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The Inter-mountain farmer and ranchman. [volume] (Salt Lake City, Utah) 1902-1902, March 11, 1902, Image 1

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5alt Lake City, Utah. JJJ ''?'' -rif.--S--2E " ' ' pa (fH
il. r. y- " Saip la kb Citv, Utah, Tudsday McmxrxG, MATtcir 11, H)02. Puicr,, "Five Cents. 1111 pilM
Raising and
egg production.
tow many people ncir the
.rket or any other latgo
Th matter, have stopped
'th, -real opportunities for
, from the poultry Indm..
,', have considered tho
'''I It thouM bo, or
t Z, dBUB,,lr
. present tlmo have nice
SriTcn-lultt lnd.pend.iit
",tealn n"k ot .j!0",
. to iW a nct ,,rollt .
I This U no theory. It
,(,rt tndhi bion proven
"', HmV Well, In the
,;'mu.t mike up our
.,ote time and work tn the
houses mu,t t Kept clear,
..tii.ted and th liens must
roper w.15 miHnR food''
remcniterathit without
ot food thi h can't 1 ly
jie winter I never 1 t my
ot the house ""I"'' thi
i rm, br u If the hens
the ess l 'l'
the nwnttu, of July and
one can rlir n1 c nlc0
April hatrhc I pullet3 at !j
If tl-ese pullets an- prop
tr illl lay fiimi two hun-
hundred and fifty eggs a
i In the Ve.it rn nnrketi
out -j crnt u d"ii thi.
. Thli would nuke over
. from tain hn Noi, th
Jlni a hen for n ycal Is
She lll commence tu I ly
1st of Novemboi, and ion
t until the 1st of Juiiuitj
tltliufe to tay that she
to tt. Give her thlrticn
itout the .14 iliy of the
income oft wllh thirteen
H there g alnnjs moro jr
17 e re foi tun He i noitph
w ot the thirteen '1 hla Is
umbe'on" iv of ennui ,
tin t single Ic Will, liy
mdlle 01 Arrll the Omits
en tith to ir ilk t at 25
k'lnsuie a trail f J' .J
ere an I t , dr chlckB
lal it h.j In om from one
chlks ate lirco enough
re ot th ni'"Uc ' the hen
e to lay until nlniul .Inly
hn the moults 'Ihett
to lell her for It docsn t
?old hens ov r 'Jluy will
til spring utter the Hist
cf feeding the hen una
tnleki uoull -imume DO
lottoor or If fi I nn griln
Prlea ihhh aic unmiiilly
for the nine chicks
"1 t.i , j c nn, hul no
Minute the re t of feeding
1 'kicks at l, -this from
aiei a front of $lf0, or
'I ") the ImtMinent
"theou ft nttle udvlro
"'slock lie Mtie to got
llwlj Then an vurl.d
! W the r t inilety nf
... ," ls l"Kr framed.
." 'l llen.11.1 lijer
llltl. about fe- s, ,,,,,,
M thin- In t, lorn
it some vvat , sllUltly
'rtilikem must hue nut'.
heft1!,' " I Ilium k
:'Ahhti,,r,,!X1,e
?hi?i Ell" " "t n
H.o.nfr?m ,h" Willi
bnilj."-" I fell hekt
t'orka,,dM,ntch
J raw j,,,t ien
lint k?.i a "'" ' 'I'"1
S ;
meVrV,!" ""Hid for
',!Vlh1iTnl7,,,',nK
reltha . " " ""'it
Hot Th . I'"' tlilnir
Bn. If li, ."s ""' 'lei
'"t tli! 111'"" '""'"y f
?';'"" t,",';,i";11i!
'.""thltlVn!1. """"
.1 " M I V" ""I'leiilHi
it ""'"""'eriom,,
,.l '"""1 inf .u'0 n t of
' I'Vdr'V'" '-''''
, on 1 n c-iws
4 '.ktrtfu,eS
nit' "liny tL 'rr ' K'o
fl ii'rV'" l" llf B,,l"
,,',rhfMc i"f " ,nd tiKo
ii,""'f"rt i,n,?",k.orf )
7 wail ,e '"' "'H the,,,
ft i 3S; S5
it Sl Vr'-i
aya ur Warm,
tlio ix dny, when tho other heni am
fed. When tho orbs hatch I put tho
hens and ihlcks In coops, kIo them 11
llttlo aler, after hiulnff ued tho
ponder hlower on each hen an 1 ihlck.
Ho not feed till the chicks hesln to
call for food, then Blvo stale bread or
JohniDcake for four or flo days. After
Hint fcecj whole wheat scAetal times a
diy. (lle the hens nnd chicks free
range when the wenther Is dry after
the llrst ten ria8 J. It. 1'attcrson, In
Orange. Judd Parmer.
Questions About Leghorns.
Gunnison, Utah. Feb !5, 1902.
Plenfc answer the followInR question
In the Inlermountnln Tanner untl
Unmlimin 1. What Is the difference
If nny, In the ckk laltiK qualities of
S r. nnd n. C. White LcKhorm? :
How do tho White Leghorns compare
with the llrnnn Ieshorns In laying? 3
Where tan I get somo full.blooaed It
C White J.enhorn crbs for hatching In
this Mate' Subscriber.
1. No difference. 2. No difference 3.
Not known If nny.
A Poultry riant for 050 Hens.
Jly poultry plant Is located pirlly on
n Meant town lot, 150 feet long and
ISO feet deep, nnd partly In tho back
jard. Tho three, houses run east and
west nnd fnco the south. Houses 1 nnd
2 nro each Hi feet long and 10 feet
wide. Uioy nro built on tho open
scratching shed plin, and each house
contains eight pens. House 3 li 10S
feet long, contains six pens nnd Is at
o on tho open scratching shed plan.
Tho lumber out of which they were
built wns all rough hemlock.
The sills were lild on chestnut posts.
to 8 Inches In diameter. Tho posts
wero sunk Into tho ground 2Vi feet,
leaMng the top of tho sill 1 foot from
the ground. 1h sills, 2x4, wero spiked
to the. posts Tho studs. 2xt, wero 6
feet 8 Inches high In front nnd 1 feet 8
Inches In tho rear. These studs were
tne-nalled to tho sills and tho plates
spiked to tho studs 'I ho rafters, 10'J
Tcet long, weio 2xls and rut an I splkel
to tho plates, ends of 1 afters be
ing Hush with tho outside of the
plitea The infters were placed 2'
feet npirt. The roof nnd tho rear were
closely boarded with hemlock boirds,
all running lengthwise of the building
It was then coered llrst with common
sheathing paler and second Ntponset
red lopo rooting ocr It This double
lont of paper waB nlw put on lenRth
wlso of tho buildings, each strip lap
ping tho other about 3 Inches and
fastened with tin head nails, which
CTine with the nnner.
From the sills down, nnd sunk Into
the ground. Is n bonrd nhout 1 foot
wide (.criircly nailed around the entire
building lo keep out tho wind In
front, tho rooMlng pen only U boarded
up and shenlhed with paper nnd cov
ered with Nrponset. In the middle of
tho front of each roosting pen was set
a. half window (six lights ot 8x12 Rlass)
In n frame, which allows tho window to
slide hirk. In the rear part of oich
scratching she1 thero la a. door 2'sx3
feet.
As wo enter tho first houao through
the Krnlnrnnm, the llrst pirt In which
we llnd nmsoles In tho scratching
shed, slmllai tn He 1 It Is
10x10 fut, with ft boird floor, covered
with 2 Inches of sindy loom, inerwhlch
Is scattered 11 lot of corn husks for
si ralrhlng matcrl il This shed Is open
tn the rnulli, but screened with 2-Inch
mesh wire netting r. feet high lhero Is
one slud In tho middle, fiont, with n
f-lnrh lintiul nillnl onto tho outsldo to
finish, imidlng the opening Into two
parts. 'Iheso openings nre closed In
1 old or stormy weather by screens
Tho frames of the screens nre nnde
of stlfT Inch furring, fiet 10 Inches by
6 feet 10 Ineliew, and cnend with com
mon cotton cloth inlleil securely by
paper heided tacks The screens nro
not hinged, hut are held In plnco by
two 4-lnih wlro nails at tho top and a
strip of furring nt tho bottom Thoie
screens nro mndo t Inches shorter thnn
tho height of the opening, which allows
them tn bo pushed np nt tho top nnd
drop In plnre. The Imard which flnlhei
tho fiont or tho rnflers extends down
3 Inches below tho plate Tho sawn
s mndo lo lit In llsht. thus excluding
. tin. snow nnd drafts of air. In w Inter,
whrn not too storm v. ono screen la
taken nut nnd set behind the other.
Ihi! bens nrn alnnys fed In this slie.1
Adjoining this shed, as wo pas
through a door. Is tho roosting pen.
8x10 fctt. two roosting pens In fnct,
with 11 seimid trratihlng pen beond.
1h pirtlllon between the scritihlng
sheil nnd the loostlng pen Is ncmloiK
boards inwted with sheathing paper.
Tho iloois mo hung with doublo act nff
hinges, which nllow them to swing
both wnn. which Is n ,-icnt cpmen.
lenco when pissing through with both
hands full There nro openings In tho
partitions fiom the shmls to the pens,
protecteil b a hood which P'cnts
illicit drafts This bond Is tho half of
n box nailed In front of the rjpeiiln- to
make tho fowls turn mi in'-l0.,,n .P""?
In 01 out Tho open pntt nt tho hood
fill CM U 9111.
Tho .erlor of a ft loostlng pen Is
shown nt Tig. 2. It shows the ; iool
drop tiontim nnc their supports. -Uso
tho posts, inftei . two net bnxis nnd
wni oM. Tho -ousts at In tho rear
all ,1 and insist . two fcant
lliiRu. ix. 15 Imnes npnit, the tear
11110 bell !0 Inches f m the, hick wan
They 11.. 1' Rtlnvl-M. at the bull. line
nnd are rot Into n pleco of furr big,
bch Is nallid betwien two studs
'Ihey nre placed 2'4 feet from M10JI001
Hlx Inches below the roosts Is the
Plnlfnrm for tho dropping" 3 feet wide
nnd ns long as will R cnmenlrntly be
tween the partitions Ket Into the
partlllons. between tho sleep ug pens
Ih a small pall of water, holding nbout
llo Mini m. The two puis inc. wnti led
fiimi ono pa thus salng time and
Tho' next boxi s uto tneKi il UP nl nut 2
feet from tho floor, mostly In the sleep
lug pens, perhaps three lo 11 pen nun
nro builnp curtains In., front of tha
UHists tilot down on crtld nlgnts
13ch pen of fowls, therefore has
rofistljlB PiD 8xl ftet PB cratcljlns
Jhed 10x10 feet This spice Is Intended
rortwent lUe lajlng hens House 4
!" '- feet long, and his four pens
llieie Is nni other house In tho bails
jard, 8x21 feet which I usi fur any nnd
ecr thing In the four luger houses
I cun keep COO head of lijlng hens.
The aids differ In sire some being 41)
rect deep nnd IS feet wide, and others
i2 feet di op and 18 wide
The fences nic made of G foot wlro
netting The po3ts nro chestnut sip
lings, 8 feet long and nre set In tho
ground 2 feet ileep There Is a hoard
nt tho bottom, sunk 1 01 2 Inches into
the ground nnd nailed llrmly to tho
poits The posts me 15 feet apart,
with a ktij between to support the
wire The who Is trou bed as taut as
possible and nailed both to tho imsts
an I bottom boards with staple" Thero
nio 47 running feet of houe room, 10
feet wide These houses should, when
full, contain about 6 0 lajlng hens.
At the time the recoul begins, Apill 1,
r00, there were CSS hens and 28 cocks,
pn the aeriigc there were nbout 25
hens In a pen Theso houses ind
yards cost about J1O00 complete with
fixtures ltc. n B. Kcllcrinan, In
Orange Judd Parmer. ,
Why I Dip My Hogs.
Ten cnrs ago I consulted a gentleman
In reference to the mode nnd plan of
dlpilng hogs, or rather he consulted
mo by nd dealing the plan which I
afterward adopted, and ono that I pon
dered In my mind for ears. belleclng
It to bo tho tommon sense, practical
and only certilu way of prcentlng
what ls genenlly known ns hog cholera.
Hy obsenation, Investigation, research
ami expel lencc, I learned how to de
velop a ceitnln type of hog, nnd while
I believe nfter long jenrs of breeding,
the rnluud-Chlna hog superior In soma
respects to any of his rivals, jet I um
frank tn ndmlt tint all the strains ot
thoroughbreds havo their good points
The hog being constituted moro llko
tho mm than any other nnlmil that
ban brought wealth, satisfaction nnd
pleisuio to the American fanner and
the American home, particularly In the
greit Mates of Missouri, Illinois, Iowa,
Kansas, Nebraska, Indiana, Michigan
nnd Ohio, It behooves us to work on In
telligent lines, protecting our herds from
the ravages of dUense as well ns tho
bringing of the hog tn the highest state
of perfection by crossing and tho Inter
change of blood, both In male and fe
mnle. These being factH beyond ques
tion, how shall wo prolcct tho Ideal hog,
by dipping nnd feeding a remedy that
will rid the h"g of nil lce mnnfe para
sites, fever germs, Mllh, and nt the same
lime keep the pores open, thereby as
sisting nature In throwing off the dead
matter which accumulates during the
natural llfo of the hog, feeding the same
remedy tn rid tho hogs ot worms ono
of his worst enemies nn I kiep his di
gestive organs In perfect order.
1 do not believe It necessary to lnvo
bog cholera, nor do 1 believe In admin
istering these nostrums, ttowilers, foods,
sure cures or cerlnln decoctions tn a
hog, nnd forcing the hog to pirtako of
poisons more destructive and deadly
than the dlsearo that Is piopagated nnd
developed In our own feed lots, breed
Ing pens and ninong our droves. Tor
jenis 1 have been dipping and feeding
a rememdy that has kept my herd In
almost perfect condition, nnd I ndvlso
nil my fellow -breeders lo ndnpt this
slmpli , common. sense mode nnd plan
at a cost of a few cents per hog per
ear.
My tank for dipping Is nbout 10 rcet
long, nnd I believe I feet deep: and It Is
larger nt the top than nt the bottom,
I hive It set Into the ground In a box.
My chute ls nbout 20 feet long, the lift
4 or 11 feet slopes to the end of tank,
where hog enters at nn ngle of about
25 iligrees, so w meter the front hogs
piss nn Incline, the rear hogs crowd
thcni fnrwiird, nnd they slldo Into tho
tunic, going entlrelj under tho solution,
passing out 011 n dented board at tho
other end of the lank With this plnn
nnd apparatus I can dip 200 to 300 hogs
In nn hour. After tho drove Is dipped I
mvei up (he solution to prevent dirt,
inlu or snow fiom getting Into It, and
this solution lists Indefinitely, or ns
long ns an ounce leinalus 1 add the
necesMiry niuount ot liquid nnd wnler
whenever 1 want to dtp. keeping the
lank a llttlo over half full of tho dip,
anil I dip as often ns I think It neces
sary to keep my held In perfect con
dition Whenever I bring my hogs on
my farm, I uluais dip them twice mil
feed the remedy biforo I turn them In
lots with my other hogs
I ndvlso you to bewaic of many things
or solutions that nre advocated for this
purpose, as there Is never a genuine
without a counterfeit, nnd both will
llnd favor I ndvbo every man en
(.aged In tho hog business to ndopt this
simple, ' oninion-seime plan of dipping
nnd fete ng, nnd I believe It Is only a
short time when the fenrs nnd uncer
tainties of this destroyet call It what
vnu maj will not be feared, and this
method will be Healed with confidence.
Il i; Axllno In Address to Missouri
Swlnc Ilrceijcrs.
Hog- Teed.
Corn nnd clover nro the Ideal fools
for hois 1 hn hi coder and fattencr can
not get along ery will without them
1 uch has a function tn pet form In tho
economy of tho hog that cunnot bo over
looked Corn Is teqiilred for fattening
and llnlshliiB tho hogs, nnd tho clover
Ih Jus ns niedful for spring nnd tum
mer feeding More Ihnn this, the clover
Is a winter food and the more we ree
iinUe this the belter It will be for our
mickctbooks Clover has Is nlmost ns
good a Inlet fool f"i the swine ns
wt. In winter thcio Is little chnnco at
sickness, writes William Conwnv In tho
Mlihlgan rainier. The man who raises
com. clover and hogs need ndopt no
other line of farming. Ho has his hinds
full nnd tho Ihree go together so well
lint hu need not add a third crop to
cm Kven the fertlllt of the soil can
be kept up with these three products,
so theio will be llttlo 01 no degeneration
In It. Hy Hiring plenty of clover hay
for winter use wo secure at tho dame
time 1 cheap fnnrtiniiil ono that keeps
11. tho health of the hogs better than
r they had com alone A liberal sup
Iv of M clovei hay stacked away for
winter ufo vvl' -nnblo a fanner to win
tei his bi'R" at a cost much lower than
tn o her who dipends chiefly upon coin
I ici ips 'I hero nro methods of feed-"-u'eo
lover hay th.it will tend to Im
UlnvH Its value by nuking the swlno
Tel h it innie. nnd r'orn Mudy nnd ex
ilment along HiU Hn will eventually
'' Tbe'fcav"" and chaff of the clover hay
formerly midq u WMaerabJe Him Rf.
waste These today are fed to the hops
bj mixing them up with a small amount
of bran middlings and then sonkltig
them overnight In water I.ct the wa
ter be hot when poured In, and then
feed when cold Tho hogs relish this
mixture, and eat It Rrcedlly the next
morning W hen all the looke leaves nnd
chyfl. have been used up In this wa,
the clover hay can be cut up and soikcd
nnd mixed with bran. Slops from the
kitchen Intended for tho hops can be
mixed with the clover hay or leaves In
stead of bian All that is required Is
some kind of concentrated food to give
the clover hay a moro palatable nnd
moist taste. This can be obtained In a
vailety of was, and one may prove nl
most as beneficial as another. The hogs
should not be allowed to fill up on this,
but a crtaln proportion should be given
every day In connection with the other
feed.
The TImo to Milk.
' Whenever It gcts-below ro I think
of my cows, nnd whenever I think of
my cows I havo to laugh," a happs-go
lucky citizen remarked to another man
on the street car.
'hat about your cows?'
'Oh, teveinl eirs ago, In a tenlbli
bitter spell of weather which wo had,
my boy came rushing In from the barn
early one morning und said In great
excitement that the cows wero all
frozen to tho ground. Wo nil ran out,
of course, to discover that tho hydrant
In tho barn had burst In tho night,
and that my klx lino Jersey cows und
a calf were standing In solid Ice.
Well, jou can Imagine that we
had some Instantaneous commotion mi
our hands, buch a scurrying uround
jou never did see. My boj hunted up
some men from tho neighboring stables
and wo nil cirrled warm water and
choppeil ico with a good will. Ono of
the men suggested that the calf looked
ubout leacly to die, so wo got It oa
llrst. I hunted up nn old led woolen
Jersey J icket of my own and wo put
the calfs forelegs In tho sleeves and
buttened It up on the back. Ho was
a funny-looking object, I assure you.
"Then another man said If those
were his cows hod Rive them all a
big doso of whisky before he chopped
them out of the Ice. So we got whlskj
and hegan pouring It down their
throats. At a Juncture In walked oui
llplBcopal clergyman. Ho lived near,
and bad beard of the trouble on hand
and had stepped Inlo ee If lie could
help us In uny waj. I ran reo him now
A very slender, solemn, rather mclan
1 holj, serious, dark-eyed joung man
always Impressed me as being tempera,
mentally iclated lo I dwln Itooth. He
loaned on one of the stalls and watched
ua administer the doses of liquor to
those unlnppy cows, then with tho
greatest gravity, and with not even a
twluklo In his eye, ho said:
"'Dick, when nre jou going to
milk"" Detroit Kreo Press
Illnts on, Churning;.
A few days Blncn a woman told mo
that sho bad churned not less thnn
two houis every churning this winter
nnd that on ono sho spent a good half
dny. This complaint Is nothing new.
Hvery winter It Is heard nnd will con
tinue to bo heard as long as there la
winter buttermnklng on tho warm Tho
causes may bo various, but thero Is a
remedy thnt can bo applied, a remedy
that his been tested hy thousands. It
Is simply heating tho milk. As soon
as tho milk Is strained place It over a
ketllo of boiling water and let It re
main from twenty to thirty minutes,
or until the cream Is well crinkled, but
on no account let It come to tho boil
ing point without boiling tho less
It will havo tho tusto of scalded
milk As soon us It hns recelveil the
steim hath place It whero It will have
Immediate and rapid reduction In tem
perature. This ls imperative, for as
much of success depends on this as on
the heating process. Hy this method
there Is no waiting for tho cream to
ripen, ns It Is tit for tho churn ns soon
ns skimmed. What the secret of tho
operation Is I cannot understand, but
I do know that tho result Is vciy satis
fnetorj. The butter from cieam
trented In this manner Is of much bet
ter quality than from sour cream
churned from two to four and even six
hours, and I havo known churning to
bo Mvon up In despair nnd never miko
buttei.
It was by accident I learned that
tho butter would come so readily
when tho milk received tho steam
bath 1 knew the butter nlivajn come
quickly, but supposed the cream must
stand nnd ripen hefoio being churned
I had been rending a icclpo fot crcum
plo thit happened to tako my fancy.
It rnlled for a cup of cteam. I re
solved to uy a 1 nrger quantity, nnd
with tho stirring icqulred nfter heat
Ing tho crenm slightly butter foimed
very quickly. This sitlslied me and I
lnvo ever slnco heated my milk, quick
ly reduced temperature and churned as
soon as I had sulllclent cream, regard
less of nny ripening process Cor.
Twentieth Century Parmer.
Ilussln nnd Butter-Making;.
Russia Is making her entry ns a
competition In the Huropean butter
trade, and Is cnrrylng eveiy thine, be
foio her. In 1893 the Uusslan product
In tho London markets was too small
for scpirato classification! In two
jeirs It had Jumped to tho second
plnce, Denmark holding tho llrst, as
she his long done. Tho ttans.Hlbcrlun
butter trains, once a week, leavo Obi,
lop nt six other centers of tho ltdus
Uy, and arrive at the Ualtlo port of
Ulga after a Journey of seventeen days
A steamship line with cold slotoge
service convejn tho product to Lon
don, whcio It competes successfully
with the best Huropenn brnnds, thosii
of Denmaik, Irelnnd and Normandy
The trado Is only begun, hut Its prom
ise for tho future Is enormous Indiana
t'urmer.
Making Trlzo Creamery Butter,
Ihe creimery buttei vvhldi tonic tho
second prize at tho iccent Illinois daily
association meeting was made by (1.
Human. Ml, Herman Is a Swiss by
birth and has been In the creamer
business rnlj a few years During thit
time he lias won a medal and throe
diplomas besides cash prizes. He says
bfl hla creamery la ppeyted. tour t
times a week Tho milk from which
the prize butter was nude was taken
Into the creamery en Siturdnj Most
of It was only one dnj old, but about
10O0 pounds were three dijs old
The milk was heated to about F0 de
grees find run through the separator
A B per lent skim milk starter was
added to the u cum, which contained
35 per lent of fut mil 0 of 1 per cent
of acid when readj for tho ilium It
wns placed In the ilium at a tempera
ture of r5 degrees and (tunned one
hour. When the granules of buttei
weie nbout the size of wheat gialns,
they weie wished with water direct
from the well, the temperature being
about SI degrees 'lho butter wns salt
ed one ounie lo the pound nnd wns
then worked and picked In 60 pound
tubs. There wero 340 pounds ot butter
In the churning, from which tho prize
packngo was taken. The butter was
ten dajs old when It was scored. Pour
ounces of butler color and tho best
dnlry rait wero Used Orange Judd
I armer.
reeding Small Flocks of Sheep.
Moro than onco wo havo urged the
farmers living In our thickly settle 1
vallcjs to tuke Hocks of sheep to win
ter or buy smill Hocks ot wethers or
lambs to feed foi market We hive
also Invariably urged small ' fnrmeis
who raise a few head of slock to fat
ten the steers for the spring market
Our object In making these leiommen
datlons was to enrich tho farm as
well as tho ownci. We ulso believe
that the tlmo Is near at baud vvh m
sheep will be kept In sinnll llncks on
our Montana firms Just us thej uie
now In the older States The older
Montana becomes tho moro her farm
ers uie Inclined tn leave oft the plo
necr Industries ot growing ginln.
wheit nnd oats, and nro dlverblfjlng
their products more. Ihcy are grow
Ing legumes nnd roots and other stoi k
feedr, nnd uro feeding moro of their
crops at homo nnd In the very nntuio
of thlnKS good ls sure to lesult. 'lho
rejult of fattening stnik for markets
on the ranch means the marketing of
the Mulshed product, the live bullock ur
mutton, and the keeping of the lest of
tho product In the shape of manure to
return them ugaln to their fields nnd
meidows. This means that Melds nnd
meadows are to bo Improved It means
alro that our Montana people are be
ginning to Ihlnk moro about Improve
ment nnd employ every method of
progress. Anil In tho era ot smiller
farms soon to dnvvn wo will see farm
ers growing roots for 6tnek feed be
cause Ihey hdd a Ki'itlri tonnage tu
tho acre lhan nny other feed. We will
see smnll Mocks of sheep of from 100
to too head kept on our farms and
wintered largely on riitnbagas, turnips
and bcels In the valley of the Hlttei
Uoot many fnrmers keep a few sheep
and thej are well pleased with them
The herd thnt grows from a few dairy
cows Is becoming popular In these dajs
of advancing husbindrj. The tide ls
setting In to grow stock rather than
so much grain nn the farm and theso
older Stales' Ideas grow ns our coun
try gets older Hnd tho eountiy Mils up
with Hastern people Tho time Is not
distant when our rural residents will
proceed much ci the same line as the
people do who ml the Mississippi valley
region. It Is a plan Instituted tn utilize
waste. Sheep nre capital things to eat
up the weed seed and ex'termlnato ob
noxious vegetation nnd wo look to see
them become 1111 Important fat tor In
the new eia, nnd wo believe that It will
prove a stroke of economic and pro
gressive m Hiigement Itocky Muun
tiln Husbandman.
Immunity of Goats From Dlscnst.
Animals may bo subject to diseases
of as various and m iny kinds as otheia
may be, but It does not follow that
they must necessully suffer as much,
nil alike Somo races possess a nattnal
ability tn strive successfully with mis
fortune, with far moro success than
others, nnd thus while they nro known
to be subject to so ninny diseases jet
they suffei fur less from them than
tha others do. This Is especially ap
plicable to goats and sheep Students
of natural hlstorj may estimate this
Immunity from diseases far too lightly,
cnnsldeilng thnt If ono rare Is known
to be subject to tertaln diseases that
tho Inevitable result must be tint both
suffer equally from them. This, how
ever, will not bo In niiorilanco with
facts. Por Instance, sheep nre natu
rally closely related to gonts, and
thus nro disposed to much the samo
liability to diseases which affect tho
whole rnco specltlcnlly. Nevertheless
It nuiy bo thnt the natural ability to
resist misfortunes may bo so much su
perior In one hranch of n family, that
while tho subjection to diseases mnj' bn
equal In the whole family, jet ono may
bo far more able to iCHlst thnn the
olhcr. And this Is pretlselj the tase
with goits ns lompired with Fheep
Pot Instance. Uho following plants
nio virulently deadly to sheep, und
every shepherd should know them so
that they miy be eradicate 1 and
avoided Hut thej ore comparatively
hnrmlcss to goals, nnd, this Is all tho
moro convenient ns tho goat will ul
wuys bo more frequently fed on rough,
brush j land on which theso common
weeds nro mostly found, Theso plants
nro lho common cow bono, tho water
hemlock, the wild parsnip, the poison
hemlock, fool's parBley, tho hemlock
parsley, the berries of tho mountain
ash, oak twigs (which, fatal tn deer,
theep and inws, are harmless to goats),
.and gouts lnvo even been known to
eit tho leaves of the meadow saffron
(the poisonous colchlcum) with Im
punity! at the samo tlmo tho mtlk of
the goats, which has not hurt lho kids,
has nevertheless been seriously
poisonous to pi rsons who havo used
the milk. Ibis Immunity seems to
havo become by use, If It la not an
original poiisesslon of tho anlmil, a
sieclal privilege of this specially
browsing animal.
The cases of dystnlcla (diflleult birth)
In the goat are less fiequent than In
nnv other domestlo animal, wbllo the
twin births aio moro common It may
o that the births nny be moro pro
longed than In the sheep or tho cow,
but In the end tho operation la not
so distressing to the dam. On the
whole the goit Is fin bitter able to
take caio of Itself than nny olhcr of tho
domestlo anlmrla under Blmllnr condl
lions
Hut, neveithcless goats may some,
times gl Into trouble In this wa), ts
petlally th" males, nnd the females
In whom the milk la not dormant
but In such cases It la an easy matter
tn lelleve them bj a dosn ot castor oil,
one tablespoonful Is giitllrlent, nnd ex
emption from food until tho oil has
operfttedAnierjcajj Bh&areeui;
ADVANTAGES OF IM
RANGE CONTROL MM
wl ,( 4T1IH
tC P. W'antland before Catllo-Orowcrs'
Association, Dtnverl
One of the best arguments in favor
of rango rontrol was made by the
Secretary of Agilculturo tn hla report
for 18i, In which he said
I have looked ciircfullv Into tho renill
ttnns of tlm ranges In mom of the Slates
west of the MlnMiurl rlvir Ihe Depart
mrnt of Agriculture Ins been t otultlcllng
experiments In most of these Slutis Willi
native slid Imported glasses, thrnilcli the
experiment stations, pllvuto Individuals
an 1 sometimes under the illreit nunai.i
ment of Its own officers Injudicious
fTnzIng has greatly Impaired tlm tapac
tv of Uie ranges to prodiuo incuts l are
fill Inqulrj shows that In miny eases the
ranges do not support more than half
lho meat bearing animals liny dl t ten
jearn ago Thi-so ranges have I eon ovei
stockisl 'lho grasiirs Ao been itllen
biro and pulled out hj the roots Where
formerly nutritious grass supported a
laign numlier uf unhnals, tin re Is now
left nothing but a desert of drirtlng sand
lho principal ronton for this londltlon
of ihe ranges Is undoubtedly thnt 110 etn
Blo individual has nn Interest In any urn
part of tho public domain The object of
the flock msstir Is 10 secure nil the grass
possible, Irrespective of lho effect It nny
havo on tho future condition of the pas
ture Ihnusinds of sheep that e intiot
llnd grazing nn tho plains urn being la
ken Into ihe Innermost recesses of the
moiinluln sjstems
It would setm wise to lnauctlinto a
more sensible 1 ollcy reKiirdlng these puo
Ho crazing lands The slioul 1 bn rented
to individuals In suflldeutlv lirge arias
and for a sufficiently long tlmo to Induce
the lejsrea to ulvo attention to their Im
provement Tho title should rimnlu In
lho United States so that lho homestead
er mlaht have nn 01 nortunlls under such
conditions ns vvoiihl not Intcrfero wllh
tho renting to muko seltlenunu when-
.irr nrnrllc ihtp
In ndvocntlng lind leasing beforo the
Fort Worth convention In 1900, 1
quoted this nnd nsked "Will this
convention call lho Secietary ot Agri
culture either a Hat or a. fool?" I re
pest the question now.
The Tort Worth convention adopted
the following,
Resolved, That such of Ihe publlo Ian ls
of the United Slates ns nro udiuted for
grazing should bo subject to lenso by
stockmen, who nre rlllrens, nt 11 reasona
blo rental, und undir such conditions ns
villi tend lo preserve Ihe prnsses from
destruction, and Improve (ho valuo uf
tho grusbes thereon
Von all remember tho opposition
which followed tho notion of tho Poit
Worth convention. It drew tho lire,
as somo of un hoped It would. It
brought to light tho fncts concerning
the wholo situation. It scared politi
cians Into declnilng they vvcia all un
alterably opposed to any pt ins for leas
ing tho publlo domain, nnd tho Clov
ernors of the Western Stntes In con
vention nt Silt Lake wero bulldoze 1
Into declaring that tho existing publlo
land laws wero all right. Hut a grc it
change of sentiment la now noticed
Only two years havo passed nnd
hundreds of lho very men who opposed
nil plans of control nro now oulspoken
In favor of Inimediatn notion.
Ihe Secietary of grlculture, In bis
reci nt lepoit, renews his recommenda
tions for lease control Tho object les
sons provided by forest reservo rcgu
litlnns nro hiving nn erfect
Tho president of tho Colorado t'ottlo
Glowers' association sild In his addiess
jesterdij:
"iour executive board has been at work
trying to device some pliu by which Ihe
vexed question of land leasing miy for
ever bo put to rest 1 am pleased lo no
tice that much of tho Intense, hitler feel
Ing nn this qumtlnn has subaldnl and
leaser and antl leader aro now discussing
the question In a splitt nt falrmsH untl
with nn honest Intention to solvo tho
question If possible for lho best Interests
of the entire Industrj.
I nssert without fear of successful
contradiction thit more than 75 per
cent of tho stockmen of lho West to
day aio In favor of a radical rhungo
In tho situation, and will fnvoi any
plan they believe to bo fair. They
know the tangos nro being dim iged,
und under present conditions cannot
bo Unproved. They also know that tho
people of the enllro country nro waking
up to the Importance of the wholo pub
lic land question, und unless tho ranges
aro put under control quickly by ni
tlon of stockmen themselves. It will
bo done hy other Interests, possibly on
a basis not so satisfactory to lho
stock owners.
Aro object lessons and Illustrations
needed In favor of tho advantages of
rango control?
In October. 1900 a bulletin wns pub
Halted by the National Llvc-Stnik
assoclitlon, giving tho Australian land
laws, under which tho niugn problems
in that country had been satisfactorily
solved many years ago
Texas has bad leao laws for many
years and tho Tnxns stockmen 11 ml
tax pa j era who object to them ato few
and far between.
Texas baa under leiso nbout llOOOOOO
acres and received about $500,000 pei
yeni In rentals from Ihls sourco. Sho
boasts of a magnificent school fund,
the great fcaturo of which Is the
revenue from her ginzlng lands, us
one-half of nil the hiazlug lands of tho
State wero set npart by constitutional
provision foi school purposes
Many of the conditions found In
Texas nre similar to the conditions In
some of our publlo land States
In districts whero fanning Is leaslble
lenses nic mndo subjeit tn homesteid
entry, and tho homesteader has tho
right to run within tho leased pastilles
a proporllonnto number ot cattle
Driveways aro provided, and most of
the objections usually brought agulnst
nil lease plans heie have been suc
cessfully met In that State,
In Wjomlng the uniiunl levcnuo for
leases of landa owned hy the Stnto Is
on a bisls of nenrly J150 000 per jear,
nnd the applications uro on hnnd for
many millions of acres which cinnnt
be supplied Small owners nro moro
anxious to secure lenses than largo
ones.
In Colorado moro than a million
acres of Stnto lands 1110 undei lease,
producing un annual levcnuo of ubout
1100 000, about 2(100 000 moro nie owned
but are not leased nt nil
Do lho lessees of state land think It
Is of no advantage lo control these
lando? If so, why do thej not drop
them?
In Colorado, Wyoming u.nd, pjjjer
public land Stntes, the best use cannot iltKM iVllliH
be made nt school lands, because they ,y "iy-a ItftliH
are disconnected MiVi; vw!B((((((((((((((1
If the publlo Onvernment lands wero tWvJ'Jl'h ElasH
under control, more school lands could nkfi " 1 llfjH
he leased und greater revenue would ufe-VVy 't nlasH
be sciured for lho support of educn- flRfSy lUltH
(lonal Institutions A light against Vifuq ' UH
control of publlo lands Is therefnro a 'iifiibt I U(S(((((((H
flrht ngnlnit Ihe schools ot tho State, SWelff ! leiH
nnd stockmen will do well tn remember ari(iri ! uiH
thnt taxpnjrrs generally nro beginning "t,iT''c' Hlttttttttttttl
to tumble to this situation. "it'll'!: I K (((ttttH
Hundreds or stockmen nlnng the Una ttlifiS ') , irlH
of the Nntthern l'nelllo and Union l'n- 'WS' Ids J Jfll
clHc rnllrnids, who far jears opposed 'I4UiVj! Ml
all leasing plans, havo tried and now iHjjBtt 1 '-(j'H
favor leaso control j29l'r UUfLH
During the past few months in Car- JMhfXMJ 9
hnn nnd Sweetwnter counties, Wyo , as IMIifC lo uflB
soclnllans havo been formed unions ff'SS JF' il-S HB (ffl
sheepmen who hnvo leased from tho -Wliai J I $ Bl (ffftl
I'nlon I'm I tic about 1000 000 acres of eMlft lilll
desert lands winter range tho hardest K$w) J Bl
class of I ind to lunillo beciuso thero Is avKt(ifp L ra &S
practically no water nvallahla and the VtVM iLl !BfH
sheep havo to depend upon enow. sr1ie 1 IHIh
They lnvo orguulzed thoroughly jX BCi, Ulij .BMH
among (hemsclvcs, Issued licenses to i'JemiM nH
their herders, emplojcd rango riders IsSlBSl'' i 'IN (ffftl
nnd handle tho business on a business ivtwr' I MtH
basis 'lho expense Is slight nnd they Swrihi IieHh
havo something they can depend upon, IkpjVltVt ' ' (laH
the grnssos inn he saved because they isWcMl ' il(((((((l
can limit the number of stuck to tho jKnB ! J((((((B
capiclty of tho land. HH ' JH
This action w 19 forced upon them IMSlS ! ,.jHHI
hy tho condlllons which hnd been 1KB I 3 1HH
gradually growing worse nnd the dan- 'JHSn I I $ (iHfl
gers ft tun loss which wero constantly Sln lf ill
Increaslm-. lfMlPll r 4 : ilBfH
I lnvo tho stockmen of uny other (mi V HS!
State or dlstilct nny right lo protest '9HI(u ' IIBsi
against the W joining men taking steps iSHB 1 f lIHsi
to prntict themsilves? 'BBB fltP (sH!
Thousands of Individuals nil over 'SRffi ' hH
the West will testify that pastures un- BjjsMMr ' M RHh
der control will support a gi eater num- liBV i II11S MBA
ber of cattle 01 sheep than publlo an I HI It IgnBBJ
uncontrolled lunges nnd greater actual 1SsV 1 IraHBBa
profits enn ho ptoved In handling Btock "Wfw TCuHfl
In Buch cases. jX f j BSluBBl
'& m t mSHI
The dimcuKy In tho vvny of leaso iflB Br lUlBfl
plans his been so great that many .B 13; coBttBl
small ovvneiB nnd Homo largo owners (HI S)'" MUjBBl
have been ufrald tn ndvocato any XS 14 fjiiBBl
chance. The difficulties uro great and iBfi TR lHH
are (.rowing gieuler becnuso uf tho .SB aTHIIBBl
abuse uf the public lnnd laws, tho iJB FF liflrVj
murders nnd conflicts on the ranges. Jam W "1 JflSifl
and (ho failure or slnckmen tn get to- iQx i rlwHI
ge(her and settle their troubles upon W ' ' 'wHl
some basis fair tu both largo and ,J3l '-"1 ' 'JllBa
small stockmen General Timidity wl T rlBBl
never won 11 battle. Thi re la intelll- isB '"' 'tUl
gencc enough In tho West tn meet this 3W ,V 'HI
Issue to tho ndvantugo ot all con- JsBiV ' hDBj
cerned -lB3P 1 'UBj
Tho small stock owner with 1C0 acres wi 1 5)1 tlBBj
has no certalntj of keeping his share iWmksVj 1 JiVBl
of the griss outside of his claim. Some- MHFSwt 1 llBBj
body whose home Is many miles away 1?BfiBri'E. J 44BBI
has nn equal right to It ''CMlTF wBBl
Uncle bam ought to Hnd out some- 'Wri I (BBl
thing definite about the differences In HKi(iLt .LaWJ
conditions In the different States nnd 'Be :mM,i !(
the pirhllc lands ought to be classl- a!I nVVi JJ H
fled. W'l 1 re stockmen need protection IflW Ih, 1 1? HI
from Intolerable conditions, und ask IHflK in J 1-3
for It, they ought to ba allowed to (nBPi ti 'V'imW
have the relief needed. aUP t A i
To Insist further upon putting a llflrT .ife.'lc f RBJ
square plug In a round liolo nnd a . riS! ?''. ,t; 4:
round plug In ii tquaie liolo is not ,Mlt iW'llmm
proHtable. "SH '11
. i1?! fliif, 41HB
At a recent meeting of the Western Hbt? it r:X .ImMM
Nebraska Stock-tlrowers' . association hull' ft MiJBbBI
at All! euro Ihe following whs adopted: 'slf lB 'mBBB
It. snivel, -mat It Is the sense ot this Eii? tie Jl&liiHHl
mettlng that In view of ihe prohills re- D-.j(y 'OltffHBBl
mnval of fences nn novernment domain. tq3, i.ri'HrTOlHlBl
wo uro In favor of (he lenelng ot lho li f W IhSBJ
public linds In such manner nnd under Br.T "A il- vtlrltBi
suth restrictions us will protect tho small 'flits ', ,, TlljRIBl
stock growers ua well as the larger tipvjf ) 'i&SJBfl
owner. ini , 'ffMimm
If tho Western Nebraska people, 'J1 SlwiBl
whose conditions aro different f-om . M a, rvl'illfflfflBBI
the conditions In other States, can i:.'fiJJp tPtCHII
agree upon a fair plan for range con- -ft i J, ' I'SilM
trol In their State to protect their Ti.'V 1' It 'wJffBl
Interests from destruction why not K iMwHl
allow them to have It7 Why should fl , i:jt mIkBJ
tho stockmen of Colorado, Wyoming 'j if Mil i BUM
or Idaho play dog In the manger and icTMS ffivi ffiKLI
ii Tw, HUH
Among tho hardest points to bo t,. S i.'" IMU
overromo In tho whole mlxiin ls the if, 5 irHMfaBj
argument of tho small stock owner, 'Vim ti Bm9
that ho vvuntR the open range because o,a v 'isU IWKS
he wants tn expand and to also becomo $ -fJ. jJEnflBJ
a big stock ownei, fin 3 "fli WjUHH
Wo answer that piesent condlllons inf I: f t'iwa$M
with riingn conllkts and the abuse ot JM n , fl'BitCSS
the land liws nro uipldly putting tho R h r ,' llxiW
open rnngo lu such shapo I hut ho ls Iyt i. I'VriaHHI
not snfo lu counting upon tha ad- &,t,KVam
vantago ho appears to possess, und ftV,..k ' sW'.WWm
that controlled langes will enablo him 'Mft MvBM
tn support morn stock that ho can un- Sm's 'i'l Xtlffil
der other conditions He must also VUirAf, rUimmt
keep In mind tho great and controlling; Ejp S t "Vlt iSltatM
fact that Unclo Sim means to dispose eSjjf , ii-J'iKlH
ot tho publlo lands for tho greatest 'te-ffcrnf ' .H'bJBB
benellt of all the people: thnt In tlm 1WSSlio1fl('filfH
prnlrlo Btntes, whlth wero built up hy S ' $),wKWWtm
the homestead law, and In the farm- 'YBh L'ffinK'ffijH
Ing districts, within Indlun reserva- ti LS JiK MijHlTMl
tlnns, which nro being thrown open f fptflcntCljliilMl
graduillj a lGO-ncrc truct la tho limit ifl ffjrU'.?, afcH
for nnj ono Individual Wi'M','i'iMirU
Whyf Ilnnuse (hut Is supposed to AL awSffllipTotBI
be enough to enable him to maku a J If 22Sh11B1
living for himself nnd family It would rvt fV EBP. IKcBl
bo Just us icasonnhle In such a state -Jriif iJeBS ffffl
to expect un uddlllonal tract to b !sMl' fl.Il"! I'kUMl
withheld from some other honest set- B-j9 J&oJ ,IHB
tier to enablo settler number 1 to use (Mil' K&n! Dftlifl
It later oil. to cnvblo hint tu expind, ifill ffltiui nflTnnBI
as It Is now to expect to have with- 'ill YT"F lilinH
held from use uf someone else lnnd In ct(3 VW& Ulicfl
the grazing districts In ordci tn allow villi VRmI E.r9
rancher number 1 to expand his op- 11TI4I iklEH4KcNkl
orations from the conditions necessary i'ttSlf PpiMfJSwB
tn mnko a living foi himself and fain. ,!k,, jM IBH
Uy to tho condition of a big stockman 5 J; ft TlfilMfiilOBl
with wealth uud stiengtll enougli td ""Vv iraWKflB
enable him to crowd samo other foor 9fcju ILllslyBl
fellow who wants a chahca to get a (f'iRiS 'ItlsVilBl
small homo free. I'lMrfi Osf iKmV
Tho livestock owners of tho West y$ufi 'vNnUI
now have a friend In Washington. That 'ii&'li iTrffffWI
f 1 lend knows the Wost nnd knovvsiths lTffia'lfiSlWl
dllllculllcs and tlska eiicountcted by mttKiJx&Mlm
tho men who inlso tuttlo nnd sheep IBjXariBvrnl 1
and ho Is willing tn do all In his power MBXVinHlB
to assist In putting tho livestock In- IHlICnillll
dustry uf tho West on a sura and safe Mil MOT rl
batds HSaswttBilPHifl a
1 1 Western stockmen do not now hav e 1 IHHIslf sr.-.
plain ordinary horFcsense enough to. UtmwmSinim
get together and push to success tho' IUeUUEK9R
proper ineuaurc; tQ eecuro ttjo rallej;' MHfMKlB

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