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J TMJE DJtlJCRtT JF A EM Eft SATURDAY, APftiL 17, 1909.
I "LION BRAND" I Straying Materials m For 20 years we have been manu- B facturing spraying materials our H reputation and experience insures H you the lowest prices consistent, with I Standard Uniform Quality H Why risk injuring your trees and I H plants with untried mixtures? AN H ways use I Lion Brand Arsenate of Ltad I Lion Brand P u re Par is G reen I Lion Brand Lime Sulphur Solution I Lion Brand Concentrated I Bordeaux Mixture H Our Lime Sulphur Solution for H San Jose Scale is all ready for use . no disagreeable boiling necessary H just mix with water. H DlMtrlbativg Agent H Smlt Lmke Hmrdnmre Co. H Vogeler Seed A Produce Co. H I Smlt Luke City, Vtmk m I Send at once favour Free Booklet 1 M I When, Why, How to Spray, I H 1 m4 Whmt to Sprmy With, I I Thi Ju. k. Blanehard Go. H 1 CrrIMf!t Building I B I New York City I B fk: H In correspondence and dealings, H kindly mention the "Dcscret Farmer" H to our advertisers. The Keystone I POTATO PLANTER Depth of planting and dropping distances accurately guaged. No waste of cither expensive seed or valuable ground; strong durable, simple; the ideal machine for prac tical potato planting. For Catalogue and Price, Address A.J.PLATT Sterling, Illinois, or M1LLER-CAH00N GO. I MURRAY, UTAH General Agents Utah and Idaho BIRDS AND EGGS FOR SALE. Brown Leghorns. Eggs for hatching from my best birds. Barred Plymouth Rocks and1 S. C. S. O. DAY. 725 Seventh Avenue. M At "the Center of Business1 M you find the best of everything. m Utah Implement - Vehicle Go- M 135-139 SOUTH STATE STREET I J. F. BURTON, Gen'L. Manager AGRONOMY i . Edited by Prof. J. C. Hogenson. A. C. U. SOIL FORMATION. Function. Soils arc the outer cov cring of the earth in which plants grow. They arc storehouse of moist ure and plant food and the medium in which plants place their roots so as to enable them to stand erect. Formation: Most soils arc com plex material consisting of a mix ture of ground, rock, decayed plants and the remains of Insects and ani mals. Sands arc almost entirely par ticles of rocks, while ipeat soil is almost entirely decayed plants. Geologists tell us that at first the surface has slowly been worked upon by a number of powerful agents until we have the soil formed as wc find it today. Among these agents wc may mention, (1) heat and cold, (2) water, frost, and ice, (3) vegetable life, (4) animal life, (5) air and wind. r Nearly all rocks arc made up of fragments or crystals of various stzts and shapes, these arc usually held together by some cementing material or else by direct cohesian when suffi cient pressure has been exerted. Rocks arc never so closely grained, however, but that water can and is absorbed. In granite perhaps three pounds of water for one hundred pounds of stone. Heat and cold al ways work together. Nearly alt bodies expand or ibecome larger on being heated and contractor become smaller upon cooling. Jlhcse early rocks in the earth's formation were hot and as thcoutsidc crust cooled it contracted. This broke many of therpeks up into pieces and here and there left cracks. In these cracks water collected and froze and as freezing the water into ice causes great expansion this still further broke up the rocks. The s ,1ir, pieces were again acted upon in thST same way and arc still being acted upon. This action is still made SjjP cr when the rocks are made up or different kinds of crystals which do not all expand at the same rate This unequal expansion and contraction tends to loosen fragments and thus break the. rock down ond thus form 4 soil. A change of temperature of 150 J degrees F. will cause a granite rock J one hundred feet in diameter to ex pand or contract one inch. Most people think of the soil mere ly as dirt, as something unclean and undesirable. They think of it as a fixed thing unchangeable. That' the soil they walk upon today is the same as it was two hundred years ago, they have not noticed the slow but certain changes that arc going on about them. The mountains wearing away, and enriching the valleys, the filling j of. the swamps, whole mountain chains 1 have disappeared. The Appalachian Mountains have already lost, ly weathering and erosion as much as 1 now remains. Running water is a powerful soil former and soil destroyer. Notice a m t stream after a rain storm, its waters arc muddy. Soil is being carried from higher to lower levels. If you will ' notice even a clear stream as it rip ples over the uneven bottoms, little sand grains and gravel arc tumbled m and rolled along the bottom, at each U bend of the strcami soil is ibeing tak- F ... from the concave side and carried m onward to "the sea-while on the op- W. positc side 'new soil jisgjijg formed jj from that dragged along thc bottom, jt It is in this way the broatrjiver val- W leys arc formed. Most of the sod It carried by the rivers is deposited at y their mouths forming the deltas. It 1 is estimated that the Missippi carries 1 each year to the ocean enough soil to cover , one square mile 268 feet f deep. v ' j Ice has been al great factor in soil formation. At one time most of the upper part'of North Amcricawas cov cred'lna vast sheet of ice. This was packcuf up in mountainlikc masses. .After a time some change in climate J Caused these mountains of ice to break i and begin to move south and west. M These great moving" masses carried W rocks and frozen capth along with W them and'1' ound them info powder. M exerting a pressure in some places ot jA two hundred thousand pounds per V square inch. "When the ice melted the ra great "mass of soil material hcy con- w taincd dropped. II v Ait, moisture n- l frost; conjointl; J BUCKLE A. SONS -'SSr'SS S?0"" P. O. BOX 682 -"r3E.cmr' I