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The Inter-mountain farmer and ranchman. [volume] (Salt Lake City, Utah) 1902-1902, March 04, 1902, Image 1

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YoiT- i.' Salt Laki; city, Utah, Tuesday Mokxixg, MAitcirT, 1002. Pimci:, Vwk Cunts. H
, tlm mil tliriiiiiMiiiK es vars'
MSrtr'nnl. o -10 or Intend
I .111 f mil that a. cnmmo-
' " r n, ,s n chicken ex
'" i id no hive1 un en
! i air. ' ''" that thcl'9
miu ' rcquliemei.ts
.rdrd. tl.r will no doubt he
.ir HO " ' ' Tl,u llnrt '
' rv I n hmill not be
Lit l-' n uv'i m Ri Class,
b, b , r ,1111 alfalfa. The
,p i fc so"'! ,x;
, 5i ant Kt a multiple of
.ilnidetoi,U that mans feet
,tM t b I n The house
bit II built line J Willi build.
,-, to a oi d . through
, md knoth"!. ul be provided
.,1, i in li oulh Ride, of
j than xl f I the sill of which
un tmoic thin urn foot above
ard prole t I hy wire netting
.andoal Th I " Mowed for
nit do nit admit of detailed
,0 n of th int rloi nrrunge
tbugh the- i" of Itnl Int-
but nil r th building In
J, ibe quest n I how to stock
tpU hi Im nlr ads pome
I Hick nnop c n or will not be
4 to adort th Jl I e following,
llllik an ou I ii s brood) hen
irri e hi I n Hut to the
iti I ralii "' n ' f"0 "ot
iwly h ' 1 other to en
li the r ill "' ' for 'f
v leu a III k t h thrown In nnd
m j ir )U hi I I 1 1 led by
intyall prcd iu. animals and
t put tosftli r Ion can t Bet
tan by Hie rilnt v powelois,
I till dc troy thorn short of
f th eh! null Uuy nn
itw inii troid r anil when joii
ihai "rdrr 'our egc Incuhn
in t bad of nil i s und prices,
we! tw at br idem Older
till from r liable breeder,
ihtioall-d fonj variety man,
Is. nun who fi lnds to raise
editor le. van II 9 of chick
tor bi a mil" of everything,
ft muclt of aiiMlnnc, Cllo jour
to t tf Hit) brc der you net
tlok for I s mnnev. This
1 Ibit uu ki ;; from thor
irt Hock Den t nil chickens
irabitAk It t! c not pus ilon't
'W (ma yj,, who practice
HfjlM the rtoubl mating- s)s
t( k on1 t i ritmn will he
1 Mi ci -iii inn , under tin
1 V Ih rju lion is hat
" ' '' mi 1 ant to rnlso
Ik( limed tgj Industry.
tin rut an 1 -, m ilnchur, nnd
mrnllltallat ,h iK
mime thai It in heroine soft
"IW" Ilk Ih ,m iB on a
HIT laid tlwRLKtr. but al
ItbliHronii l.rln nf saltpeter,
'toonaieawaj lh. slaves
Mnl which wei used In the
,,"' Ke li eiMe and
ninhh,Sr"" '"' himlletl
mi VI"! '.nl ,rf0" ,""1
itriae Th7. 1 ijeept.icles
"11inVd, ,""''"'' f '"lck
"llMim,V."J' '" "' 1 IllSt
" W hi0.,111," '''I"
arbV1f,,"n'"1l fKt mi-Inn
'4 ItvJr1,!,11, '"'"' hi.
liin, irxT'i'M'iit
'W nance if w '," l",nB- "m
,"f "5,1?, ,"' hl hennerj Ten
"ll-lS1 ""oiindliiK IhU
'"1ojjiV, ,' mm'"h fM "'I.
J ftdi, ,!,i"r"V,rk,t "l"1
h'fth.tc ih '' " "" "inrkit
lMlfart,'.n , """" "'""
L f-oui rr , K"'p l,l0lr
," Jn ,. lrR .lme.1
, '" "n"",!,"11"1 '""
, ' hnm 'ho'iwindii of
V" Ulr n,"trH "hipped
' s J. "'"' kneihed llih
''I "AU b1""n "um .n..
"' uk " h eKif o neir
J',"11"!!! 1, '"' 1ue1Unn
m to ih' 'l ' ,,llf '
l, 1 If"' Mere i7""." (,l1
nVJ" our nu ,"' eK'' hut
," "" lry 111 niiiiuml-
tr.J"kn ihn rr ."",rl0 hnn
b i?.hui 7 f V "ni1 " hero
1 .""kilt ! l,v "f limed
Afi'oiit of1,1!",,,"". '""
"??& y.rr'UrKi
A?t,' iS'nVnTr,'?,
rl" Voik Sn
.'.'M Inn lnnl,l'""fHtntl-
hl,,,, Hl'l'poiinft ,011
," "Inm;,''"""'! looked out
!7 : "'". .,"", ,our
ria.',1 ih. tt,nul'' Pioh
"' Ih me country
for eBf. market nnd fancy, joii hic
tho chnlco of but two Mrlellen, z
tho white flj mouth llock nnd the
white Wjandntle. Tor nnrkct thc
mint bo nhl(i.rentheipl to nold the
black pin feathers. Ilntli breeds am
snod winter lijers nnd eaMlj broken
up when the net broods Your eggs
hnlnR arrived, get the Inculntor run
nlns for a day and then put In the
I,B8, or If joii lire hen put t,m on
tho neat with some neat eggs, to teat
their stalnK qualities Thoao thit are
nil right glvo good egga Instead of the
nest egga If the eggi were good they
will hatch In from twenty to twentj
two das Let them ataj where they
are another das, but remote egg8hela
Test unhntched eggs b lloatlng them
and remoo the dead 'When thes an
11 das for two old sou can begin to
feed them Thoae hatched In an Incu
bator must bo raised In brooder. Tho
beat feed I hae found to be la steel
tut oats, hard-boiled egga. chopped fine
ul80 cracked corn and finally wheat
nUo sour milk, heated to make It cur
dle, and then drained off to mako
It lUltrt dis. ruie cool water muat nl
wnss be accessible to them, nlso ciy
lonrso sand, or thla manufactuied
' mica crsstnl grit,' Dried, dnely
ciushed eggshell is also crs fcuod
Whenever the weather permits, let
them out on tho ground, they need
greeni but not bfoie the gr3SS liaa
dried off Bon t let them run at luge
Keep them In Inclosed sards Get a
sun for stray rats, dogs nnd beasts and
birds of prey As soon ns your chirks
aic old enouRh, to distinguish, sepa
rnte the cockerela from the pullts
Distribute the pullets, ten In each pen,
get ICRbands nnd trupneats of the lat
ter three In each pen This la abso
lutely necessaiy If you wnnt to make
progress In the proline icy of our las
ers, you will ulso need some books
to keep an account After sou hive
tested sour lasers, for one year sou
will find : per cent will not lay at nil,
' 1 er cent a couple dozen each, 10 per
lent lay Just enough to pay for their
find nnd tht real nil the way from W
to ICO egga To snc you from any fur
ther loss sou sell 17 per cent or SO per
cent of sour stock which constitute
Sour poor layers this salng Is cer
tainly worth looking after, but does
not constitute). the oiilj,,npt een tho
larger, ndantugft of using legbun Is
and trnpneats After hnlng tented
nnd dlscoeied sour beat Users, uso
the eggs from th" ery best for rais
ing jouhb slock whit sou eapcclalls
wnnt la tha cockerclls raised from eggs
fiom tho best lasers, thes aro the
power behind the throne, for they
trnnsmlt the prolificacy of their moth
er to thflr offspilnR It is the only,
way to Increase iho egg sleld of chlck-
ens and the onls was to mike poultrs
culture pas well A It KOIIMKH
Silt Inke Cits I'ebiinrs W2
concluded to watch the trains go hy nt
the same lime there would be enough
to camp by the side of oxers railroad
trnck In tho country nt Intennla of four
feet You couldn't Inko n tinln nns
wheie without seilng a different hen
every four feet If sou looked out of the
window That Is because there nrn !S4,.
fWOOOO chickens In tho country nd 191,
l)0U miles of railroad,
Ich of theso chickens laid on nn
nvoiagp thirty-eight eggs 11 year The
nernge does not s-cm high to city peo
ple, but It must bo remembeied that
thcie lire n Bool many chlckena too
young and too old to las-, whllo some
oro setting nnd others nre males
That mide 10 000,000 000 eggs The ex
act llgures for the Department of Agri
culture In 1900 nre 10 000 52S W.
Thla clnoi not count those consumed
lirfnio fcfttlng to rmrkft
If pei)liily In the United btntes, un
der a radical sjstem of communistic
distribution, were In Bet hla fall lure
of thlckena, ench person would get three
of tho birds nnd n lions share nf a
fourth Ilo would get a 72 chickens
In the whole of last seir did sou eat
l!S bks? That was tho figure for tho
nwrngo American.
The lowest figure for eggs was lfiia
cents n dozen in 1100 That was the
minimum market prlco for exports.
Kggs are light nlfnlrs, weighing only
nbout two ounces apiece. Bomn weigh
ns little as an nunra and a half. Mi
norca eggs nre tho heailest, being about
llo to tho pound, whllo Wsnndolla nnd
Ilrnhma crrb run wim 01 eight to the
I'rnhnbly nil the eggs Inld In the
United States last jenr weighed about
ClliiOO tmiH
This Is about four times the total ton
nage of the American naty, couullnB
In even older ships rami, ITchl nnd
Hint to Dealers.
Fit flcorge, Utah, Feb 26, 1TO.
Intor-Mountnln 1'nrmer nnd Itnnch
man I wilto to nsk If you can tell mo
win 10 f enn n't some thoroughbred
poultiy, nlso the prlies on poultry nnd
epRs, nml what It will tost to deliver
llieni to Modoni, Utnh, 01 to Rt Oeorge,
Ulnltf r " dodcii:
The uhr 0 InniiliJ should bo n xnlua
blii I ' thoie Inquired about to nd
tcrtu 1 the Inter-JIountnln rarmir
and n hmnn There aio man) read
riH who ileslro Hie Information naked
for by Idr. Dodge.
When Is a Imb TntP
It Is likely that owing to the achinco
of the prices In corn, oau and other sheep
fnod, there will bo n sreit mmy lambs
innrkrted from now on In ,1 half fnt con.
illtlon As the condition of tho hmli has
a imrked Influence nn Iho price that nut
ho obtained. It will be well Tor thoo who
I11110 nn obundiiice of feed to finish prop,
erly Ihelr lamli-to uso ivrrj rrtort to
net them Into as nrlme condition as pos
sible, writes Josiph II Yoder, In Iho Ohio
l'en thOso who make a study nf the
market nnd that lht cry ofien ourrale
Urn cundlllon of tho lambs unlll tiny Kjl
them 911 iho market wllh of heis thai nre
latter, and (hen they forclblj feci th"
erlllclsm of Iho loniiiilaalon men Ih it
thes aro not niillo fat iiiourIi To have
n. c'ir Inalrht Into the bnllciiljna of con
illllons It will bo Interesting to Iraco thf
prokiess of the I1111I1 that la fatt.nlns
After IHus put In the stables 10 feed
ntnut tho third or fourth week la leaded
before tho lambs begin to show tho I a flu
rum nf the s-od fnud lhc are re 'lilni.
During Ihla lime It secuia as If tluv are
slmids Belling Into rondlll -n !' put on
llesh It a pears lhal riuilng thla Inter
val mora or leas fat la b, Ing ; Icpoa led
Internally. At ahout tho end of that tlroo
Ininlef.f5r, """'? ma t noticed atand
"felcVl:!",1,, ,e,h? hbTl.":, ?,rf,or"a
lhl, ?n.'',,l,""t ""r" h,ln u'"l
from ilS."rn,l,"t l,"ol"s wnw to extend
iuffin. ' I" trail regions and is first In
?hi 1 i."1 ",0 '."" " then ios-.es along
trn.J In,."?, ,,h, "houlders to Ihe neek
,h .ii1 "nP " "'em" " extend down
..1.1 "" m!,ln iwlnts nt which lis
T, ii i.V.r"'";8 .'"""! In. cMlence-at tho
nll.m.h'"' ' ,h 1,,rii "'" neck Ihe
. . ..". '"'.'"' '""' ,ho breaat Judges
'' foodlilon bin, I, tin so dlflerent pnlnfa
J,i K"" '" ".trUl " ll'e snmu cone In
Mnn from rontlnueil irnellce In obscnlng
''," ,K,,h ;i lead some will fnim thflr
nhu .". ,"..l' 'I'Hrrc to which tha
l"ml' I,1, 'at Jlnns after feeling the I ill
kmbii the netk nml ba.i their oiintun on
the fullness of dm part The flank nml
bream urn often iif-,i as further hssIki
anec, and some butchers isllmiti the
rcmillllon from the fullness of tho purse
1 nn,.w'f ,h" 1 ,rl" more eapeclnlls the
PirK Iho rnviilng should bu such In the
lime lamb as to prevent on from feel
tig tho ihurp trojecllons of the bai k
bone in fan. 11 tan haullj be said th it
n limb la real 1 rlnm unlciis Instead of a
projection or the backbone there Is a
distinct Iniugh running from Ihe till to
the should, is All I imba do not fatten as
smoothly or n. uniform)! as here Indl
cateil In most llinhl howcxer the worst
defect la buineis of the loin nnd Ugh,
nesa In the hind quarter With these
larts well covered nnd fully developed a
rather sharp shouller and peaked brisket
lull be overlooked Iot onlv shoul 1 the
llesh be even and thick over tho valuable
cms, but It shiulil b. firm
It Is certain!) ndvlaahln for nny one
feeding sheep 10 handle them from time
to lime so as 10 bo fullj aware of their
eonlltlon It will be found tin lirto lota)
lhat some of the lambs will bn ilpo for
market at least n. month before the
others and when this li true It is best to
drift out these and get them to market
ns soon as thev nre reply for It Thla
gives tho others a Ih Iter chance and II
irevents thodo that are doing well from
gcttli g overripe
Tuberculosis in Swrne.
At a recent meeting of stockmen In
Lincoln. Vcb , Dr S Stewart of Kansas
City discussed snlno tuberculosis He de
clared that the disease was proiuced bs
a germ of cxlremo minuteness, hen
lodged In the tissue of the bods It multi
plies very rapidly and sets up Inflamma
tlon In small areas, which are called tu
be! clos and these tubercles placed one nn
top of another mnklng the masses of dis
ease llaaue whteh mas bo recognized bs
tho casual observer
This germ nut the diaeaso It produces
seems 10 bn distribute I over the greater
part of tho world, pittleulnrls nmong the
civilized nations, an 1 Infects man and nil
domestic nnlunls It has not Item rcrop
nlzed that avvlno were particulars sub
ject to this matjd bit closer stuls
shows that tho prevalent idea ts not cor
rect the swine herds of ISehraska and
Kansas becoming Infected and obseiva
tlon extending over ten sears shows that
tho nnludy Is on the lucre ise Hogs of
ull ages are. subject to It nnd the dlsaue
runs Its course rapldls. compiratlvels, in
Soung sevlne
Tho dlsenso frems to bo propagated by
contact with Infected nntmnls and by the
consumption of diseased meats nnd per
haps also tho sputum of diseased peoplo
Tho disease rnaidfeets Itself most fre
qucntlj In the thro it, nnrt next most fre
eiuentls In the Intestines, after these come
iho lungs and external 1 arts of tho budy
Infected nnlmals do not Bhow nns pro
nounced symptoms until the disease Is
well iidvanced, hence the dllllculty to
delect ll earn
When developed In the throat couch
ing nnd dltlluilts In swallowing wlih
swelling In tho rnslon of tho neck are the
moat prominent svmptoms if tho infec
tion 1 1 through tho lwvvcls then the In
testinal disorders nre observed The ells,
euso runs a much more rapid course In
swlnn than In cnllln or man, usinlly not
exceeding five or six mmths when ihe
onlmal dies from lack of nutrition und
poisons irodueel bj the disease
The study of this disease Is of eco'iomic
Importance to breeders because It soon
destros choice herd animals, and is
promptls communicated from Infected to
healthy animals About 1 111 of 1 ier cent
of Iho swtno marketed In Ihe markets nf
which Ncbraski la tributary are found to
be Intecled and the packer must bus tho
swine n trlflo cheaper to protect himself
from this loss As the average life of
swine under present conditions Is com
paratively short, owners of Infected herds
can ties! eradicate tho disease b sliugh
ter. nnd then the exercise of earn In tha
recruiting of their herd The flesh nf tu
nerruloiiH animals ahould undoubtedly be
eliminated from our food supplies
Sklm-Mllk Calves.
The sklm-milk calf tins tome to stay.
Men have learned by experiments, nnd
bs cnieful feeding, that sklm-inllk Is
the cheapest and best for n. calf, es
pecially for tho dairy cult. The great
est trouble Is the dinger of overfeel
Ing. Most people eeem to think that
bctnusB sklm-inllk isn t lery rich they
must fclvo tho calf lots of it, so they
pour It down him by the bucket, with
out slopping to think what a culls
stomach Is like, and the result la that
they soon have n lot of pot-bellied '
calves, writes J. U Smith In the Kan
saa 1'nrmer, , ,, ,
When the calf Is n few class old he
Is taken nvvay fiom tho cow and put
Into a 1 en or shed to bo tuught how
lo drink sklm-inllk. Then the fun
commences If tho calf will not drink
Iho milk right off, und Is n little Btub
horn, the fellow who Is trslng to feed
him usually gets mad, Jumps straddle
of tins calf a neck, liacka him up In
corner, giabs hold of tho calfs head
with both hands nnd rams It down
In the milk to tho bottom of tho pall,
then tho ealf gets mad nnd bivvls, nnd
tiles to get nwus gets strangled and
finally succeeds In spllllnB the milk.
It la best to hiivo a llttlo moro pa
tltnco with the cnlf and remember
that It does not have veiy much sense
nt first. After It has sucked tho cow
two 01 three limes It should bo taken
away and put In 11 good clean pen on 1
fed 011 Its mothei milk foi a week or
two Then begin to gindually reduce
tho wholo milk nnd add a llttlo skim
milk each elas, until within a couple
of weeks It will bo on skln-mllk ulone
A tood substitute for the fat removed
is a Utile com menl given after drink
ing This will nlso keep them from
suckhiB eneh other. Over,fecllng, li.
regultr feeding, or feeding cold, sour
milk Is veiy apt to cuuso scours with
To feed nklm-milk fresh from the
the hand separator on tho farm Is the
best was. because ll Is always warm
und sweet Tho sklm-inllk from tho
creamers l nil right, but 111 warm
wcither It "111 not keep sweet very
long unless 11 la sterilized well nnd
thoroughly cooled win 11 brought home.
Sklm-Mllk ns Teed for Hoes.
1 regard sklm-mllk as a inluublo part
cf Iho hog ration, worth at least 30
cents rer bundled pounds, when mixed
with grain either wholo or ground,
writes J. II CTovvlcy In tho Kansas
Tarmer .. ...
That Is If a dollur's worth of feed
bo used foi hogs, 30 cents worth, or
100 pounds of skim mllle, would make
the ritlon moro valuable than If the
whole dollar was ured for grain with
oids water Instead of sklm-mllk This
skim milk keep tho hog healthy and,
11, refor". thrifty, pifvcntln cnsllpa-
on mil H ""ending evils. epeclills
ivvlno I'laguo or hog cl.oleru the dread
of nil farmers railing hogs. In fact,
I cannot recall ft ctua of hoff cholera or.
other disease nmong hogs where skim
milk formed a good part of the hog ra
tion 1 hae In mind notably the cae
of one of our station patrons who re
cently sold a nice, thrifty hog on this
market weighing sonio too pounds, fed
nnd raised wholly on sklm-inllk from
thla station, which bIiowb that we can
make porkers equal to the best gialn
fed and more healthy than those fed '
on rrnln alone. If this lesult of feed
ing sklm-mllk can be obtained In one
lnManco-why can It not be obtained In
male) and by nny farmer?
How to Breed Sound Horses.
Hefore nn KngMsh farmers' club Dr
i I. Clunes, member of the Uo)nl Col
lege of Vetcrlnar) Surgeons, gave nn
Interesting address on the above subject
rccentls. He said the llrbt essential to
earing sound stock was to start with
sound parents C.olng on to deal with
tho hereditary unsoundness to be mold
ed, he specified cataract roaring splint,
ringbone, slde-bones navicular dlReise,
spavins, strlnghalt nnd shivering curbs
nnd snndcrucks The most particular
thing In breeding was to have Rood feet,
becauso thes could alwass put the top
of a horse on One of the causes nf
unsoundness In Kwjland was that nns
body vvns allowed to traiel with a
stallion without a certificate wheieas
on the continent tra cling stallions had
to be examined bs veterinars surgeons
To get sound healths stuck they must
hiccd from soum? marcs, and It had
been amply proved that If thes wanted
size thes must hae It In the mare De
fects in a mare should not exist In a
stnlllon nlo, or the colt would possess
then, In un exaggerated form If the
mare had small feet, for Instnnce, the
stallion should have Rood big feet The
question of shape must be considered ns
well us unsoundness, because It did not
follow that because a horse was sound
ho was Rood-looking What was want
ed In ans class of horse was a square
animal, like a billiard table, with a leg
nt each corner He. did not think soil
ana situation made ers much differ
ence, but the best land wai that on
limestone. It was a Brent mistake to
have too many mares breeding on ans
form, because It was well proved that
after a few sears the stock began to
Bet smaller and the constitutions of the
animals weaker. He next dealt with
the enre of mares, treatment ln foaling,
the diseases of foals, nnd causes of un
soundness In perfectls sound colts, due
to carelessness of the owner, breaker
or wagoner. Horses should not be
worked too soon, if colts were nllowed
to run twelve months longer, vers' often
u much greater value would be obtained
for them He considered the breeding
of big harness horses to be the most re
munerative branch of breeding.
Official Records of Guernsey Cows.
The January Issue of the Herd Reg
ister and Bleeders' Journal of the
American Guernsey Cattlo club con
tulns the first etitrlcs In the advanced
register of Guernsey cattle, The res
Ister admits onl) animals who mako
records under conditions established
for the work. There conditions re
qulro that all records must bo super
vised hy some agricultural experiment
station The lecords pf twelve nnl
mills appear In tho Januery Issue, and
are ns follows
Glenwood Girl 6th ear's rocord,
12 187 33 pounls milk. 672 3 pounds
butter-fat. Primrose Trtckses, seal s
leenrd DOS pounds butter-fat, Lucie
lias Daughter, sea, s record Il.oSt b3
pounds milk, 483 6 pounds butter-fat.
Lucrctla of lladdon scars record 467 6
pounds bulter-fnt, Olonvvood GUI Sth.
Sears recoid 11 11013 pounds milk, 461 9
pounds butter.fat, Gspses of Ilaclne,
senr's record 432 8 pounds butter-fat,
Lady Bishop, sears record 391 3 pounds
Ijiutter-fnt, Lady nenjamln. sears rec
ord 390 0 pounds butter-fat. Glenwood
air! 7th, sears record 1S7.1 pounds butter-fat,
Nounon, years lecord 382 8
pounds butter-fat. Queen Decte, seven
day record 16 22 pounds butter-fnt,
.Mentor Mold, seven-day record 16 04
pounds butter-fnt.
In all records made for the ad
vanced register onls the hutter-fat
and milk are considered The condi
tions for entrs require thnt all ani
mals must Blvo at least 600O pounds of
milk or 250 r, pounds of hutter-fat In
a sear, or ten lounds of hutter-fat In
seven dass if the record begins the
dny the animal Is over two years old
Tor every das the nlmal Is over two
years old when her record begins, the
requirement Increases by a constant
ratio until the animal becomes live
Sears old. when the requirement will
havo reached lnoo pounds of milk or
300 pounds butter-fnt In the yearly
class nnd fifteen pounds of butter-fnt
for seven days' iccord It then re
mains for all animals over five years
of obp. Tor the purpose of convening
the butter-fat records Into theli equiv
alent of butter, the register recognizes
the rule adopted by the agricultural
experiment stations, that Is, add one
sixth to the amount of hutter-fat The
club for the puipose of lecordlng tho
actual working of tho cows, and as It
Is Rcnernlly ntcepted that a cow's
work ceases when she has given tho
milk which contains tho butter-fat
it vvns decided to hive the advanced
register on a milk nnd butter-fat basis
Improving Oats.
The plan of Improving tho quality of
oats carried on bs tha Illinois Experi
ment Million la to select from Individual
strong plants In tho field the sred and
sow It In n sepiratei plot tho succeed.
Ine sear. In thla wuy the strong, healthy
plants aro preserved and tho poor and
weak planta are weeded out of tho vn
rlets'. If tho oil breeder will go ln,tn the
field na tho plants are passing from the
milky to the doughs stages he can easily
select those plants which aro free from
dlsenso ami arc particularly strong and
healthy Tho smut In the onts can be
prevented bv treating tho seed with for
malin or hot water
Oats do not mix excepting In a short
distance, nnd by placing Ihe plots of oats
twenty rods unart nil danker of mixing
will bo nvolled In fart, vv, havo found
that when varieties hnve been grown
si la by stilci thlt mixture has taken
place onls a few feet In the field
The stalk nf oats nnl the character of
tho stalk will vary with the locality and
conditions nf the soil and climate in
which the oala nre giown The oat
plint la udaited to Northern condltlona
In order to betln breeding- any variety
1 believe that it will be n cood plan to
securo seed from somo northern locallts,
and b selecting the best plants from the
Pel f such seed at the time of harvest,
thr nine them separated and sowing In
a separate plot or held any Improve
ment c r change desired can be effected
A. D Hhamel, In Ilrcedera' Gazette.
Fumigation Nectssary and Profitable.
In n largo orchard of small trees this
would probabls 1 rove In elite of the con
si lcrable cost of the tents, cheaper In the
end than spraslng The trees on which
the writer experimented suffered no in
jury boon! the slight browning of a
few of tho moro advanced buda on sev
eral treea The iccorda of these ex.
perlments shows that fumigation with
lidrocyanlo acll sua practically means
the annihilation nf the scale, even when
but one ounce of csimll to 160 cullc feet
or space Is used The vers few living
veiling sciles found on somo of tho trees
ccuill easily have b.een nnd probihty
were, brought after the fiimlgitlon from
adjacent Infested trees Dr II 1. I clt
Btale I (nomologist ?vcw nrk
I urn satlsile-d that the fumigating
work for some of our tiursetles cannot
be surpassed In the world and as a whole,
the certified nurseries In I lorldn rank
high In this respect No ccrtllled pur
sers Is without a fumlgatorlum I'rof
II A Uossnrri Unlomolohist I lorlda L'x
ptrlment station
In fumigation ns In other things, tho
lust results with Ihe least rxeie lire
obtained nnlj hy rigorous attention tu
details The object sought Is lo subject
the trees and plants to the- in lion of Ihe
hvdrecvnnle acid gas of nu tit lent elen.
sits .nnd for the time required to destros
all living Insect pirasltcs In nnv stake
of development from the egg to the pir
ent during the hatching season The
penetration nf bsdroesanlc ncl I gas 10
every part of the tree mil plant except
below the surfuce of the ground und
lis fatal effects not onlv on the larvuei
nnd the msture. Insect pests but even on
the eggs Is one or Its advantages nver
Ihe spraslng process which cannot be
applied with entire success to trees 1 enr.
Ing dense foliage -C .M llelntz, Call,
fornl 1
H tl Chase stateel to me that the ex
pense to their firm for the fumigation of
llrst-cloos nursers stock did not exceed
25 cents per H"l trees. Including evers
thing l.vers box of trees they ship la
labeled to nnnnunco thnt fact T I.
v.eomans, President New lork I run
Growers Assoclitlon
Better Tillage.
Thorough Ullage should be tho watch
word of overs farmer It is nbsolutcls
Impossible to glow an abundnntls largo
crop without frequent and thorough till
age. How often do we Bee, In the
springtime, a field ploughed nnd planted
nnd afterward most terribly neglect
ed us to after cultivation S hot Is the
result at harvest? Not enough to pns
for what little cultivation has been
done. AVhat would have been the re
cult with fiequcnt nnd thorough culti
vation? Probably a vers satisfactory
crop, one that would have paid well for
M'ould It havo been possible for Mr.
Oeorte M Clark of IligBnum, Conn ,
to grow UOOoO pounds of cured hay on
seven ncres of land, as he did Ihe past
season, If he had not the noil moat
thoroughly stirred nnd pulverized? It
would pa) any farmer to tend u stamp
to Mr. Clark for his experience on giuss
culture On my own fields I have ul
w.i)s been In the hdblt of putting more
lahor onto them In tho form of careful
ploughing and thorough hnrrovvlng
than do most farmers of ms acquaint
ance, and nn, well patlstled that It pass
one to do ro
The person who tends his garden In
the most thorough manner very well
knows that he secures a fine crop Then
why not corrs this very same tillage
to the field 111 It not pay lh,e equal
ly well as In the garden? r. II,
Dow, ln rami, Flell and Fireside.
Ve nre Eating More Beef.
George M Rommel, expert ln the ani
mal Industrs bureau of the Department
of Agriculture, oddresalnB the nnnual
meeting of the Central Shorthorn asso
ciation In Kansas City, made the state
ment that Americans are now eating
more beef, comparatively, than ever be
fore, and less pork nnd mutton. Con
tinuing, he said there were more cattle
ln the countrs now In proportion to
population than ever before, and that
the supposition that the number of beef
cattlo was Browing smaller has been
based on estimates that must have been
very far from correct.
Mr. Itommol sold that the number of
beef cattle, not Including dalr) stock,
has shown n steady Increase for the
past llfty senrn a fact thnt was n cause
of gieat surprise to the Department nf
Agrlculluie In 18j0 Iheie were he said,
491 beef cattlo to evers 1000 persons,
while now the proportion was rsi to
To Prevent Ilobblnfr ln the Apiary.
As tho time of robbing la when tho
honey flow ts short, and hardls ever when
flow la full, this Is the time to watch for
Indications of marauders A quoenless
colony or one, wenk In brood will not
fight much for their stores Italians are
oetler defenders than common black
bees. Colonies wintered Inioors are moro
liable to be rohbed than those outdoors
Contracting cracks and entrance so that
on ill fine ben can get In or out nt a time
will aid a greit deal as thes will bo able
to protect ihemsclvea In this was With
11 little cl- attention $011 ear. delect rob
bln.i' t They ns with legs widely
speael n d m jve very cautiously about the
entrance I hey alao have a low soothing
hum Ion ran tell ir they nre sour beta
or sour nelkhhors by sprinkling some
Hour on them ut tho entrance and then
watching tho other hives to see If any
bees with flour enter
If sou find them llthllng hard close the
entrance somewhat and If the owners
have much strength they will protect
themselves If bees ore going In nnd
out lumbllnir over each other soil hove 11
easo of robbing that has got under bad
hcaelwuy and sue, must resort to cxtremo
me isures ut once Close up the hlvo en
tlrelv nnl securels In thla case If the
weather be finite warm danger nt suffo
cation will follow unless sou have on
opening covered with wlr. eloih larko
enough to ventilate A belter was Is to
cover an emptv upper story with wire
cloth, securels fastened down Hut some
times this dors not stop them as Ihe
robbers Insleln will communicate wttli
those nn the nutslde and pass Innev
through to them Us watching sou need
not allow robbing to reach such on ml.
vnnced stake liven then hv using two
plecea of wire cloth nbout half un Inch
npait over the opening sou can fool
them After bees huve been shut up thus
the best time to let them out Is at sun.
down Then get up eirly and see If they
are all right
Thero nro many so-called cures for
robbing, but the best la prevention In
time A strong colony havlnk oneo gain
ed headwas will destroy another In from
four to ten hours and this Is not the
stopping point When onee thes succeed
thes do not seem to hesltnte to tackle
the strongest colons In tho sard Do not
tempt them to robbing bs leaving partly
exposed honey around nnd by careless
feeding Tho chief things aro neatnrss
nnd care nbout sard unci hones bouse
Do not let dead cnlonles remain on
stands but remove them at once to some
safe Bpot nnd keep sour es on the coin,
nles when robbing might te txiected -U
II. Townscnd In Orange Judd runner
Preventing Apple Scab
This fungous disease, "is been dlscussM
several times In I ulletlns s t nut by the
Illinois experiment station ll Is so de
structive tha bulletin C7 Just Issue, and
p,e ired hi t m,e P Clinton la devote t
entlr ly to the discussion of the Injurs
cnusel bs tho scab, preventive measures
methods of infection nnd a larre number
of Illustrations showing Ihe dlteuso In
different singes of development
In suggesting preventive meaaures, Mr
Clinton stales that Injury from scab tun
be stopped lergcls by proper attention lo
spraslng Bordeaux mixture has been
found to l the most valuable fungicide
The picent tenrtn s Is to use it maele
aa fotloT a Copper aulphate f ur pounda
lime four pounds, water llfty iiallons
The cepper sulphate may bo dlatolved In
hot water, the lime slaked In a suitable
quantity of water, tho two being mixed
For successful Burdening or truck I
farming four thlnRs nre essential I
ITrst, a soft, easlls worked nnl rich
soil, second, nn abundant and continu
ous wnler suppls, third n location
which will Insure reasniuble freedom
from lite spring nnl enily fill frosts
nnd fourth, a Rood luarkel Will, these
fohr requisites RardeiilnR will pny
better than nns other form of ngrlriil
ture of which I know, not even eniopt
Ipb fruit-growing umler the best of
conditions Hut It must be remembere I
that tho perfect conditions for gnrelen
Ing are very rarels to be found even
III Utah, the best of all States for thla
business, and he who would engnge In
truck farming must choose carefully
his location or nil his most Intelligent
nnd best directed labors will be In
vnln Vegetables are mostls very shal
low rooted and derive most of thelt
living from the surfneo soil For thin
reason tho soli must bo of such a na
tuio as to be easlls worked Into a
fine tilth, must renin moisture well,
and the surface must be well enriched
Nearly nns soil can lie nindo rich
enough but no roll Is rich enough for
the best results In lis natural state
It will take a liberal application nf
stable manure thoroughls worked In
eocli senr for nbout Ihiee sears to
brlng'a piece of ordlnnrs land up to Its
best producing condition, although fair
crops can be rilscd of eouise mean
time It Is vers Important that the
land should be made to pin lure Its
very utmost for a garden requires a
blent deil of Itbor on a small piece
of ground, and the Ian I which will
produce Rreut cropi will require no
more labor than that which will pro
duce half the amount Mans gardeners
are succeeding well on low, rather wet
land, but thes have tu make a spec 1 ilty
of a few crops, such as onions, cnull
rtow or, cabbage and celers, while Iho
gardener who has higher, warmer land
can Tnlso nil theao nml mans thlngB
besides, such ns tomatoes egg plant,
melons, etc, if he has Biilllclent water
supply, The best water supply for a
garden Is thnt from u spring ur Mow
ing wells The large stream turned
from the ordinary irrigating flsstem Is
very hard to maunge, Is liable to vvnsl,
the soil too much away from the
Plants, nnd frequently can not be ob
tained often enough for Rtrden crops
nnd can not be applied long enough ut
a time The small stream long drawn
out and applied for four or five" hours
at a time every elBht or len dais Is
what counts In a garden Of course
somo crops will require water much
oflener than others, and It Is absolutely
essential to havo water tint can be
applied Just when tte crops need It
for the best results "he gardener will
do best who Is so located that he can
raise the greatest vnilets A piece of
soft, rich soil at tho mouth of a can
son, where Iho canson luceze will keep
together and stralneel Into n barrel con
taining the remaining amount of water
Much of the success In the use of this
fungicide dcienela upon the pro) cr nppll
cation and tho time of spraslng
The trees shoul'l lie thoroughly sprnv
ed Tho first implication shoul I le mule
soon after the leives begin lo infold f l
lwe,l bs a lecond son after the petals
begin to fall aril by a thirl In less than
two weeks If the Sanson has been favor
able for the development of scab 1 uicr
spraslngs are opt to burn the fnllige und
russet thn fruit and so are not very ele
slrabl Some writers udvncate Jwo
srraslngs before the petals fall the Ilrst
with Ihe swelling of Iho buds anl Ihe
second after tha leaves havo exrnndeil
but before the petals are open Winter
spraylnr with a strong solution of cop.
per sulphato hns also been found lo re.
turd the flrst npicaronce of scab but it
is questionable If It Is worth the extra
expense and trouble, provllet Ihe Ilrst
treatment with bordeaux mixture la m ede
promptls anil thoroughls In care tho
codling moth la Injurious, psrla green, nt
the, rate of one, poun 1 to ?Wi gnllona of
Iho bordeaux mixture mas be udcleel for
thn second nnd third sprasings
Ilesldea, proper attention should he
given to pruning us roperls pruned
trees afford kreuter protection against
quick evaporation of moisture nnd Just
so far favor Infection by scab The suno
holds true of proper cultivation slnco
orchards nflecieei In Ihla r speet offer
grenier prot-cllon lo Ihe fallen leaves,
which nro tho meins lis which the per
manent singe develops und produce a In
fecilon In Ihe spring No careful cxi ri
me nt of rukll g together nnd burning nil
of the fallen havea from nn crchnrd has
been carried on and so nothing dcllnlto
can be said of the. iidvuntage of this pro
cedure However In a small plat In nn
orchard from which tho Irnvea had been
so removed thn first appearance of scab
en those treea secmeM to have been re
tarded nnd reduced Such work to be of
nny value should be done very thorough
ly In the autumn after nil of the leaves
huve fultcn.
Potato Culture.
It Is nn old and true saying that the
farmer must feed us nil. It la, there
fore, necessaiy to enlighten nnd help
him along. This is tho duty of 1 coplo
who havo had experience Potatoes
are a vcketable that most peoplo cannot
do without. It Is therefore necessary to
know how to grow them in large quan
tities nt the least labor nnd expense
Potatoes mould bo planted us soon n
tho frost goes nut of the pround for
good, In land well fertilised and Just n
little gravelly to glvo the best results
I have found that when planted this
way they do vvcl Miinuie the land
after picking the potutoes, harrow or
plough It under, let ll lie ull winter,
and In the sprlnR harrow It well again
Then, when the polntues nre ready to
plant, mfrt. It out Take n wiigoulnad
of sheep manure and cover the bottom
of the drills a qunrter of un Inch deep,
not uny more, ,r It will rot the potRtoes
Do this btfme Ulilliifr and cover them
up befoie the manure has hail ilmo to
drs' out The drills should he about nno
foot npart and Iho potatoes iihout thli
tecn Inches apart They uaualls come
up on thr aides of the drills ThU can
bo ovcreome with a plough nt the same
lime killing Ihe weeds Cut the pota
toes In pieces, according tu sl.u nnd
eses He sure to have ono 05c and not
more than three Do not cut until
rindy to use Never irrlgnte the land
or let water 6tnnd m It In tho winter
It will make It lumps and rough Irri
gate tho potntoes when tho vines be
come a vers durk Rreen and never let
tho ground get so wet Hint It will make
the drills soaking vvel, or it will spoil
sour crop If the water lr turned on ut
night let only a small quantity iitn Into
the rows It will water them much bet
tcr and there will be no danger of
drowning Follow these) lules and sou
will raise a good crop, unless all Is
against you, J, C, Y.
off Ihe froal, nnd watered bs n spring! ln
belonging te, the lind is the ldenl lo- iHKlV
cation nu, n truck farm if It hnppend S1!
lo lie n, ar n gooel market lrlll
Hnpplls while the first three condl- Sti
llniM me not pass to nnd In tho proper tlif!
combination nns where the fourth th-v mWi
market la not hurd to find In this a'ftfilBi
State- As n rule pver) thing a gardener fMt
can raise will bo inken from his door VfS
nt rooI prices bs peddlers who trade MmtAI
In the milling; rumps ('JfcTi
The man who elepnds on this market; fi
should rnlsc the grenlest variety pos- fliflwn
. slble as the peddlers ns n rule, takes KMTOfl
I ul 11 llttlo at 11 time of nns one thing. (!!r,i
but like a Inrpe varlets The largo llHBM
towns nfTord n good shipping mnrkotj imMhi
for ioin things, such ns c million cr, iftHJliH'
e ibliage celers etc tfWi
If cholie vegetable nre Rrnvvn care- lfl(l
fulls felecled nnd picked caretulls a) iurlav'i
Rient many things cnu be sold In H lie iMJH
Lake at good prices which many BIraU
garden, in suppose to be unsaleable. WUmFM
Hi" home in irket In the small towns In nNi
nlso much better than mans Btippose. uktM,
Ihe writer sold iroul of his produce MI
the past season tee peddlers but when 9H
nns thing of nns kind was left over It Ai
was taken tu the mnrket town and
peddled mil I nevor set failed to sell
out at Rood prices, often getting. uH
pearls nn much far ms Roods ns thn
peel Hers receive! for e same thing iaai
hauled from the a, me town to mining 9HI
camps forts or lifts miles nwns '3ti
lour sales will depend larejely on thn Lwl
nppciiinncee of sour i.oodn nnd the 1 SPtJW
amount of hustling sou nro willing tm JsMIi
do to llnd the penile who wnnt to buy. eaMfl
The exterlence of the writer has been iiHfl
thnt the lirger crops sou rnlse nnd the H?5sl
larger the scale on which sour gnrden HEi
Ing Is curried on Ihe better sour ninr- MBJal
ket will be Ar. to the profits under IranH
Ideal conditions gnrden crops should lL1l1L1L1L1L1LH
Sleld finin J 1 00 tn iron per acre I HH
have known one measured ncro of !
ground tn produce over IfOO worth of H
onions fur two sears In succession. ai
Cauliflower should sleld SI00 per acre. H
From thirty nine square rods of land asi
tho wilier saw dug Jt.1 bushels of early
1-otntocH the past season which vvero H
sold for S-' rer bushel for seed, or bM
nt the rnte of over 11300 per ncre.
These things show the possibilities of bB1
Ihe truck business undei conditions
such nn we llnd In Utah Tho life of ?sH
Ihe gardener Is nlso one of the pleas.- 'JjH
nntest on earth While It calls for loner eH
hours nnd hard work throiifli all the j
planting and growing netson, the )HH
gardener to be successful must love his H
work anel it will nlwnss be a pleasure H
tn him A cardener cm, not keep very H
much stock, and while he ran find H
I lenty to do, he Is not tied to 1,1s work
as closely as the general fanner or H
stockman, but will have plenty of time i
for leading and study or such rccrea- 'aaaflH
tlnna ns mas most nprenl to htm So Vi
ho who Is foitunnte enoukh to bo able aiaHi
to securo the best conditions for truck Isaflnl
farming will llnd 1,1s occupation ns rfll
lucrative and much more pleasant than CTl
any other In unci, of ngrlcultiiie HF41
j 11 m:vroN SsHBi
Mapletnn I'tnl, iP
Pennsylvania Village Wrecked by i)ss
the Depredations of One ami
Lone l'owl. jaHl
There n lots of trouble In Ihe little vll- fj
1 ige of llrookdulc. Pa, nnd Its all on JtD,
nreount of the ellsoidcrly conduct of a UK
wild gooie owned lis the Widow Simp- ,aF.
son The widow bought the fowl from lai
a hunter when It vvns a jcarllng, and Hi
has since been trying tn make a pet of rnui1
It, with very dlsactrous results There's SSO
one thing thnt the people of Ilrookdale tljPT'Hl
prldo themselves on, and thut Is tho S!SlM
well-kept lawns In front of their homes. r jiffs!
Widow Simpson's goose lias a tasln for 'SsstP
tender krass and, nftcr drstroslng the iWufll
pretty plot at her cottage made prcdj- PU& If
lory mills on the neighbors' lots This ImJiViI
stalled tho trouble nnd Ihe Widow itJfikl
Simpson, from being one of tho best- gmatli
liked women If the communlt), bceamo e'HfB
Ihe most hated yPtH
The gooso seemed to realize that It OMtln
was heartily hated by Us owners neigh 1Eimi
hors, nnd that a dem ind h id been made saLjni
for lis death, with which the widow ro- aF
fused to comply The fowl then begnn SBlllI
a persistent series of nttneks upon this 6lM$ll'
people who wanted It put out of tho JtWaiM
was'. It bit und seriously Injured a 4- sKxl
year-old fclrl," toro flown tho family (MP,!
vvashlnRs and diaRged tho clean clothes I'aalif 1
In the mud, and made rulds on poultry jBlf 1
sards, killing off the young chickens by jHlD it
the score It became such n terror that IfflD, i
the people of Iiiookdile organized Into vlM I
a vigilance committee ami started out TieETF t
tn kill It Volley after volley was fired "Mi V
at the koose, but it seemed to bear a J3bI II
charmed llfo nnd escaped unhurt, flslnc J.W?P
out of raiign of Ihe buckshot fired nt It, SitJ I
nnd screeching deilnnee to the men and JKtJnli
boss who sought tu kill it. Gee 6 I
One result of the vigilance commit- KjAia
i"t s rnl I vvns the killing of a calf hy liJLf'l'
e 10 of i.ie men who hhot at the goose. iBi5V
The owner of tho tnlt presented n hilt WBffrl'
for 317, which the unlucky goose. hunter 9EJty
had to pay. J'tflS?!!
About a quarter of a mile from Widow Kf I'
Simpson's homo Is the vlllago school, is4lri
presided over bs u, soung wninnn teach- fiBiBlh
er who has somo thirty llttlo boys and 1fV?iU
girls under htr rhaigo Lust Monday 'IhP'J
morning the goose II, vv In at the front iVsiJKK
door of the srhoolhousc, and began to Bwje
mako thinks lively Knowing (he evil VipM
nnturo nf the fowl the teacher nnd her f7l't
pupils were bndls frightened ut Us ap- il?SI
pea 1 , nee It began operations by r, ah. SKT'I1
blnB a book out of 11 child s hand and rfllilft
lea-lnB ll to pieces Tho teacher, armed Wita
with 11 broom nnd some of the bolder ll'lil
pupils with ruleis, made u combined at- vlAsi'
tncl. on tho Intruder hut it scared them rV,ifiv
off and Indicted a number of Bevero In- eiltl
Juries on them Including a bad cut on tiSal
tho teachers face, mu.de will, a Btrokn li.flil
of Its powerful wl Finally, seeing" AvlH
they wen, no mile r the belllgei nt SujlEl
goose teacher rend uplls fled, leaving; llltj
It In possession of Ine room 3H
Help was summoned but when It ar- is'JjMC
rlved the goose with a loud squawk, TM
Hew nut of the doorway and winged Its lLal
way tn the woods, since which tmo It ai
has not been seen The Inteilor of the Jb
Eclioolhou.se tue&onted a scene of wild aa
wieckage The floor was strewn with. bmI
torn books, desks were upset Ink hot- bb
lies spilled and a numbei of panes of bD
glass broken It cost nearly KH to re- HLH
pnl, the damage nnd the sclicol trtis- LH
tecs talk nt suing the Widow blnipron al
for the amount If the goose tomes b icH. bb
. Correspondence Chicago Inter- Ocean. !bb

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