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ADVENTURE IN BUGTOWN. V aising in the Americas i 9. Cattle R J I t v ,1,1 a 6 OOCMMMtOOOOOOOOOOl HEN the United States ceases to bo an exporter of beet and pork from whence will Europe get Its meat? Will the United States, with Its large ratio ot In crease In population, with which the meat produuctlon by no means keeps pace, be ablo In the future to feed itself? Must Europe and the United States curtail their meat consumption? There Is no need to take a pessimist's view in nn- i BwemiK niiy in uiene questions. ine mem iruiuniiii Is already serious, it is true; but this is because we are at the turning of the ways and not because the immediate future, or even tho future lor some hundreds of years at least, presents any real difficulty to the solution of this proposition. Leaving out of consideration all questions involving the so-called meat trust, the tariff, etc., and looking at the matter simply as a question of economy in meat production, there Is no need to fear a famine, nor ought there to be any fear of high prices to limit the con sumption. A number of factors enter into the world's present meat problem, one of tho most important of which is the change in conditions under .which meat has been produced in the United Stales. The change from range to farm prdductlon of beef cattle and the improved shipping fa cilities for corn, which latter has revolutionized the hog Industry, have (together upset the balance in tho meat market. Unlimited free range on government lands made cheap meat, but the taking up of these ands by settlers, and particularly tho taking up of land around water ltes has changed the whole situation. Tho exten- ion of railways and an improved servlco has given a.he western farmer a choice, either to sell his corn or ,xo feed for meat, where formerly he had no choice: It was either hogs or cease raising corn. He raised hogs 'because he was forced to it, and he bought range beet cattle to put thorn in condition for the market by feed ing for a few months with a part of his surplus grain. The raising of cattle on the free ranges of the west fwas the cheapest method of meat production at the lime practised in the United States, but it is a question whether beef may not now bo produced, and Is not now produced by a few farmers, even cheaper than on the western ranges Jn tho past. The poor quality of range meat, which necessitated 'several months of farm feeding and care in order to be gotten in condition for the market, the great losses In the herds due to Insufficient food and water, and tho lack of winter shelter made the I- -"ens of cattle raising on the western plains a more or less uncertain land precarious industry. It was an exotic, and as such at will die with changing conditions. The future of meat production In the United States 1b a farming proposition, and like all other kraestiona connected with thn national no-H pends for its satisfactory solution upon the Improvement of farm meth odu. To remain a meat-exporting country, lands inuBt be brought up to the European standard of production. At that standard, or even fconslderably below, farming In the United 8tates pays, and pays well, Sand In no way better than by turning grass and grain Into meat But kiotll the United States adjusts Itself to the changed conditions and can Wain enter the European market as a competitor with Argentina, Uru guay and Australia for the meat trade, where will Europe, and even' jibe United States, should it have a temporary need for meat, secure their supplies? The answer to this question Is not difficult that It has not hoen more fully recognized. . The broad plains of Mexico and Central America, ot Veneiuela and Colombia, the Ama son region of Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and Ecua dor rival, if they do not excel tha famed pam pas of Argentina and Uruguay as cheap meat producing districts. In the country ot the Oronoco alone, Vene- puela and eastern Colombia, there Is an area fcf territory more than equal to France, Ger many, the Netherlands. Belgium and Denmark, or ten times the size of the state ot New York, which has Its superior as a cattle country In no part of the world, if indeed It has anywhere (its equal. Mexico offers many advantages to the stock kaiser. Tha conditions there are those wun which stockmen from the United States are more or less familiar, which last fact, In part, accounts for the large investments ot Ameri can capital made In this Industry within the last few years In Mexico. Cattlemen own me land In large tracts of from 100,000 to 1,000,000 acres, acquired from the government by grant and at a very low figure. This prevents tho shutting off from water, which has done so much to destroy the range industry in tne United States. The winters are mud ana more Is no danger of Ions from blizzards in fact, the grazing Is good all the year round. The character ot the ranges on the Pacific oast side In Jalisco, Micnoacan, uuerrero, Southern Oaxaca and Teplc are similar in iharacter to the northern ranges but not so ell watered, and the grass Is scantier. On The gulf side there are entirely dlffor- conditions. On the slope or mo eastern fcordllloraa In the states of San Luis Potosl. iTamaullpas and northern vera urus is me re- ion known ts the Huasteca roiosina, me Country of the Tames!, Panuco, Temporal and amasunchale rivers. Tnia is an aunosi ium grass country, it is a succession m ov- . J t,- ..auaj.ninl'ail tnrrBCHB or hlllS Beparmeu "J Increasing In height from the low plains near the coart to the borders ot the central plateau P000 feet This slopo receives the moist Lmim trom the Gulf of Mexico In the form fit rain during the summer months and dew n winter, and is always free rrom irom, Irought and excessive beat. The natural pas uraee ot this country is as fine as any in the (world, except on the Oronoco and In the up- mer Aiuuj.ua uumiu,. vmo c nn be sent to market at a cost of loss than r3- itmmHmm It Is only surprising 1 J10 gold a head. On the northern and west-, Cm ranges lean cattle cost to produce from 5(2 to $5 a head and can be futteued for mar ket to cost In all about $10 a head. Th4 latest Mexican statistics show about K.250,000 beet cattle in the whole country, of n estimated value of about $8 gold per head. Jcnihuabua and Vera Crua lead with about Uoo.OOO head for each state. As compared (with Argentina with Its 30.000,000 beef cattle It can be.seen that Mexico la but at the begin ning of the Indus' jy. in fact, as present the country produces but little meat above Its own needs, yet It could, on natural pasture lone, tarry twice the number of cattle now grazing fcn Argentina, and could easily supply to the European markets from Its surplus an amount pit meat twice what the United States has pven been able to supply from its surplus. ' South of Mexico In Central America and jla parts cf Meslco not above mentioned there jls yet another cattle country, where the ell pats Is mors tropical. Ou the Pacific side the rea suitable for cattle Is limited. It la simi lar to the Pacific slope of Mexico, but the country is more thickly settled, a larger pro portion of ths land Is devoted to agriculture, and consequently there Is less room for beef cattle. The country offers fne opportunities for dairy stock and will undoubtedly develop along this line. In the uplands and on the Atlantic slope there are large areas of fine open country in Guatemala, Honduras, Nica ragua and Costa Rica, where cattle can be produced as cheaply as anywhere in the world. It is a known fact that in Guatemala and Honduras four-year-old Block can be pro duced on the ranges to cost less than $2 a head. The native stock needs Improving. It is the same which was formerly known In the United States as the Texas long horn. When crossed by Shorthorn bulls the resulting prog eny Is a first-clas beet animal. Hereford, Galloway and Aberdeen-Angus crosses also produce good results. At present the Industry Is almost entirely local. Millions of acres of the finest pas turage In the world, where the native grasses stand from knee to shoulder high, are unuti lized. A tithe of the capital and enterprise which have psoduced such large results in Argentina and Uruguay would make Central America, although limited In area, an Impor tant factor In the world's meat market and would pay to the Investors a handsome return on their investment. In South America there are three great natural cattle regions which In area and adaptability for cattle production are line qualod In any other part of the world.. The plains ot the Oronoco, of the Amazon and of the Plata rivers are without doubt the best adapted for producing beet cattle cheaply and on a large scale ot any other sections of either the old or the new world. Behind the Venezuelan coast range ot mountains lies the basin ot the .Oronoso. This river has nearly 600 tributaries nd at Its greatest length is 1,500 miles long an.' Is navi gable from the ocean for about 1,200 miles. For about halt its longth It flows north and then turns almost directly east and continues In this line to the Atlantic. Near the bend ot the Oronoco it Is joined by the Apure, one of Its chief tributaries, which has come down from the eastern Cordilleras of Colombia through the heart of the region of the llanos or prairie lands. These lands continue on to the eaHt to the vertex of the dolta of tho Oro- noca. They comprise about 150,000 square mllos in Venezuela and about 120,000 square miles In Colombia. It is the largest single compact area of high-class natural pasture In the world. In tho luxuriance of Its grasses It Is as far ahead of the pampas lands of Argen tina as are these ahead of the short-grass lands of Kansas or Nebraska. It is one im mense level prairie, thickly carpeted with para and gulneo grass, growing twice as high as broom sedge on a neglected Virginia farm. It Is crossed and Interlaced by hundreds of rivers flowing Into the Oronoco or into its larger tributaries, tho Apure, the Arauca, the Meta, the Vichada and the Guavlare. From these rivers spread out smaller rivers, creeks and guts joining one river to another so that the, whole Is one great water mesh. In some places for a hundred miles one must cross water every half mile or less. The creeks and guts, when wide enough are navigable for launches and flatboats and offer the best and cheapest possible system of highways leading directly down to the Oronoco and the sea. From the earliest days of the Spanish con quest this country has been famed as a cattle land. At the time of the war of Independence, In 1812, it was estimated that there were 3,000,000 head of cattle in the country. The industry has never since been so flourishing. These natural cattle lands comprise about 170,000,000 acres and could easily carry 180, 000,000 beef cattle and not be overstocked. In the past the industry has been much hampered in both Columbia and. Venezuela by government restrictions, monopolies and taxa tion, and the estimates as to the cost ot cattle production in consequence vary much. Under the same favorable conditions as-exlst in Mex ico, Argentina and Uruguay the llanos of Colombia and Venezuela can produce cattle ready for slaughter at a cost which ought not to exceed $2 gold per head. In the valley of the Amazon there are' no such great prairie lands as exist on the Oro noco, yet on the whole there Is as much or even more first-class cattle country, a consid erable part of which Is In easy deep-water connection with the world's taarkets. The Amazon basin comprises one-eighth of the habitable earth and onehalf of the most fertile portion thereof. In a territory so large as this it would be unreasonable not to expect to find many varieties of soil and soil cover, and such is the fac t. Uetween the rivers tributary to the great river and back from the bottoms are here and there large tracts of open land simi lar to that found on the Gulf coast of Mexico, in the prairie lands of Louisiana and In Hon duras and in Guatemala. This is all fine cattle country; there could be no better. Near the headwaters of the great rivers that flow down to make the mighty Amazon, on the eastern slope of the Andes, are mil lions of acres of fine grass lands in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, as well as in Bra zil, that are more immediately available for cattle raising than are the lands farther east In the great basin. The third great river basin of South America Is that of the Plate river, with which must be Included tne southern half of Argen tina, whose rivers drain directly Into the At lantic. Any account of the cattle Industry of Argentina must of necessity be leBs a story of what can be done than of what has been dono. Included In the Plate basin In addition to Argentina are Uurguay, Paraguay and southern Brazil. The cattle conditions are similar over all this area. Argentina ranks third in the world as a cattle-producing country. Russia and tho Uni ted States alone lead It; but Argentina has only about C,000,000 Inhabitants to feed, which accounts for the fuct that it is the leading country In beef exports. Russia and the Uni ted States must consume most of what they raise; Argentina ships the greater proportion of what it ruiues, not only beef cattle, but horses, sheep, wool, corn, wheot and flaxseed. At the last census, taken about two years ago, there were 29.116.C20 cattle In Argentina and about 0,000,000 In Uruguay. This Is nearly all grade stock of the best English blood Shorthorn, Hereford and Aberdeen-Angus. Ar gentina and Uruguay cattle are reared under conditions somewhat peculiar to the locality. They are not range cattle nor yet exactly farm cattle, and but little or no grain Is fed. yet the export stters of Buenos Aires or Monte video are fully equal In size and will cut as much prime beef and as little waste as the best steers of Kansas, Pennsylvania or south west Virginia. In the central provinces of Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Santa Fe, Eutre RIos and Corrientes the native grasses are better and more alfalfa is grown. These five are the principal cattle- producing provinces, as they are also the prlt' cinul craln tiroducers. Next to these come La Pampa, Santiago and Salta, each of which provinces carries from about 700,000 to 1,000, 000 cattle. Then come San Luis, Mendoza, La Rioja and Catamarca, averaging about hat' of these numbers. In the north, Mlslones. Formosa and El Chaco, and In the south Rio Negro and Chubut are rapidly becoming im portant cattle districts. Even San Juan and Neuquen. on the Andean Blope, and Santa Cruz and Tlerra del Fuego, In the extreme south, are finding that cattle as well as sheep can be raised with profit In fact, there Is but little territory In the Argentine Republic which is not suitable for either cattle or sheep Beef is exported from the La Plata region on the hoof, as salted or as meat extracts, and frozen In quarters. England Is the principal market for Soutl American beef. The frozen-meat Industry In the Argentine Republic has grown up elr-cw the closing of tho English market to live cattle. In the year 1908 the Argentine Republic ex ported C0.916 head of live beef cattle, three fourths of which went to Chile. It exported 2,295,784 quarters (373,940 whole beeves) of frozen beef, and from the salting works 155, 400 beeves as salt beef, meat extract or Jerked beef. In this latter Industry Uruguay In addition exported 754,300 and southern Brazil 425.000 head, respectively. As a field for investment in the cattle in dustry the La Plata region offers the very best of chances. In fact, it is without a rival, and will remain such until a like enterprise and capital which has there produced such marvelous results shall seek a new opportu nity on tho Oronooo and in the upper Amazon country. The field for cattle growing is large; there need be no scarcity though the United States should cease to export and become an Im porter of meat. "BICYCLE" HAS FOUR WHEELS v Improvement Recently Made In Mo torcycle Design, Bringing it Nearer to Automobile. An improvement has been recently made In the design of the motorcycle, which brings It nearer to the automo bile class. It has a carriage body and seat which gives It more the appear ance of an automobile, but the great est innovation Is the introduction of auxiliary wheels, one on either side, by which the vehicle Is instantly transformed into a four-wheeler. This change Is desirable when the operator is wending his way through crowded Btreets where it is necessary to move slowly or when It Is necessary to come to a stop. The additional wheels are I No Corsets at West Point Col. K. B. Collins, a retired army officer who was seen at tte Raleigh, In discussing West Pointers said to a reporter, of the Washington Herald: "I have often heard a question as to whether West Pointers wore corsets. It is absurd, in a way, because should any effem inate youngster resort to such a thing It would be an Impossibility to keep the affair a secret, nnd, once known, his school life wt i become a burden to him on account of the endless amount of criticism he would receive from his fellows. He would be made the laughing stock of the school and would soon find himself the possessor of any number of effeminate nicknames that would grate upon his ears In any but a pleasant manner. "It la true," continued the old soldier, "that many West Pointers acquire a figure the per fection of symmetry and a carriage the acme of manly grace, but these are due not to any ingenious appliance, but to the systematic drills and exercises that make every cadet, to a certain extent, an athlete. At the outset these young fellows are put through what are called the 'setting up" exercises, their object being to straighten the body and develop the chest. One might suppose that it would re quire a great amount of such exercise to make any marked showing, but three long hours of such exercise dally will soon produce bene ficial results In the most stooped forms. The cadet uniform Is also a great help in this direction. The dress coat is tight, very tight. The shoulders are heavily padded In order to give them a square effect. The chest Is made thick, so that there will be no dan ger ot wrinkling. And in size, a new dress cout seems always to be designed for a boy several sizes smaller than the one who is to wear It. A new dress coat, In fact, is always a source of suffering to Its owner. When h first puts it on, it buttons readily about tlu neck, but seems to lack about six Inches at the waist. The owner may squirm and wrig gle and attempt to reduce his waist to a mini mum circumference, but his maiden efforts are never sufficient to button the new dress coat Experience Is a great teacher, though, and the young fellow laughingly requests one or two friends to lend their assistance, and with their combined tugging and squeezing he finally suc ceeds In buttoning the coat All this for the sake ot looks; comfort has no place In the makeup of a West Pointer; it Is discipline and looks." Troubles of Married Life f accession of Incidents That Mads a Comfcdy of a Philadelphia Couple's Nuptial Day. ,'4-inuslng Incidents following one an y&er in rapid succession, converting $ marriage into a comedy, a wedding fcaceptloo Into a vaudeville perform ance, happened recently on ths sup flal day of a young pair la the north srest part of tfct c'V Ths first Incident occurred wtille the bride was hastily donning her trousseau preparatory to being whirled to the church In a carriage. The car riage happened to e a buggy, to which was attached a crippled nag, halt-starved and hardly able to stand upon Its legs. Ths pair descended tha steps ot ths house, passed under ths canopy amid J a shower o! lies and various other ar ticles. When they saw the vehicle in watting the pair-returned to the house and ordered another. More than an hour elapsed before a carriage could be obtained. When the happy but unfortunate pair arrived at the church they found, to their amazement, that the main Item on ths day's program would be delayed through the absence ot ths clergyman. , After half an hour's wait, during which they wasted both their patience and time, the two were married. Incident the third occurred while they were waiting for the train to take them away on their honeymoon. The husband unaccountably wandered from the brldo and became lost In the crowd. Thinking that be was still by ker Bide, the young woman took hold ot a man's arm and continued her Conver sation. "Dear, they say love dies when you're married, but you'll always love me, wont you, dear?" "Madam, Fm sorry, but I cant prom ise," said the man, turning around. "My wife might object." Just then her husband appeared. Philadelphia Times. Toads Feast on Honey Bees. As the toad rather enjoys (easting on the honey bee laden with honey bis appotite should be considered. The toad In the act of catching bis game remains on the ground, never springs into the air, and bees may b protect ed by setting the hive well above the ground. Fur N " Four-Wheeled Motorcycle. quite small, but large enough to an swer all purposes and are controlled from the handle bar. This Improve ment will make the motorcycle avail able to many who .otherwise are afraid to make use of it, on account of the necessity of maintaining a rather high rate of speed in order to keep the machine In an upright posl tlon. LARGEST ANIMAL IN WORLD Represented by Colossal Skeleton of Whale Eighty-seven Feet Long In New Zealand Zoo. What is claimed as the largest ani mal in the world is represented by a colossal skeleton in the museum of Christchurch, New Zealand. This Is the remains of a large specimen of the blue whale stranded on the coast of that country. This whale Is prob ably the largest of all living animals The length of the skeleton is 87 feet, and the head alone is 21 feet The weight of the bones is estimated at nine tons. This gigantic whale gets its name of blue whale from the dark bluish-gray of Its upper surface. The tinge of yellow on Its lower part has led to the name "sulphur bottom," by which it Is known on the western side of the Atlantic. It Is otherwise known as Sibbald's rorqual (Balenoptera slb- baldll). The hlcf food of this gigantic ani mal Is a small marine crustacean (Trysanopoda Inermis), known to the whalers as "kril." Another species of the same shrimp-like group has been obtained in thousands from the stom achs of mackerel caught on the Cor nish coast. The nearly related opos sum shrimps, found in enormous nuni- ber in the Greenland seas, form, the chief food of the common whale. Some of the thysanopoda are phos- phorescent and contribute to the luminosity of the sea. PLANT LOOKS LIKE INSECTS Spots on Orchid Resemble Files and Bees Imitations Are Puzzling to Flower Scholars. Orchid imitations are a puzzle to flower scholars. The whole appear ance of the flower is suggestive of some insect, sometimes to quite a re markable degree. It does not seem easy to find any real purpose that could be served by this resemblance yet no one imagines that it can be accidental. Any one who knew of the bee or chid, a native of Europe, and came upon it for the first time would at once recognize it. It seems to be largo velvety brown backed bee variegated with yellow. The two lateral petals might serve well for the wings of the Insect. In the center of the lip of the fly orchid there is a small bluish spot like the body of a fly. The two lateral petals are slender and curiously like the antennae of an insect. The whole illusion is complete and suggests to the casual glance that a few flies are hanging on the stem of some plant which has cast Its flowers. sll kJmJ fife) Efy.-.-8-. The rulrs lire very, very strict In llufttown, so they ray; And o It's very hard to bathe t'pon summer's day. For InMnnre, on ft pitcher Of lukewarm milk ft crowd Of buK once Bpli J this wnrnlng"! "No Bathing Is Allowed." On biiir, who was mors daring Than all tho rert exclaimed: "I'll nhow you that I'm not afraid. And make you all ashamed." So lie put on 111 bathing- eult. And took a little dive The biiRg who were lets daring Are even now alive. BOYS IN INTENSIVE FARMING Twelve Thousand Southern Lads Show How Productiveness of Land May Be Increased. More than 12,000 southern boys less than eighteen years old planted and cultivated an acre of corn each year under the direction of the department of agriculture. Persons Interested In the experiment In Arkansas, Missis sippi. South Carolina and Virginia of fered to pay the expenses of a trip to Washington for the boy In each state who raised the greatest amount of corn on his acre. The winning boys will soon visit the national cap ital. The average yield of corn to the acre In 1909 was a little more than twenty-flve bushels. The South Caro lina boy, who made the best record, produced 1526, says Youth's Com panion. If they should be followed ex actly the yield of corn to the acre could easily be doubled In a single year. Intensive cultivation is worth while on all crops. The average yield of potatoes to the acre In 1909 was 107 bushels, but the Maine farmers aver aged 225 bushels, and some of the more progressive of them dug 400 bushels to the acre. The yield of corn and potatoes depends more upon culti vation and fertilization than upon the soil, and there Is practically no part of the United States In which these crops cannot be raised successfully. , It Is beyond doubt that larger crops can be produced from ten acres thor oughly tilled than from two or even three times ten acres cultivated as they usually are. The fact that the South Carolina prizewinner raised more corn on one acre than the aver age farmer produces from six tella a story that should not be lost upon those for whose benefit the experi ment was made. NOVEL COASTER FOR YOUTHS Healthful Device Can Be Used i Racer, Cart, or to Glide Merrily Down Any Hill. An entertaining and healthful de vice for children has keen invented b an Ohio man. It consists of a triangu lar base portion with two weels In back and a steering wheel In front. From the Eteerlng wheel a handle rises high enough to be within com fortable reach of a person standing on the footboard In the rear. With one foot on this board and pushing with the other foot, a boy can attain a re FINGERS AND FORKS. Tou must not use your fingers, dear, A fork will do instead." Mamma looked down upon her son. And gravely shook her head. "It Is not nice for little boys To use their hands that way. I'm sure, to hold a knife and fork Tou learned the other day." "Hut why?" asked Jacky. little rogue; Ills eyes aglow with fun, He glanced from mother's earnest face. To breakfast Just begun. "I'm sure in ev'rybody's mouth. This silver fork you've seen. My fingers only go In mine. And they are nice and clean." What the Toad Does. He has the power to drink with his skin. Even If emaciated, bis skin will take up enough water to make him appear fat He Is most useful In the garden, catching the Insects. His skin secretes an acrid humor, so a dog seldom bites one the sec ond time. Authorities unite In sa-ylng that be bas been known to live 85 to 40 years. It Is not true that he can exist im bedded In stone, unless there be a fissure. Light and Easy to Pull. marknble speed with this device and can have many a good race with his friends. Another use for it is as a regular coaster, for gliding down bill. though as hus been seen it can u'sj" pushed up hill and has therefore an advantage over most coasters, espe cially those that depend on snow. Finally, the device can be used as a cart, there being an attachment that serves as a seat Being of such light construction, the small boy will find It much easier to pull his comrades on this than on the ordinary wagon, and it ts very strongly made so there is no danger of a breakdown. Mother Gooee Rhymes. A Jolly form of entertainment is for each person to be given a subject aud made to write a Mother Goose rhyme of more than two lines containing the given word. This is a difficult thing for many people to do, and many ab surd verses are the result, while a clever rhymster can convulse the en tire party. After all the people play ing have written their contributions these are collected In a bowl and drawn forth by one and read to the assembly, who try to guess the author. Why the Sun 8ets. Little Jack abked his mother one night why the sun set so often. She told him so that It might rise In the morning. This seemed a useless rea son, and Jack hunted for another. At last he said; "Oh! I know, mother. The sun sets so that she can batch all the days!"