounds per
thousand pounds of live weight, nn 1
the tattle 214 In summing up this
comparison, wc find that while the
shiep nte i per cent more Ihnn the
cnttle, they nlso gnlned nearly 73 per
cent more I'rof, c. r. Curtlss.
Preventing Growth of Horns.
A common method now to do away
with tho horns Is to prevent their
growth by the use of chemicals on tho
calf, rays the Mnrland station bulletin
This seems to have had Its beginning
about tho year 1590, nnd Immediately
grew In favor. It Is quickly und easily
done: It Is comparatively pnlnless,
muses no nervous shock, nnd It Is done
ut a time when theie Is no milk (low
to Injure The ordinary method Is to
uso a stick of caustic soda or caustic
potash when the button or small horn
can first bo felt, illp the hair from over
the button with a pair of scliiors. wet
the end of tho stick of cnustlo with
sallvu. and rub the sl.ln over tho horn
vigorously. The operation requires
about two minutes. The work can be
done very easily bv nne.411 in. in fact, as
tasllv ns two can do It. Tho best ag
nt which to perforin this operation Is ns
Boon as the button or young hoin enn
be felt with the linger. This Is usually
when the calf In about a week old. But
it ion be done with pufcct suciess up
until the time tho calf Is n month old or
ivcn older, if tho operator Is caicful to
make a thorough application.
It Is better tn uso tho caustic on the
cnlvis when they mo voting enough to
Insure that the operation will bo effec
tive, and this age Is front three dts to
three weeks As It would sive time
nnd material to operate on n number of
inlves at the samo time. It might be well
tn nllow the Hist cnlves Io lench the
limit of nge In our work nt this station
wc hnvo used tho slick ciustlo potash
or ciustlo i-nda entirely, nnd In Its use
we necesnrll h indie It with care,
never allowing It tn lomo In cont let
wltli the linger, ns It hns n burning or
corroding effect, nnd will tnko nlT the
skin very quickly. This can be pre
vented hy simply wrapping the end of
the stick In n piece f f pnpei to serve ns
n handle In nr Piling the caustic to the
head. It Is well tn not nllow tho spot to
heionie too moist, ns It will run down
tho side of the head, making n, pore, re
moving tho hair, and leaving n scar
which may show and then there Is
danger of It running into tliepje, which
would cerlnlnlj muse blindness It
would be well tn hive some witer
standing ilose, so that tho caustic could
be dipped Into It n rouplo of limes dur
ing Ihenpplioitlnn In using the caustic,
thorough tubbing Ih necessary nnd In
sufficient rubbing Ins ntised many
fnlltireo It Is well Io uih until tho skin
over the horn begins to look red, as
though the blond w is nbout In stirt.
'Hill will take fiom fifteen seconds to
ona-hilf mlnuti toeich horn.
More Business, the More Horses.
The Nebraska farmer has no sym
palhj with those who fell nn eirly
dawning of tho 'hoiseless nge" Tho
market for good horses of nil kinds, It
nK, Ins never been In n more healthy,
cninurnglng condition for the breeder
nnd horse Inndlei than lion. Tho evU
ileneo on nil sides points In n shortnge
In the supply of homes, mull ns are re
qulicd tn inrrj on the nctessir horse
power of the business nnd commercial
nffnlrs of trade in everj-day life It In
fnllv to thlhk that the time is coming
when limse-powor will he dispensed
with becnute better nnd cheaper means
of service inn bo substituted
'lho horse Is tho safest, suiest, most
economical power In use In the short
Imiils and local transfer of menhnndlso
that can bo hid The linm-nso demand
for tho changing nnd moving of
ineichnndlso nnd nil llnea of goo Is In
nnd nbout cities nnd towns to fielght
storngo centers and Inn'r dlstnnrn ship
ping depots Is such that tho hniso nnd
wngon ennnot bo dispensed with for n
dn., Tho big, sttirds. tcllnhlo draught
horse uccommnditcH himself to nil kinds
of conditions that nic possible to rome
up In the lino of labor In which his lot
Is tast, It Is very seldom he is dlsiblel
or icqulred to go to the shop for re
pairs Ho Is not being outclissed and
every )enr rendered valueless hy tome
Utile Improvement or patent got nut
thnt olds In tho operation and applica
tion of th -lower. He can bo converted
to many -es when ho i eases tn be ac
tive nn n dinner of heavy In ids His
whole llfo Is one of seivko nnd vnluo
to his ownn.
'lho opening up of nillioads nnd tho
hul,dlng-nf tianspoitntlon lines nf varl
ous kinds mil mid to tho demand for
tho draught hone Tho mnio business
in tho commercial world, tho more
Imises It will reqiJre to carry on that
part of labor that cannot ho eucciss
fulli handled hy marhlnerj. As time
mnves on. us I nprov omenta come nnd
go, tho druught horse w III becomo more
and moro a necessity, a flxtuio in the
oper-itl ti of trade.
Demand for Horses nnd tho Future.
Some striking' figures nro nbout to re
published by tho Depniiment of Agrl
culture In n bulletin hy Dr rjeorgo M,
ltommel. nn expert In the Hurenu of
Animal Industry.
After reviewing tha past and precenjj
conditions of the Inure mirket he slnle
the enures of the det reunion In Kin first
esultliiR from the abolition of horse
cars fillowerl hj the business d pres
Mon of lsn and this followed iloselj
b the advent of the blocle nnd auto
mobile 'ihe last two featuris how
ever, II seems do not elfect the horse
ntniket o inuili an one would think
for those who ride the blrcle either
cannot niton! tn own n horse or nte
tempnrirv patrons of llveij slnbles As
to the nutomublle l)i ltommel states
this is n mechanical nge when one
wishes eveiMhlng to be of i mechanical
niluie, but the combination of motors
nn I wheels Is not In n erfect state nnd
the fascination of Invcntnis ran never
stil plant pernnnentlj the othlliratlem
of companionship or the lm Irallon of
powir th it eomea fiom a pull cm the rib
bons or the grip of the knees In the
saddle
lie linn reviews the causes of the
piesent excellent condition of the mil
ki t ilmarlly i vusrd bv the deptcrslon
when horso breeders, heiomlng dls
couinged by the state of the market at
(hit time dls-ontlniied the bleeding nf
high ilass hoises so that now there la
a scarcity of lino nnlmnls Another
reason Is the Immense growth of the
export trnde. for while In 1891 only K01
horses wire sent nbiewd. In 1 "01 the
figure hnve steadily grown to 8:,2;o
head The following table of exports
shows this growth
!JJ . . 3Jmi i3i;u
y' a 110 IV57 39 V12
JtS JJyjlvn .1 ivi
WJ esciiroi . .. bi722
1S3j io tsii 1101 . . k.'i)
The shit ments Io Africa nte largely
responsible for the great Increase In
1901, when 37,101 head were shipped to
tint country alone.
It would seem, therefore, estimating
that an animal Is marketed nt 5 years
of uge, an export dcnuind of SO 000 an
nually requires neurly 400 000 horses to
keep up the supply.
Another Impoitunt leison Is the In
cicaso of population, with a growing
love of a good horse, and the wonderful
growth of business, calling for many
more hoises than were needed for such
purposes In the enrl '90s.
A iioi Hon of the bulletin which un
doubtedly will be Interesting to horse
breedern nnd bikers Is the description
of what constitutes; a good animal for
draft, harness or saddle, drivers, nnd
coaihers.
Hill the market hold out? As already
stated, the reasons for the present good
market nic, on the one hand a di
minished supply of the best grades to
draw upon, nnd on the other hand, a
brisk demonel with a widened field to
supplj. So long us these conditions con
tinue pi Ices will rise
Western Horses.
An Idaho rango horso breeler re
cently In South Omthn Is quoted thus:
"Itange horses will be scarier neu
summer th in ever bfbrc" He then
lioceeds to say that last seison the
Iowa nnd Vebrnska. de-tlers canvassed
the entire Stnte of Idaho very thor
cugrly and In nddltlon agents of tho
Ilritlsh Government hive been buying
broken or partly broken horses nt sev -eril
points within the Stnte nil winter
long I'rlcts vnrjlng from $30 to $15
for the Intler and from 40 to Jt3 for
the former have been fiely pild, thou
stnds hnvlng nt thesei figures been shlp
led out of the Slnte Xiturnllj euch
prices havo purchased very fair to
good horses right in tho rnngo country
nnd ns Ilritlsh ngents hnvo been oper
ntlng nil winter In .Montana and Wy
oming It Is only fnlr to suppose that
they must hnvo decreased the nvnlla
bio supply very greatly. It may be
thnt there nre plenty of horses left In
tho rnnge country but It would seem
to stand to reaon tint breeders woull
nthir sell right nt home for uch prices
thnn tiko chances nn I risk of shipping
to mnrket later In the e1r. We know,
too thnt those Jtrltlsh purchasing
ngents lnve lie-on active. In the territory
ilescilhed nnJ It must be thnt they
have bought a lot of horses The range
demind for stnlllons of Improved
bieeels ought to ho very brisk this yeir
nnd whnt Is moro n better rliss all
through should bo bought llreeders'
Onzette
Period of Gestation In Mnres.
Sluch Ulffeience of opinion prevails as
to the avengo time duilpg which n
nnie curries her foil, I'opulsr opinion
puts It nt 11 months or 110 d-is, but
tho enrefnj observation of several who
lnve given attention In the question
hns lcl them to i one hide, that this
lerlod is a little short of the average.
They fix It nt JI0 dis (looel authori
ties are of the opinion that n nnjorlly
of foals will bo birn within three diss
nf this period, one vva or the other.
It Is true, nevertheless, thnt inaies
have been known to drop healthy foals
nt 300 das and vet igiln other nitres
have carried them for more thnn 310
dajs. It Is not n little surprising that
there should bet so much variation, but
It Is In extreme cases
Tho opinion tint mares carry male
funis for a longei pcilod than miles
meets with considerable favor and
theie may ho i-ome tiuth In It. but the
question has not been detci mined by
such evidence ns shoul I set tho matter
at rest In some Instnnces the females
nro carried longer thnn the males but
ns to tho nvcrages wo nro set some
iv ha I In tho dark Indiana Pinner,
Toultry With the Tanner.
How to make the liens produce eggs,
Is tho most Important consl lerntlon
with the farmer as well as with some
others who nio Interested In this line
This Is, perhaps, not nB ensy n m liter
in) some might suppose neither is It i
veiy ellillcult thing to do when we go
at It In the right way It Is Hue that
hens will las a good rmny eggs during
the epilog nnd summer months. This
being tho nltuinl lnslng sensou, they
seem to accomplish big results with
but little care and at rmall expense
Hut M'luiillj, eggs obtained nt this
season nf the jetr nro not n sourco of
veiy great piotit, as tho maiket prlco
Is usunlls low, jet there must bo a
profit wllh the farmers, even nt 8 or 10
iciutB a dozen, ns the cost Is very light.
Tho usual sjBtcin of caring for poul
try nmong fnrmeis Is not as good ns
It might bo In man cases tho so
caled ' hen house" Is not even nn ex
cuse for a building of this klnl In
fnit, tho flocK Is left pretty inuili to it
self, und tho uge nf the Individual
specimens seems tn cut but llttlo con
corn When mid wenther sets In, there
hns been no provision mido fnr the
hens ns for other stock on the farm,
they nru upt to be lift to roost In Ihe
trees until Bnow inmes, and In Justice
to thimselvi'T In return for this they
should not lay un igZ. and thu proba
bilities 7re that they won't. Hut It
they liy the fanner Is pleased, nnd If
they don't It nptxirently matters llltlo
to him us ha In usually sumewhat In
different In thft nnttei.
As an examplo of the Interest that
;nany farmers talio In poultry ralstnn
I wiuld relate what n well to-do farm
er told me a few diss igo This mnn
has a luge flock of mixed fowls an I
said thnt In the hatching season he
set 2io egg under hens, mvu them tin
furthir attention, more thin to throw
out some corn nnd see tint they were
around until nbout time foi them to
hitch when he thought he would look
them over to know If -ill wns going
tight when to bis nstonlshment not n
ben wns found on the nest every egg
wiih cold atil llteralls coveied with
mites, nnd the consequence vxnn he did
not get n single chliken from Ihe 201
eggs
Now nn the other hand there nte
some farmers who keep poultry for
whit thciels In them they make a bus
Ineis of producing eggs during the en
tire sen, thev have i ssstem of doing
the woik end treit lho milter In an
entirely different light from the other
fellows
If we look Into tho pirns nnd ssstem
of the firmer who nnkes n slice es
wllh hens, we will find that In the first
place he pi ov Idea pioper shelter Io
protect them from tho elements of the
wenlher This newl not be nn expen
slve fancy kind of a structure, but
Just u good slieel lomfnrtnble building,
nnd we will find that he makes fre
use of whitewash In urder to keei out
the miles. He will bo regular In reel
Ing his fowls, as this Is an Important
matter It does not tmttcr so much
whit breed ho keeps so long as their
niture Is studied That tho thorough
bred are better than mongrels will he
admitted nt the Mail, by all who havo
given eich lot a trial, nnd that the
heavy brieds requlro different eire
from lighter ones will also bo under
stood All will las a good supply of
eggs If properly ured for
Tha successful poultry former feeds
his fowls whatever suits them best for
good results In the egg bisket Nearly
every bleeder has his own Ideas on this
subject, nnd so long us It works to his
satlsfiietlon that Is nil that Is required
I bellcvo that a regular ssstem of
feeding is the only method by which
a, continuous supply of eggs can be
had On the other hand erratic feeding
will upsot tho egg production of any
flock. I'ullets should be kept active
nnd fed with a view of giving them
muscle, nnd this rulo might will npply
to older las Ing stock as no hens will
do well at producing eggs unless kept
busy. V. M. Couch. In.Ohlo Tanner.
Prize Poultry Record.
An Eastern woman who lately won n
largo sweepstake prize for tho best
poultry record and results In 1901, start
ed tho soir with only sixty-three hens.
Krom egg, broilers, manure, feathers
and snlo of stock she cleared nearly
S200. without the aid of Incubators, anil
on a quarter of nn acre, but she hud
three lomfortahle poultry houses, cost
ing together 1160 75 Osster shells were
used, hut neither bons nor condition
powdeis weio often nfforded.
Hens Not Doing Well.
About the first question I would ask
ansone whose hens sic not doing well
Is, Do they get plmty of fresh, ilenn
water? This Is one of the most essen
tial things In the tare of poultry, and
yet It Is very often neglected Some
give their fowls water once u day or
once In two days and put it Into an
old pan usually set In such a way that
It Is soon full of dirt and clnrf. As
water constitutes a large pirt of nn
egg. It Is necessny thnt tho fowls
have plents of It The water dish
should be so placed that It cannot he
turned ovei or scratched full of dirt
Tho fowls should have vvntei twlco a
clay nt least, nnd In winter It should
be well warmed In hut weather they
may iiqulre It oftener.
Henj will not do so well If too many
nre crowded together, I ulwnss keep
plents of litter of some kind nn the
lloor and mako the hens scratch for all
the whole gialn I feed them In older
to get the best results hens should huve
considerable meat nml gteen bone 1
feed a wnrm nnsh In tho morning.
Then n hen's crop Is empty or nearly
so nnd they need food that can be most
icadlls assimilated My experience Is
that theie Is little dinger of overfeed
ing pullets I glvn mine nil Dies will
eat. but never enough so that they will
hove any left to waste. Tetd often and
Utile at n time Is my rule Tho same
nmount of food fed four or five times
a day will give better results than
when fed In two or three feeds 14 r.
N. In Orange Judd Knrmcr.
Value of Salt for Sheep.
The value of silt for sheep Is shown
by nn experiment In Trance, where
three lots of animals, feel allko on hay,
straw, potatoes nnd henns for 124 days,
ono lot had no salt, ono had half nn
ounce of salt each every duy, and tho
othel had three-fourths of an ounce
Thoso that hid half un ounce gained
four nnd n half pounds each more than
those which had no salt and one ai a
quarter pounds more thnn those which
had moro th in a half ounce So It
seems that too much suit cun be given,
ns well as too little The silted sheep
clipped one and three-quarter pounds
inoio wool nnd a better fleece than
thoso thnt had no salt, showing better
results in the wool, thnt Is, larger profit
than (n the flesh Farmers Oulde.
Alfalfa for Lambs,
1'xperlments In lamb feeding nt the
Wjomlng experiment station tn do
termlua the feeding value of alfalfa
has-, as compared with other grasses,
show thut alfalfa Is superior to nns.
The feeding period consumed ninety
flvn dajs Alfalfa prnduced 27 8 per
cent larger gains, gnvo 15 per cent
moro dressed carcass and produced
1280 pounds more mutton per acre.
Black Teeth In Pigs. ,
hllo looking through the neighbor
hood for lgs, I would meet farmers
who would say their pigs were not do.
Ing Well: that they had blark teeth,
and that they would knock them out,
etc. One man who had three small
runts In a. lot of good ones said he had
knocked the black teeth out of them
I said I didn't think he had a nic In
..-.., ...u.t v uniirt no iiuei u pig in
the lot but whnt had black teeth, and
sure enough upon examination It was
found that the best pigs In the lot had
Just as many blick teeth as nny of the
othel o
Now, I have raised and fed pigs for
twenty years, nnd have never knocked
a black tooth out of a pig yet, and I
havo yet to find tho first pig that did
not, upon examination, havo black
teeth. I think this black teeth theory,
and the sow sour peas in a cert tin
phase of tho moon, belong In tho same
basket the wnste basket, and If any
of us havo runty plj, I think It better
to npplsrsome coursu of medicine than
such a rude Job of. dentistry, says a
correspondent in th Michigan Tnrm
er, to which statement teply was mado
as follows
"III uk teeth" In pigs vvau once be-llcied-to
bq responsible; fop- ne,arjyi
eveis trouble tbes had Thes me na
tural ind do not nflee t the health of
ihe nnlmnl In nns was All these su
perslltons ate dslng out as people be
come mote Intelligent We lemember
when hollow-horn cattle Hmpas and
bets In horse led Io these iinfortu
inte animals being tiented In n most
ei in I and liirlarotis fishlon We have
seen the mouth nf a hoire seited with
i led hot Iron ls a blicksmlth fnt
rlel, he rnlli d himself becmse the
(linns of the animal weie Inllnmed and
swollen We hive seen the bonis of
1 half st lived iow bmed Into mid
filled with h mixture of pepper nit
and othei like subst lines and the tills
of both rows and oxen split and tilled
with such medic iments and In other
Inslnnces nit off entlrels Hut bnpplls
no attention Is now pild Io hots, and
the mouth nf the hon-e Is fire from the
torture of the searing Iron llliek teeth
will soon eensc lei Io mule the senpe
govt of all sort of ailments In pig
Hut these old superstitions die hard,
because thes hive been taught and be
lieved In for centuries 'ihey have
ciiued a frightful lot of torture to do-
mcMIc nnlmils, und should be ells
I curded as lelks of barbarism that lnve
no place on the modern farm.
Teed for Pigs.
The Indian i station h is reported
some data on n question which often
arises In plg-feedlng viz. Whit Is the
advantage of mixing the grain feed
with water, and how thlek or how
thin should slop be fed' Tour lots of
four pigs each were used In n test
which covered some live months Tor
about llireo months all the pigs were
fed on com meal and shorts In the m
tlo of one to one Durlnv the remain
der of the time homlns feed replaced
the corn Lot 1 wns given the latum
ilrj, lot 1 was fed the gialn mixed with
an equal welkht of water, while In tho
case of lot i It wos mixed with twice,
nnd in tho case of lot 4 tlneo times Its
weight in water. In addition to the
dry grain or slop tho plgj wcro sup
plied with nil the drinking wilier tiny
deslied, und the nmount consumed re
corded 'lho nverngo dally gains of the
four lots were In every case a little
over four pounds a day; tho gain le
quired u pound of gruln by the four
lots was 3 69, 3 80 3 74 and 3 75 pounds,
respectively, while the cost of food a
pound of gain ranged fiom 2 S7 cents
In the case of lot 1 to 3 01 cents In the
case of lot .' During the test lot 1 (fed
the diy grain) diank 3375 pounds ut
water, lot 2 did not receive nil the
water thev desired In tho slop fed, und
consumed u total of 3031 pounds, lots
3 nnd 4 received ull they desired In the
slop, the amounts thus taken being
4871 and 6928 pounds respectively. The
figures recorded by tho station show
that rigs weighing sixty pounds, fed
dry feed, consumed on an average 2 35
pounds nf water dally, nnd thnt this
amount Increased nearly constantly
Until these same pigs weighing .(.18
pounds consumed 1107 pounds a clay,
it Is also shown thnt pigs fed water In
their food ns a slop, when weighing
nbout sixty pounds, consumed ilther
2 42 4 25 oi 5 79 pounds of wuter a day,
while these same pigs weighing 213 to
222 pounds consumed either 8 17, 14 or
18 pounds of water n day, Undoubtedly
much of this water was consumed iin
neiessarlly, and certainly lot 4 wns
given much more water with Its grain
than was required. Thero wns no ma
terlul difference on the appearance of
the pigs In either lot. so fnt ns quality
Is concerned, and so fur as this ono ex
periment goes the use of two times the
weight of vvnter to grain Indlrntes n
satisfactory proportion In view of the
fact tint tho pigs fed dry grain mndo
slightly better gains than those fed
grain mixed with wnter In form of
slops, "It would appear that there Is
realls no gain In feeding tho pigs ,i
slop Instead of u dry grain, excepting
as n feeder may regard It a matter nf
convenience ' Pinners' llulletln No
131 United States Department of Agri
culture. Dignity of Firm Labor.
The bishop of Shrew shury, preaching
at a hatvest festlvnl In his diocese last
week, mado some Interesting remarks
concerning lahof on the land He said
It was Impossible to be unaware of tho
fact lint thero was a growing distaste
for this- that the lot of the agricultural
laborer was III thought of, even looked
down upon: that theie was an unwill
ingness on lho part of tho lids who
had Biased longest nt school nnd profit
ed by tho good educntlon tint wns now
given to go to farm work, ns though It
wan n pilling beneath thorn, and they
were fitted for something better for
emplosment In town, in somo nf the
nits nnd crafts, the manufactures nnd
business which found their home In
them
He deslrevl. In opposition to this
view, to uphold what he did not hesl
tnto tn call the dignity of tho work of
thu cultivation of tho soil f'ertnlnly It
wns the oldest of all Industries, ap
pointed hy Ood Himself for man. He
fore man fell, In tho diss of his inno
cence, they lend that find took tho
man whom He had made ' and put him
In tho flarden of Tden "to dress It
nnd to keep It " And lifter tho fill the
necesslts was still I lid upon man to
cultivate the soil as tho condition of
obtaining from It his d illy hrrnel,
though, ns part of the penalty of sin,
It should bo with illlllculty and with
effort, nnd In tho sweat of his brow,
such ns ho did not experience before,
for the efTth (hired the curse which
mans disobedience brought upon him,
and, left utitllled, It would bring forth
thorns nnd thistles, und worthless
weeds nut ns husbandry nnd labor In
tha fields were the oldest Industry, so
It wns tho most necessary and uni
versal, for man nnd beast nllke were
dependent upon It for existences And
though nil that the earth produced was
Gods gratloua gift. He gave It as the
result of mans careful, toilsome libor.
And so It followed that thera wo no
Industry to be compured to It, or In all
put together, to be compared for a mo.
ment to tho loss vv tilth would be In
flicted on the woill if, thiough the
abandonment of I ibor on the land. It
was permitted to go out of cultivation
und the suppls of food were to ceake
Those who did not know, continued
tho Illshop, becnuso they did not think,
wore opt to Imuglno thit thero was no
skill In agricultural labor whereas the
fact was that nn experienced laboier
who was rouly for nnv nnl every kind
of work that n farm d"t inded, need,
ed, and Indeed possess i nn lutein
renco more kevn and vai id than many
tlasses of mechanics who, through the
subdivision of tho work which pre
vailed In overy kind of manufacture,
were engaged da ufter day on a single
pleco of pioluitlon oi construction only
nnd were not ixqulrcel to go beyond It,
He asked them to tike that thought
with them, that they might recognlzo
the dignity of labor in tho lleldH, that
they wcro prepnilng the wuy for (lod
Hlni"l' tn work Theiefore. he wsiuld
say to tho lads and younger men. do
not think meanly of farm I ibor, as
though they were too t,ood for It, but
ubeileY thut, it pHetcd to them an cm-
plosment In which their powers of
bods and mind too might be healthily
developed nnd thes might help to pcr
petuato for their fatlteiland a vigorous,
brave ind Independent race Mark
Lane Hxpre
lighting Insect Pests.
Tor some time I hive felt tint the
efficiency of Ihe lime sulphur mil silt
wnrh, so cxtenslvel) used on tho Ti
rlllo coist for the destruction of scvile
Insects nnd other fruit tree pests hid
not been sufficiently tested In ;iMrrn
orchards to w at rant a general conclu
sion that II whs not an effective rem
rdv Tinm tests made In n practical
wis list seiKon hi Oeriivnrc, M in
land New Jersey nnd Canada It seems
icrfertls cleai thnt this miterlil inn
be used over n wide men, to good ad
vantage In orchards In Tested with Sin
Jose srnlc In ull cases the m iterlni
was npplled eirls In the spring Just
before the buds opened In Delaware
II was used upon npple plum and pear
tiees. In New Jersey on peaih. penr
nnl plum, nd In Mars land nnd em
ail t on peach nnd iipple About 1500
peach nnd npple tices were sprased In
a Hlue Illdgo mountain orchard, be
tween Mnrch 2!nil nnd Apill 13th. In
some cases the blossoms of the peach
were almost open nnd the wash drew
the color Komewhit, but dll not kill
moro than 3 to fi Mr tint of the buds
It was far more effective In checking
the scale than nny oilier material used
The cost will vary somovvhit. but
should not exceed l'j to 2 cents ier gnl
lon nt the most In iny locitlon, nnd
ran be mado foi less In lections where
lime Is nbundnnl nnd easily obtained
The material should bo npplled vvhllo
still hot or woim with an ordinary
sprny pump, such ns used for IkiiiIiiiux
The mlxtuio Is hither difficult to pre
pnre nt fltst, but whn tho pioper
equipment Is situred and the neces
sary nuitet tila uie on hand, It Is no
inoic difficult to make thin tho whnlo
oil toip or kerosene emulsion wnshes
The secret of the succcees depends
lurgely upon tho moniuir In which tho
mntcrlal Is mado nnd the thoroughness
wllh which It Is npplled to the trees
Those who desire to experiment this
eenson In scttlons whero It hns not
been thorough!) tested should uso tho
following formula und spiny Just be
fnro tho buds open In the spring.
Tho materials nro n follows Vn
slicked lime, 40 pounds, flour nf sul
phur, 20 pounds; common salt, 15
pounds; nnd wnter enough to make CO
gallons. At first take 10 pounds lima
nnd 20 pounds sulphur nnd boll thor
oughly over a good (Ire for nn hour nnd
a hnlf or until the sulphur Is thoroughly
dissolved When tho solution nsnumes
am amber color. It Is on Indication that
tho sulphur Is practically nil dissolved.
It should be stirred frequently during
the boiling process The remainder of
tho lime, 30 pounds, should ha slacked
thoroughly hy pouring hot water over
It. Add tho 15 pounds of salt while It
Is still boiling and stir ocaulnnnlly un
til tho salt Is dissolved. The llmo ami
salt material Is then added to tho llmo
nnd suli hur solution thoroughly stirred
nnd cooked a hnlf hour longer Enough
I ot wnler should then be added to
mako CO gallons
Hcforo being placed In tho spray
pump It should bo thoroughly stialncd
through a fine mesh strainer to keep
foreign particles out of the spray
pump. Whero a traction cnglno or
other boiler Is mailable, tho in iterlni
can bo boiled with stenm. In such
cases tho solution Is more quickly mido
and Is not so difficult to prepare Whero
only small quantities -are needed, I irge
lion kettles, feed cookers or any other
vessel used on tho farm for boiling wa
ter can be used Trull fcrowera should
not plnco too much conlldenco In this
new romeds', but should glvo It a thor
ough trial In Ihelr oichnrds. In a small
wis In comparison with 2 rer cent
crude petroleum nnd tho two-pound so
lutlon of whnlo oil sonp. A willlcleitt
number nt trees sho- ' bo tnken to
mako It a commercln -Iment rath
er thnn conflno It tn a v trees Wher
ever It has been tried ider tho condi
tions named nbove It I s been entirely
satisfactory. In evei case whero It
was UBOd Inst eir the owners are go
ing to spray moro extensively this sexi.
son with II W. O. Johnson In Orange
Judd Knrmer. .
Brstroylng San Jose Scale.
The Illinois Stnte entomologist sijn
he has nbnndnned kerosene In ull Its
forms nnd Is now using whnlo oil soap
or the lime, sulphur nnd salt mixture
It Is a well-known fact thu In Wnsh
Ington nnd Oregon lho lime, sulphur
nnd salt wash Is very effective even In
rainy weither, nnd undei climatic con
ditions very Blmllnr to thoso found In
Illinois The winter In Illinois has been
open and drs, favorable In this mite
rlil, nnd the results have been veis
sallsfartois It Is claimed lint at
lease 9 per cent of icalo on tieen treat
ed with tho L H ft wish .ire dc id In
dications are tint the other r. per rent
will be drstroscil before spring. Only
a slnglo application was made. The
outlook for the ixtemlvo uso of this
material for San Jose scale In Illinois
and other orchards Is promising.
Irrigating Alfalfa rields.
Tor over thlrts sears I havo culti
vated alfalfa in Cache vnllej. I begin
In a small way as an experiment, but it
long since became a staple crop with
me, which I could not get along with
out 'Ihe first crop I hardly ever Ir
llgate, ns thero Is gcnenlly enough
rain In the eaily part of tho summer
tn mature It, It Is ready for cutting
between June 1st nnd l.'th This Is
on heavy land with a cliy subsoil On
Ight land with a gravelly subsoil It
I necessary to Irrigate As soon as
tho first crop Is off. I Immediately turn
on the water und tho second crop
makes a wondeiful growth, so that In
tlx weeks It Is leady for tho mower
again. A week befme tutting 1 gen
erally lrrlrato this crop nrnln, this
starts the last crop to crowing Ilefore
the second ciop Is olf, lho Held Is gretn
again I find thit with this method
tho last Vrop Is but veiy little Inferior
tn tha others so fai us quintlty Is
concerned, nnd In quality it Is superior
for milk producing.
The lust crop usually Irrigated
again about tho mlddlo of Aunisi and
cut September 10th to nth After this
the lund will still innke t,ood pustui
age until winter sets In 'ihe average
yield Is about two tons to thu ucre for
the two first cuttings, und one and n
half for the last I have grown alfalfa
on the same land fot ten tonseiutlvo
Sears and have found r.o great differ
en In the crops I have ono small
patch, which Is twenty-eight senrs old.
and It still pioduces threo good ciops
a sear I feed alfalfa to my horses
both winter und summer, giving grain
onlj on rare occasion I havo expeil
enced no bnd effects fiom Its constnnt
use My cows do well nil winter nnd
when they lenve some of the coirse
stalks In tha mnnger, I feed these to
the hoises, ns they piefer them to the
leaf
, vAUer, Jand has been In alfalfa fot ten
senrs It will produce three good crops B
of cither whent or oats Alfalfa has H
one other virtue When Hnd In over- H
grown with wild oats or wild mustard H
If put Into alfalfa the litter will snju H
subdue the weeds Christian Larsen H
In Oringo Judd l'nrmer H
'sH
Alfalfa vs. Heel Clover. H
The Dilrsmiu Is coming tn bo a
strong believer In nlfnlta It believes H
that it Is a much surer crop than red M
clover, whole the farmer handles It
with Intelligence It Is a plant tint has H
Its own way of growing A study of
Its likes and dislikes, nnd Its habits H
of growth, must be mnde. It will not H
do to sow It with rso or whent, enrly 1
In the spring, nn many farmers havo
teen uccustonied to do with clover It M
will not catch that wns It must havo H
a well prepired, rich, deep seed bed. H
It must have the best chance possiblo H
to estublish n deep loot growtli tho
llrst summer, or It will not survlvo tho H
following winter. H
It must not be pastured tiy horses
or rittlo fnr It will not stand heavy
treading In northern latitudes It .H
must hive a chance to make at least M
a foot nf growth In tho fall, to act as M
a ret ilner nf tho snow and a cover tn H
the toot crowns. H
W hen vcr vvnter stnnds and Ico forma M
about the crown, tho plmt Invariably M
kills There nre lots nt points nbout It 1
which farmers should studs, and which M
it will pay big profit tn study. M
When Its laws uro obesed It Is moro H
bards, and at leist four times ns Inst- M
Ing ns ml clover lloirds Dilrymnn. M
Gontn Mako Good Farm Hands. M
fioits innko successful farm bands H
In Mlssnuil a A IJ. 1:111s. secretary H
of the Htnto lloird of Agriculture, M
draws his conclusions from the ro- H
suits of a twelve months' experience H
with goats In the capacity ot laborers H
W hen put tn graze uu bnd binds n herd H
of Angora gouts will consumo all the M
weeds nnd undesirable shrubbery, eat- M
Ing cloHe to the roots nnd snv Ing tho H
cxpeiiBo nf having the Innd cleared hy H
hard work. Societal y Kills advises H
fanners to Invest In goats nnd says H
that much land inn be redeemed In H
this manner. The experiments will bo H
conducted on n larger scale In the fu- H
turc, ns Missouri formers have now H
tnken up tho goat question In earnest. H
Chicago Itecnrd-Ilcrulil. M
Starting Tomato Plants. H
Tho New Hampshire experiment sta
lion has mado some tests with melh- H
oils of starting tomntn plants. In ona H
test, tho plants who transplanted Into H
small boxes, so arranged that the bnt- H
torn would be easily removed and tho H
dirt allowed to slip out, and In the H
other, they were transplanted Into H
four-inch pots. When the pots wcro, H
used the plants matured und bore fruit H
earlier than the plants In the llrst ex- H
pertinent. Tho station notes that H
'while the pot system takes more tlma H
and occupies moro space, yet from thev H
experiments made. It surely pays." H
Another experiment showed that the -fH
kind of soil In which the tomatoes were H
plnntcd reemed to hnve an effect on tho H
amount ot rot produced hero tha H
soil wns Inclined to dry out, the rot H
wus more prevalent, vvhllo on tho H
lonmy, moist soil, thero wns very llttlo H
H
Poultry Itnlolnr; for Pleasure and H
Profit. H
In nil business enterprises It Is nn cs- H
tabllshed fact tint to Insuro a reason- H
ableo degrco of success one must bo In H
sympathy with their undertaking In H
every detnll. The sime Is truo In regard H
tn poultry raising Years ago every H
farmer kept chickens' barnyard H
Hocks,' they were rightly named of no IH
pnrticulir bleed, generally "puro H
mongrels." They were Bmall In size, In- H
ferior as tn quality ot flesh nnd number H
of eggs produced. Wild as the pro- H
verblal hiwk, they 'rustled' for their H
meals, except on those raro occasions H
when some ono remembered to throw H
them a handful ot grain. Their nests V
wero hldd'-n, nnd broods of little fright- B
ened chicks wero hntched nn the sly, H
to bo raised by the hens uloue. provided H
tin skunks, weasels or rats dldn t
catch them Ihls system nf poultry H
raising furnished somo sport for tho H
5 011 nge r members of the fnrmer'n H
fnmlls, whose business It wns to 'hunt &B
thnct.gs' or ' run down' nny untortu- H
nam fowl thnt was detained for tho H
family dinner Hut lho tide of pro- H
gresslon sweeps onwards, nnd chair H
husks nre carried ulong, nn well na H
gieil logs nnd tho poor little neglected JM
her,, with her bony frame and long legs H
wns caught and swept along, nnd when jH
finally landed was something worthy tn fH
attract attention bs her innny good jH
qualities And she does not stand still, If-H
though her body Is heavier nnd her legs llaH
shniter. She Is forging to the front In IH
n way she never could hnve done hnd IH
she been left forever on tho "old fnim " jH
with a tail fenen for a roost nncl n nest- H
ltig plnco on Ihe ground under a clump IH
of nettles It requites more than a t
feather nnd n hack number or tho IH
Anirrhnn Poultry Journal to bo nn jH
exierlenied poultiy raiser. One must usiiiff
mills lllui the chickens themselves bo usllV
willing to miko n study nf them, their IssiV
w ints nnd needs, ami glvo them per- sllH'
snnnl attention aaB-
hn often we hear the query, "Which! ssllV
Is the best breed of fowl' ' and ono can- m,
nut answer In a manner satisfactory to 'aHi
nil My expeilenco covers a period of ,H
twenty-live scars nnd keeping them as lM
I do now, for eggs nnd tnble use onl H
will nny tint I prefer a mlxtuio I IH
hnvo hied light nnd dark brahmis, buff IbiiH
cochins, brown nnd while leghorni kV
nnd blnrk Inngshangs for 'show,' and H
never fnlled to get my full shato of lIsH
first prizes whenever I exhibited Hut. tlH
I llnd morn satisfaction In keepinn H
chickens for practical purposes, and my ssiH
lock consists of onuses between llghl IH
hrahniiis, black langshangs. leghorns IsHBi
and pljmouth rocks it would lie hird
to llnd a healthier, handsomer or mor B
contented crowd thnn this Hock of mine H
To those who breed for market and issiH
egg purposes, my udvlce Is to cross H
the heavv light brnhmns. Inngshangt ftllH
and cochins wllh tho llrhter breeds, H
suit! as lighnrns nilnorc.is, pis mouth issiaV
rocks nnd gunits, and by so doing you IH
combine weight and stability with ac- LH
tivlty und egg producing; qualities, and aiH
no-setting quality, also. In regard (a K
the many disease? that fowls are heir H
to, remember that an ounce of prevon- H
lion b worth ten pounds of cure. Set H
to It thnt jour fowl have clean, warm H
quarters, nre free from lice hava H
nourishing food, fed at regular times, .isisH
pure water and the chances are (hat vou IbbbbbiI
will huvu no serious ailments unions IbbbbbbbI
them If ynii Introduce new fowl? isH
among sour flock, be suro thnt they ar IsiaM
peiftctly healths, or jour own chickens iiIibbbbbbI
may be Infected My first experience! ! flH
with roup occurred nbout fifteen years ''isbbbbbbI
ago. I was then breedlmr light hrali- H
mns. ind had exhibited a pen of H
biaulleb nt a poultiy show, taking first lisBBBssil
prize, receiving several orders for etna IH
at a fancy price and some ordeu lot isaH

xml | txt