Newspaper Page Text
Mourning Apparel P o. INDEPENDENCE w III 0 ' , tJ 11 HE IMMORTAL Instrument which waB Blgned by John Hancock on July 4, 1776, has meant more than the growth and development of an Independent nation on this Bide of the Atlantic. It was In Itself the re-enactment of the greatest bill of human rights ever penned, which received tho sljrnet of an unwilling king at Run- nymede, and the birth of constitutional liberty. In these days of peace and plenty the Fourth of July is given to "sa lutes of cannon and the ringing of lella and to the feu do Jole," with variations, as John Adams predicted that It would bo, yet the obHervance of the Fourth as an occasion for recalling memories past and giving thanks for the deeds of the patriot forefathers Is sporadic rather than general in the United States. The Declaration of Independence is not read fom the rostrum, as It once was In every commu nity and the orators to the links have gone. So much has beer, taken here as a matter of course that It seems hard to realize that this anniversary Is celebrated In the very Eng land from which liberty was wrested and that observances of It are officially ordered In many lands beyond the seas. The Fourth of July has become International In scope, for It has changed the governments of nations whose capitals are far from Independence hall. So widespread have Its effects become as studied In the light of the present day that In order to get the true value of all that the declaration signifies to the world In 1910 It Is necessary to go back to the very beginning of American liberty. Had not the ideas of government held by the colonists been essentially British there would probably never have been any Declara tion of Independence. It Is as natural for the Briton to demand his rights as It Is for him to live. The War of the Revolution was largely due to the fact that the two thousand miles of water between London and the colonies caused parliament to lose sight of the ties of consan guinity and of race. Although the original thirteen colonies were so essentially English In thought and feeling they had never actually been estab lished by England as a national enterprise. The only one which had ever received any official aid whatever was Georgia, and that was not sufficient to carry any such feeling of dependence as is essential for the preserva tion of intimate colonial relations. The right to colonize the North American continent had been granted by charters from a British king. According to the feudal system, which was 1 I II I II B Ihen rapidly becoming effaced, the king owned all the land and distributed It among various favored vassals. The sovereign in the same way regarded the new world as If It had been won by the word. The most extravagant Ideas prevailed with regard to the wealth of the American lands. It was at one time soberly believed In England that gold and silver and precious tones could be had for the taking and that the natives were the possessors of fabulous wealth. The king gave the charters in most eases with the Idea that he would profit great ly from mines which would yield enormous returns to the royal exchequer. When the colonists came here they found It necessary to make good their titles either by peaceful bargains with the Indians or by force of arms. From the very first the spirit of Independence was fostered, for fiefs which had to be maintained by constant vigilance and negotiations and by show of force did not carry with them a deep sense of obligation. Indeed, even at that early day, although for the throne the colonists entertained feelings of loyalty and devotion, a shrewd idea was abroad that the king did not really own the land which he had bestowed by his charter. The conquest of nature and of the savages be got a rugged Independence which as the years went by became more and more distasteful to the authorities In England. 1 Yet the Idea of separation from the crown was of slow growth. The forefathers main tained that they were British subjects, al though not living within the realm, as indeed was rpeclfled In some of the royal charters. The Massachusetts charter, for instance, sets forth that the colonists shall be considered "as if they and every one of them were born within the realm of England." As British sub ject, then, they maintained that they should ) entitled to representation, and therefore each colony had Its assembly, which deter mined upon all matters of the common weal anl established rates of taxation. It was one of the principles expressed In the Magna Char ta that the common council of the kingdom "whs o assess an aid or to assess a scutage." and again. In 1688, It was de clared by the British p e o pie, then well oo their way to cons tltu tlonal lib erty, that "no money was to be levied for the crown w i thout grant of The Declaration of Rights was a forerun ner of the Declaration of Independence. There Is nothing more essentially British than the dictum that there shall b'e no taxation without representation. Of the early American states men only Franklin and Otis wished to have representation In the British parliament. The others considered that their own assemblies should be the legislative bodies entirely and that If any taxes were to be Imposed they should be collected only with the consent of the colonial assemblies. The question of taxation, however, did not enter Into any controversies, for It was not until the middle of the eighteenth century that Great Britain, exhausted by many wars and seeking to replenish the national treasury, sought extraordinary means for raising reve nue and her ministers proposed that the col onies, which had been growing In wealth and Importance, should bo made to contribute to the impoverished exchequer. The French and Indian war had shown the power of the col onies and their force and had given a very definite idea of their growing wealth and im portance. Having reached the decision to tax the col onies, the ministry did not spend any time In preliminaries. It was decided that parliament had the right to levy the taxes and the fact that the colonies had no representation in that body was not taken into account. Such a mat ter would ordinarily have been considered a subject for delicate negotiation, but, the deci sion to tax having once been made, no time wasi lost in levying it. England had in effect been a constitutional monarchy since the signing of the Magna Churta in 1215 and In taxing the colonies not represented In the common council of the kingdom Bhe had violated one of the oldest of the rights which every Briton claims. Such was the situation in 1764, when the struggle began which 12 years later brought forth the Declaration of Independence, and the next year brought into being the first congresH of the American colonies, which decided that the assembly had the power to fix taxes. The stump act was tho first heavy Impost levied by the mother country, which provided for the stamping of various legal instruments and pa pers and contract of all kinds, as well as dice and playing cards. The news of the passage of this act roused the colonl3ts to fury. A gallows was erected in what Is now City Hall park. New York, and the British governor was hanged In effigy, and the house of Major Jones, In command of the British regiment, was sacked. Then came the rising of the "Sons of Liberty" and the raising of the liberty poles. Boston and Philadelphia were vortices of the storm. So emphatic was the protest that much of the act was repealed and duties were established on tea, which ac counted for tho sudden rain of tea In Boston harbor. Then came the burning words of Pat rick Henry, 'Tllve me liberty or give me death!" before the Virginia in 1773. The year later brought the promulgation of the "Dec laration of Rights and Privileges," In which It was declared that every man had "the right to" life, liberty and property and that most ancient right granted at Runnymede, trial by his "peers of the vicinage." Throughout all this time of storm and strain the protests were made as British sub jects, and that congress which met in Carpen ter's hall in 1774 was still loyal to the crown. It petitioned the king, remonstrated with par liament and appealed to their brethren In Eng land. Then came Lexington and Concord. The congress of 1775 made provisions for an army, with Washington as commander, and still pe titioned. Its petition was refused and mer cenaries were hired from petty German princes to quoting the words of Losslng "butcher British subject! for asserting the rights of British subjects." Richard Henry Lee of Virginia offered the independence resolution in June, 177C, and a committee was appointed to draft the declara tion, consisting of Thomas Jefferson, John Ad ams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert Livingston. Jefferson wrote the docu ment and alterations were made principally at the suggestion of Franklin and Adams. The paper was submitted to congress on June 28. It was laid on the table until July 1, when nine colonies voted In favor of It. The Independence resolution was actually adopted on July 2 and promulgated to the world on July 4, when John Hancock of Massa chusetts affixed to It his bold signature. The other members of the congress did not sign It until August 2, and the Impressive scene connected with the signing was not wit nessed until nearly a month later, although It is popularly associated with the Fourth of July. ' Centuries of the progress of the rights of man bear witness in the DiKlaratlon. That "all men are created equal and are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pur suit of happiness," was not new, for it was recognized at Binal. That governments derive their Just powers from the consent of tho gov erned had been stated and restated In many ways slnco tho beginning of the colonle Thomas Jefferson was criticized at the tlm for lack of originality in the declaration. Th document gained all the greater force from 1U statement of self-evident truths. Never was there a more masterly presentation oX a bill of grievances than is contained in the Declaration, which "submits the facts to a candid world." Arraigning the British king for acts of tyr anny, It sets forth that he refused "his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary tor the public good," meaning that George III. had prevented the issue of colonial currency and had refused representation to his American sub- it wa tlesired on tho part of the New York assembly to enter into a treaty with the Six Nations, but the governor prevented the nego tiation of the treaty until he could obtain the consent of the king. He did not proceed further because he feared that such an act would lead to Independence. Henc the expression, "He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and press ing importance." Grievances of the Massachusetts colony, which was deprived of representation and suf fered interference In popular elections because cf its wish to trade with Nova Scotia, suggest ed the paragraph: "He has refused to pass other lawB for the accommodation of large districts of people un less those people should relinquish the right of representation In the legislature, a right 'ines timable to them and formidable to tyrants only." To further humble the Massachusetts colony and to punish the participants In the tea party of 1773 the assembly was called in Salem, and not in Boston. Hence the words of the docu ment, "He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable and distant from the depository of their public records." Massachusetts colony and others had adopt ed resolutions in their assemblies that there should be no taxation without the consent ol the governed. The Massachusetts assembly was asked to rescind Its resolution in 1768 and on Its refusal to do so was dissolved. The as semblies of Virginia and North Carolina met the same fate. This state of affairs is summed up In the Declaration In the words, "He has dis solved representative houses repeatedly for op posing with much firmness his Invasion on the rights of the people." The Declaration protests against the Judges being dependent on the will of the king for their salaries, and, indeed, in some of the col onies many of the judges had been Impeached for declaring that they would receive their sal aries from the royal treasury. Graphically the authors of the document tell, how the erection of a multitude of new offices had Impoverished the country, referring to the collectors appointed to carry out the provisions of the stamp act. The quartering of troops In times of peace was a substantial grievance com plained of, for the king Insisted on retaining British regiments here after the French and Indian war at the expense of the colonists, os tensibly for defense but In reality to suppress a growing democracy. The words, "He has affected to render the military independent of and suporior to the ciTil power," refer to the position taken by General Gage, who, with several regiments of British troops, was in Boston. By order of the king he had been made superior to the civil govern ment. Here and there through the colonies Ameri cans had been killed In altercations with Brit ish soldiers, who were subsequently put on trial and acquitted. The Declaration accuses the king of quartering largo bodies of armed troops and of "protecting them by mock trial from punishment for any murders which they may commit." Such were the principles enunciated in the Declaration, and how well they were sustained by the arbitrament of war the world knows. The nation began celebrating the glorious Fourth from the very beginning. Salutes of 18 cannon were fired by the army In 1777, and ths new republic was pledged in wine. West Point saw a significant ce'ebratlon in 1779, when General Washington issued a par don for all prisoners In the army under sen tence of death. The last celebration of the army of trie Revolution as such took place OR both Bhores of the Hudson river and a grand salute was fired. More of the nature of a festival dominated the Fourth after 178.1, for then came parades, free dinners, toasts, the reading of the Doclars Hon In public by citizens and more and more the participation of the younger generation. Dignity add solemnity marked these early cele brations and eloquent speeches were made. The Fourth Is a statutory holiday in every state and Its fame has gone beyond the seas. HE death of England's king throws nearly all the courts of Europe into mourning and in consequence tho subjects of mourning apparel and mourning etiquette are up for con sideration more generally than for many years. Customs change slowly, especially those which rule in matters of greatest moment. Rules of eti quette governing in the events of death, marriage, births and social functions of high importance have all been carefully thought out and are the crystallzed expressions of con sideration for others. They are form ulated from the conduct of those whose good taste and keen Intuitions put them In position to set examples. Much latitude in allowed Individual taste In the matter of mourning ap parel. Some people decry any special drees for those in mourning, on the ground that we should not divide our sorrows with others. But the great majority feel that tho assumption of mourning attire is Imperative as a sign of respect to the dead or to his family ns well as an outward token of a sense of loss. To Ignore a death seems to cast a slight upon the worth of the departed soul; therefore, an in creasing number of persons In the best social circles assume what Is called "complimentary mourning." This Is either a badge of mourning of some sort, or tho wearing of black for a short term. This la a different mat ter from the mourning apparel as sumed by members of a family. Com plimentary mourning does not Involve me restrictions which that of rela tives assumes. Certain fabrics are chosen for those in mourning. These are crape, silk genadlne. nuns-veiling. bombazine, net, uncut velvet, crepe-de- enme, mourning silks, felt, voile and other fabrics of a Jet black hue and soft luster or dull finish. Crape is recognized ns the correct fabric for first mourning everywhere, and Is in fact the insignia of mourning. Crape Is used as a finish, or decoration, on other fabrics, and sometimes entire garments are made of It. It Is a beau tiful fabric mode of silk and having FOR YOUNG LADY. Ranch Life in New Mexico Whtre Game Is Plentiful Modtrn Farmhouse With Every Good Thing to Eat. "Around my ranch in the rough foothills of the Guadeloupe mountains in New Mexico there Is still a lot of tig game," said H. D. Freeman of Carlsbad, N. M. "Just before leaving borne this never yet have I been able to bring spring I killed one of the biggest antelope I ever saw. Besides ante lope there are black-tailed deer in abundance and a few, very few, moun tain sheep. The sheep are now pro tected by law, and there Is a heavy penalty for killing them. They are the wariest, shyest game of all, and one down. I have seen old nunters out west who admit that they have never been adroit enough to kill a mountain sheep. "They range In the remotest and most Inaccessible reglourf, and It takes pluck and endurance to search for them amid their rocky haunts away up on the mountain sides. They are about the same color as the rocks and the hunter who has not provided himself with a field glass has small chance of ever seeing one. Thefr flesh, which I have occasionally eaten, is the most palatable of all wild meat. Juicy and of exceptional flavor. "Quail are so numerous in my lo cality that It Is not often I think of shooting them, and they are nearly as tame rs city sparrows. If I merely started out to slaughter I could easily kUl 100 In a few hours. "Although I live sixty miles from a railroad, my wife and I never get lonesome. Neighbors are few, but we enjoy going about the ranch on horse back and life in the open alrmakes rou sleep touudlr and tJbs rMlof 4t velope a hearty appetite. Occasionally friends come to stay with us for a week who are amazed that they can find in such an out of the way spot as delicious vegetables and fruits as ever they got at home. I grow grapes,' apricots, peaches, strawberries, cheri rles, apples and every good eatable you can think of In a garden which' never falls me because It Is under Ir rigation. TJiere Is hot and cold water, In every room of my houee, and It U the only domicile that has a bataroonV within a radius vf 104 miles." This is a very smart frock suitable to be made In cashmere, silk and wool crepon, or any fine woolen. The corselet bodice and side of skirt are cut in one to below hips; the front Is a panel to foot; the lower part of side and back of skirt is plait ed; braiding forms the trimming on skirt and front of bodice, a simple border being worked at edge of the shoulder straps. The under slip Is of piece lace. diagonal rib or crinkle across the sur face. It Is made In both dull and silky luster; the dull finish is consid ered the more elegant Recently it is much used In dress accessories, such as collars, cuffs and bands, and in stoles and muffs, for those In deep mourning. Silk grenadine Is very gen erally worn In this country for veils, as shown In Fig. 1. It Is light in weight, supple and durable. It is used In the open weaves for face veils and is often bordered. For summer, large mesh silk veils, bordered with a fold of crape, are worn, with millinery made of or trimmed with these ma terials, the crape nearly always ap poerlng In a flat border or fold. Eng lish manufacturers have succeeded in waterproofing these fabrics so that rain or moisture does them no harm. The transition from deep mourning to colors Is accomplished gradually. After a certain period of time, more or less long at the discretion of the wearer, the mourning veil Is discard ed; next crape Is eliminated. .The at tire is next All black, but not neces sarily of recognized mourning fabrics. After black, gray, the cold lavenders and white are worn. White may be worn with black accessories for mournlug, and Is correct, but is more often assumed for what is called "sec ond mowning," that is, in the period of transition from mourning to colors. There Is nothing so dignified and nothing more elegant than a well chosen mourning costume. In choosing models or patterns for making mourn ing gowns or hats (or any garment) plain, neat and elegant designs are correct. Nothing "fussy" is admissi ble. No extremes of tho mode are to be considered. For millinery neither very largo or very small hats, but those in shapes which are always worn should be selected. Exquisite workmanship must characterize the work of both milliner and dressma ker. Fortunately the regular mourn Ing fabrics, crape, bombazine and nuns veiling, all are adapted to the sort of work required. JULIA BOTTOM LEY. USEFUL FOR THE TRAVELER Pin Case An Almost Indispensable - Requisite When One Is on a Journey. A new form of the well-known pin case for traveling Is being shown just now that makes acceptable prises or a present for European travelers. The case Is formed like a wallet with a flap at the side that buttons over with a patent clasp. This is made of cardboard covered first with cotton batting, then with cretonne, fancy brocades, ribbons or with an embroidered linen case. Inside there Is a single leaf adjust ed to back of case like the page of a book. This is covered on both sides with white eiderdown or flannel, which is carried over to line the Bides of case as well. In this lining Is stuck on the outer cast safety pins in all sizes and col ors. On both sides of the inner page are arranged big headed pins in vari ous sizes and color. These can form fancy borders or a star figure below and a border or other artistic group ing. These cases may be made In any convenient size; one four by five inches gives plenty of space. About Veils. When money is scarce there seems nothing that runs awav wih nn- money so fast as veils. Their life is a very snort-iivea one and often a misadventure ruins them as soon as bought. Yet we must wear them If we want to look smart, and to buy cheap ones Is morse than useless, as they never look well from the day they are bought. The truest ecenomy Is to buy fine net by the yard, says the Woman's Life. It cuts to better ad vantage, you get four veils for the price of one, and it is of a far better quality and laBts longer than if you buy veiling pure and simple. Rather a Startling Effect Chantecler Craze Responsible for Veil Which Is, to Say the ' Least, Daring. Most remarkable of all the examples of the chantecler craze which has dis played itself in wearing apparel is the chantecler veil, which has been recent ly placed on the market, and which la enjoying quite a little popularity in some quarters where the eccentric is neither feared nor disliked. The veil is of rather open meshed black net, on which there is the design of chantecler facing the rising sun. Both chantecler and the sun are sizable and showy and the effect is decidedly striking. The deslgu is so arranged that one rooster may rest over one eye when the veil Is In place, another rooster over the other, while the rising sun Is situated over the bridge of the nose. Of course, a less startling adjustment U possible, and with care the eyes may be covered only with the net voile the rooster decorations (all to the cheeks and the rising sun accents tne end of the nose. Hat Contrasts With Suit. For years we thought it was the cor rect artistic thing to have the hat match the gown. Now it is not con sidered fashionable, even If it is ar tistic. It is not amiss to have a sug gestion of the gown in the hat Some people do this, but It is not necessary. The best-dressed women wear suits, we will say, of bluck and white check and a hat of burnt straw trimmed with chantecler red. Not only is the con trast violent, but we like It. Provide 8weater First. The girl who intends spending her summer vacation In the mountains should not forget that the sweater Is by far the most important garment of the outing wardrobe. Not only Is It more practical than any sort of tailored coat, but It, in especially suited to the rough wear which sporting togs of all kinds ar necessarily sublected to.