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Deseret farmer. [volume] (Provo, Utah) 1904-1912, November 28, 1908, Image 5

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1 Saturday, November a8, 1908. THE DESERET FARMER , 5 f m
m . 1 1
I 1 SUGfR BEETS
I PROBLEMS OF BEET CULTURE
IT DISEASES AND PESTS.
Bf
Kj By Jesse H. Buffum.
m
M Tlic sugar beet, like most every
m other product of the soil, has its
B enemies, and while the root has made
I wonderful progress along lines of in-
H trenchment and is fast becoming one
If of the leading products of agriculture
1 in America, with this development
J have come the ravages of pests and
H the inroads of disease. While this is
H a result both natural and to be ex-
n peeled, it must be admitted for the
I encouragement of those concerned in
this industry that the sugar beet has
I fewer enemies than the majority of
I crops, and we may be complacent in
I' the knowledge that disease and infec-
1 tion have gained but little ground in
the beet fields of the United! States.
This is due partly to the fact that we
4 arc so young as yet, but more pcr-
t haps may it be accounted for in the
fact that wholesomcness has charact-
1 k crized the inception of the sugar beet
industry in almost every locality. We
' ne cautious about our seed, we are
painstaking in the application of ' fer
tilizers in which, unlike most crop
producers, the common barnyard ma-
I nure, a marvelous vehicle of insects'
I eggs and bacteria, is eschewed so far
fl as possible in practical culture.
R But because the beet farmer has ex-
I perienced little annoyance from at-
M tacks of pests and blights, he should
ft not for one moment rest in contcnt-
II ment, Relieving himself immune from
El disturbances of this nature. Beet dis-
H eases and pests are bound to spread
with the general expansion of the in-
dustry, and within a very few years
W the grower will find himself grappling
If with new problems in the shape of
B natural and physical enemies of his
If crop. Practical demonstrations have
proven that methods of culture, care
I of the crop and manipulation of the
j soil may have much to do with main
H taining a general condition unfavor
H able to the propagation of injurious
M bnctcria and devastating insects, and
fl wholly discouraging to the inroad and
spread of diseases. In this matter as
in many others that we have spoken
vf, the grower should assume an at-.
I titude of constant study, Aiifcli will
capably fit him for intelligently deal
ing with these problems when they
are finally presented in his own field,
ns is sooner or later pretty sure to be
the case. In the case of some known
diseases, curly top among them, ex
act remedies have not been discover
ed, but notwithstanding this, a knowl
edge on the grower's part of the hab
its of these affections will -materially
assist in whatever efforts to stamp
out the trouble may be necessary later
on. To this end a consideration of
those diseases and peste that have al
ready become known will be profit
able to every grower, while the time
liness of the discussion must not be
overlooked, as fall, practices have
much to do with the question in hand.
First we will consider sdmc of the
hrsscr pests and then take up that
most virulent of all beet enemies, cur
ly top.
Grasshoppers may be said to be a
prevalent enemy, though perhaps lim
ited as to sections attacked. In cases
they arc found in the fields in suf
ficient numbers to damage the crop,
and when found, steps should imanc
diately be taken to get rid of them.
There are two popular formulas for
the destruction of these insects. For
mula, jt
100 pounds of bran. jM
6 pounds of Paris green. -
6 pounds common salt.
4 pounds sugar mplasscs.
Dissolve the molasses with salt ad
ded in water, and with this liquid
jnpi'stch the bran. The Paris green
should be mixed in separate vessel
until it becomes a smooth paste; thin
it with water, pouring this paste over
the mash, mixing thoroughly. This
should be used in the early morning
on ditch banks along the edges of
fields, sprinkling on vegetation and
on the ground. Care must be taken
not to give live stock and poultry
access to this mixture, as the results
might prove more interesting than
helpful. Grasshoppers are not gen
erally a distressing menace, but must
be provided for in case they begin
their ravages.
Continuing our study of insect
pusls, we find what is known as the
"beet fly" (Runkclfiicge), which for
years has been considered the d'cadli
t group of insect enemies of. the
beet. The maggots of these flics fin-'
dcrminc the beet leaves. They pro-,
pagatc very rapidly, frequently the
second generation getting in its ne
farious work in the same season as
its parents. It is noted in those areas
attacked that the middle of July, at
least in foreign countries, finds a sud
den cessation of their work. Profes
sor Boekcr of Germany has experi
mented extensively with these pests,
and has improved recently upon the
old method of fighting them. Form
erly the only cure known was to strip
off the infected leaves, in this way
dealing with the maggots after incu
bation from the eggs. The Profes
sor's new way is to set along the rows
f beets slender strips of wood on
which are tacked pieces of. fly paper
(lc manufactured a special variety td
facilitate the work, usfng stiff drawing
paper covered with bird glue), and
on these strips the flics themselves
were caught, before their eggs had
been layed.- The experiment was very
successful, 630 of the flics being
caught in three days. The setting out
of the strips of fly paper must begin
with the first appearance of the leaves
above ground. The strips may be so
set ns not to interfere with the opera
tions of caring for the beets; and they
should face toward the northeast that
the sun may not dry them too rapidly.
It must be added that frequent and
thorough hoeing of the soil is one of
the best methods of cure, or rather
prevention, as it destroys the chry
sales lying dormant in the ground be
fore hatching.
Cut worms have sometimes attack
ed the beets, as was the case in a
Michigan instance, where worms of
a smoky color and very large put in
an appearance. The species at the
time was not determined; but very
successful efforts were made toward
their destruction. Poisoned baits
were made use of, trail being mixed
with Paris green at the rate of two
pounds of poison to one hundred of
bran and moistened with cheap mo
lasses and water. This was distribut
ed about the edges of the afflicted
patches. An effect was produced
within twenty-four hours, and later
it developed that the places treated
with the bait escaped with practically
no injury. Salt, if applied in doses of
from 150 to 200 pounds per acre, will
sometimes kill the young worms in
their wanderings juid deter the older
ones. The farmer wnntt to kndw,
however, KtfXSt ' 6flfcTt VcSnStaut sow:
ings of salt is going to have on his H
soil before he engages in this practice M
very extensively. M
There is a worm that has suddenly M
become abundant in certain Colorado fl
beet fields, known as the Beet Web- fl
Worm, which is freely attacking both fl
beets and alfalfa. Pr6f. Gillette, who H
made a thorough investigation of the !
scourge, reports that hi every case M
found, the worm was hutched ill the H
J .... -
alfalfa fields and migrated over into fl
the beet fields. It is supposed that M
this worm appears every year -to a H
minor degree in some of the Colorado H
beet fields. In one instance a fm- fl
acre tract was completely stripped of H
all its leaves. In consequence of this, H
Prof. Gillette strongly advises a care- H
h watch of all beet fields adjoining fl
alfalfa. At the first symptom of the H
worms crossing into the beets, spray fl
or dust immediately a" preparation of H
arsenate of lead, or Paris green, along fl
the margin between the fields, and fl
also it might be well to treat a narrow jfl
strip of the alfalfa nearest the tccts. fl
If dusting is resorted to, use Paris fl
green, sifted through a cheesecloth, H
or spray one pound of the lead to H
every ten gallons of water. In case lH
a Paris green spray is made use of, yH
mix one poundLof the powder to every H
fifty gallons of water. Again con- H
slant and thorough cultivation of the H
soil plays an important part, and will H
be a successful means of destroying H
the worms. These worms come from H
eggs deposited in the alfalfa fields by . H
the little gray moths so frequently 'H
seen on lawns and about the blossoms fl
of '.nit trees. H
The "Nematode" has attracted oitr H
attention in this country just a bit, H
and has donct business ' in scvcr.il H
places, and Utah and California are M
among these. This serious trouble fl
seems to have come to us from Gcr- M
ninny, where its ravages have -been K
disastrous, but tjic worm has , not Kk
gained in this country very fast. -It is H
supposed that jt came across the wa H
cr in some shipments of seed,- Tue H
government learned of its presence H
here and since then has been doing H
all in its power to stamp it out. The B
theory has been advanced that a suf- B
ficiency of lime on the soil will prove H
nn admirable preventive. H
(Continued on page ?J- M

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