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mm illERE Is an underworld not Invaded by novpllHt or play wright. Yet In It occur strange and often Rubtl dra mas of survival and destruc tion. Nor la It a noiseless underworld. Every evening after a hot sunset It forms an orchestra which shrills out Its prowess and flaunts Its coming achievement. And In all the world thPie Is no orchestra so well paid. To be sure It gets little in the matter of attention, hut In ways more substantial it Is rewarded hand somely. For it is permitted to levy toll upon the rorn and the wheat, the cabbage and the apple, as they grow. It Is allowed to eat the profits of the miller and the grain dealer. Cer tain members of the shrilling tribe go farther and demand greater concessions in their greed. Not satisfied with money tribute, they exact human lives. Their gruesome tracks are made upon the faces of little children. Thon from places where poverty forces women and ba bies into filth and sickness, they take wing ind they bear their death message Into homes fair and clean homes where the Inmates can not concern themselves with life's wretched ones. And so nature In her Inexorablo clrclo from which neither the proudest nor the poor est can escape, herself supplies the link which brings the miserable home to the fair one. But reducing It tp a dollars and cents basis which all of us understand, what would you say the Insects of this country cost us each year? Millions of dollars! More in fact than our entire system of public school edu cation, from the kindergarten to the unlver Blty! Moreover whole sections Intended by na ture for the production of particular crops often are compelled to abandon them for no other reason than Insect Infestation. This Is especially true of horticulture. Myriad, in deed, are the insect foes that infest vegetables and fruit. If evr the life of this underworld Is brought upon the stage as that of the barn yard has been, it raaj well open with this plaint of the truck grower: V The Inserts are busy In clover and gross, A-hatohln' out sorrer fer my gal-den sass. They're happily hummln' this giddy re frain i The old mule will still be your n.lry-o-plane. Now the farmer has found himself help less before this foe which must be fought with microscopes and laboratory mysteries. Consequently he has appealed to the man of science whom everyone despises in the 5ay of prosperity and rushes to consult when the world is awry. Let me tell you of what has been accom plished by one man with a microscope. His name Is Stephen A. Forbes and he is state entomologist of Illinois. His chief -work in this position is to exterminate "economic in sects," as those which damage the growing things are called. He Is also head of the state laboratory of natural history and pro fessor of entomology In the University of Illi nois. He has held these offices 25 years, -which means that he has spent a quarter of a century fighting the predaceous instincts of economic Insects, barring an occasional short lnpse to fight the economical instincts of state legislatures. Naturally he is on intimate terms with a vast number of bugs. For a practical knowledge of an insect, the ability to recognize it in all Its phases is a mere beginning. Its dietary muBt be known, not only what it prefers but what it likes next best and what it will eat to escape starvation; how the weather affects its health, its temper, and its power of multiplying; is it subject to contagious diseases? If so, how may it be induced to catch one? Also it is well to know how Its neighbor bugs regard it. Whether the sight of It arouses the instinct to protect or the Instinct to kill. For there are bugs bo kindly disposed toward other bugs that they will carry them to their food supply, hatch their eggs for them, and bring up their off spring. The sole duties they leave to those they protect are breathing, eating and multi plying. First let me tell you about the fight against the chinch bug. As everyone knows, the chinch is a devil-devastator whose evil intentions are backed with energy and resourcefulness. When it starts to take what it wants from the farm there is just one thing it leaves the mort gage. For more than a generation scientists in all parts of the country directed their intel ligence against its instinct; and instinct won the victory. It seemed that reason could not lathom the cause of the outbreaks nor find a way to prevent them. In despair the men of science were for saying as did the old Irish "woman of the rain that spoiled her potatoes, "There's no ralson in it. It's just the will of God!" And right there it seemed the problem would have to rest. But an occasional per sistent brain was unable to accept this solu tion. Observations went on not only week by -week but day by day, and often even hour by iiour. Even so it was a work that proceeded slowly. The chinch bug was hard to make rules for. Indeed, it seenied more an excep tion to rule than the French language. For instance, scientists nattered themselves that one thing was proved concerning his chinchahip viz., the abandonment of wheat culture meant an end to chinch bug ravages. But farmers made the sad discovery, quite unintentionally, you may be sure, not at all for the sake of rf-nlightenlng the men of science, that the aban donment of wheat may even increase the -hlnch devastation. For if they have become numerous and can find no wheat, they will accept oats, barley, grass or corn. The aban donment of wheat to be effective against tho -hlnch, must take place at the beginning of an outbreak. Therefore Dr. Forbes straightened liis mor larboiird, polished his microscope and prepared for wholesale slaughter. He was going to wade deep, not In gore but in bug Juice. The White Grub in it four Jtagei ! JuneBeete, fiao.Grub and Pupa,. Com corJPH3 rj femae. 7ivo lYngesi femoiej. ego ana nupa. or ippi, una Worker int.. first plan was to pre sent the chinch with a contagious disease. It had been observed that it was subject to fungous disease simi lar to that of the com mon house fly, which left the dead covered with a white mould. Why not spread it? It was tried upon the university fields and the bugs took it most obligingly and died most successfully. Be fore it could be con sidered more than an experiment, however, it was necessary to try it on a larger scale. Consequently letters were sent-among the farmers, asking for boxes of sound bugs. These bugs were to be given the disease and returned with directions for spreading it. The response was surprisingly immediate. Boxes of bugs poured into the express offices and yet more boxes of bugs. Farmers from neigh boring states heard of the offer and they, too, went bug hunting. The express companies worked overtime. The assistants in the ento mologist's office became mere undertakers for bugdom. The mouldy bugs were sent out on their beneficent mission of destruction. Then the results came In. They varied; they did, Indeed. Some thought the entire entomolo gist's office should be fitted out with a golden, glorious halo as the rescuer of its country; others alas! thought a fool's cap would fit the case more exactly. But although the disease project could not be called a complete success, means were found which make It possible 5" raise grain even in the very worst of the chinch out breaks. The barrier methods and sprays with a kerosene emulsion will catch them every time. Just after harvest the scarcity of food in the wheat fields arouses In the chinch an instinct to migrate. On foot It sets out to get an appetite for corn. This is the time to make a ridge beween the infested field and the field the chinch desires to infest. This is done by plowing a backward furrow which is packed with a light roller or by band and has a line of tar poured upon It from a can with a tubular spout. Post holeB are dug at Intervals of about twenty feet. By keeping the tar line fresh his chlnchship cannot cross, but will follow It to the posthole, into which he speed ily tumbles. It then is merely pleasant recre ation for the farmer to travel out and pour a weak solution of kerosene upon his accu mulated enemies. Kerosene is an excellent death dealer for these pests. When they get into the cornfields the farmers of Illinois sally forth with an emulsion containing four per cent, of kerosene and half as much whale oil soap mixed by five minutes simple beating with a stick. This Is flirted by hand upon the corn in the cool of the day when the insects feed most thoroughly and when there Is less danger of Injury to the corn. Sometimes a single application does the work; when the infestation Is very bad two and even three may be required. Now let us talk about corn exclusively fur a while. With that staple at Its present price and with the grave gentlemen who produce statistics as hens produce eggs the louder the cackling, tho smaller the statistic assur ing us that it Is on Its lofty perch to stay, It seems that tho farmer will have to cultivate automobiles and bad habits as obesity cures for his bank account. l!ut, bait! Nature pro vides several. There Is the weather, more ex asperating and with less regard for a poor THE MTTLE WMliE DOGS (, W H w r (iy W - i Corn 3i-3ugj, Grub of same and Corn Pont jAowing 3iiBug injury. man's purse than rich relatives on a visit, there Is tho fretful soil which gets sour like a colicky ba by, and there . are sturdy, hun gry Insect foes. Over two hun dred of these at tack corn, forty capable of doing notable damage. It Is in discov ering the way to conquer a pair of these precious rascals that Dr. ForbeB has made his most valuable single contribution to sci ence. They are the corn field ant and the corn root-aphis or. as It Is better known, the corn root louse. For' a long time they were the particular scourge of the corn grower who supposed that they operated each on its own account. Through the research of Dr. Forbes it Is now known that one Is help less without the other. The resourceful and industrious ant Is entirely unable to extract the coveted sap from the corn root, and the stupid aphis would. If left to Itself, starve In the very presence of the corn. But the ant can carry the aphis to the com root and de posit It thereupon; the aphis can extract the sap and then exude It, thus passing it on to the ant. Therefore It was not a problem of exterminating two foes but of outwitting the clever little ant. Were it banished, the aphia would soon disappear. The wretched little soft-bodied hunk o creation can do nothing for itself except lay eggs and suck corn sap. The ant gives It a home m its own burrows, hatches its eggs for It, carrying them to the warm surface if they are slow, bearing them farther into the ground if they threaten to hatch before its food Bupply is ready. And this protection extends through the aphis' life. If, because of plowing or other inadvertence, the ant finds its charges scattered. It will cheerfully collect them and reconstruct Its home if that has been molested also. The ant has nothing else to do and It Ib as active as an outraged Puritan conscience. However, methods of control have been found. The use of the disk and crop rotation will exterminate them. Tho root-apbls refuses entirely to oc cupy ground planted to oats, so this cvop Is of the greatest Importance In clearing fields of them. Also by disking two or three times with a 20-Inch disk in spring, especially on a sunny day when the ants are likely to have their charges near the surface, they will be killed and scattered and their nests bo broken up that even the enthusiastic little ant cannot reconstruct the colony. Another enemy of the corn that Dr. Forbes -has caught by cultivation Is the bill bug, as certain beetles are called because of their long, hard snouts, which they poke Into the farmer's business to ruin It. This time rtio cultivation must be with the plow instead of the disk and In the autumn Instead of spring and In the fields of grass where the bill bugs breed. Those biwjs are distinguished by a belligerency which is only equaled by their strength of claw. One variety appeared In Illinois which looked so large to the harassed fanners that It was christened "elephant bug." Chickens turned into the fields to feast upon them lied In flapping, comical (tight, unable to relievo their terrified souls by a squawk, as their bil'w were tightly held together by the encircling claws o what were meant to be their banquets. As for sprays, the bugs throve upon them. Dr. Forbes had his assistants In the fields before It was found" that plowing the Infested grass In the autumn would practically do away with tho pest. Of all tho foes which the agricultu rist must fight, none presents a more dif ficult problem than the white grub. For one thing, there are many species. Illi nois has about thir ty differing In hab Its, but all endowed with an original and hard working brand of niftural cussed ness. They attack plants at the roots. and It. Is not at all uncommon to find whole acres of grass where the sod enn be rolled up like a carpet. By preference they devastate grass, but If the supply is scant they are willing to ruin small grain, corn, strawberry plantations, woodlands, and. indeed, many other situations. They are especially difficult to com bat because the life history Is hard to follow from the first to the last stage. Only a single specimen has been bred from tho egg to the beetle and its life cycle occupied three years. So far tho best remedy has been found to be in cropping, especially In planting the in fested ground to clover. Well-known enemies of the white grub also are the festive porker, which will dig a toot for a nice fat one, and crows and crow blackbirds. Occasionally a farmer notices that a flelcl which has been brown from a grub ravage be comes green and alive. He is Inclined to think It 9l elenr case of the Lord remembering the righteous; as a matter of fact another insect has appeared and Is working out another set of Instincts. This is the Tlphla. a member of the solitary wasp family. It stings the grub Into submission and then glues to Its thick hide an egg which In a few days batches Into a veritable vampire. It sucks from Its host Its life Juices, leaving the Bhell to crumble back to earth. Trees, both those In natural forests and those which have been planted, "noble and helpless products of nature," to quote Dr. Forbes, are often dragged to a slow and un sightly death through Insect Infestation. Have you never late in May or in June noticed upon shade trees little wads of cotton? Each wad, you will see, if you look, projects from a brown cap, which Is the female maple scale. It is a native Insect parasite of the soft maple. It will Infest, besides the maple, the linden, box elder, elm and honey locust. These cotton wads ars the soft bed In which the careful female lays her eggs, and each female can be relied upon to deposit something like 3,000 eggs In her own particular little wad. Dr. Forbes found after considerable experiment that a kerosene emul sion was effective In disposing of these pests. A 20 per cent, emulsion could be used in winter If the roots of the trees were protected, and a 10 per cent, in summer. It is made by dissolv ing one pound of common soap In one gallon of water by boiling. This Is removed from the fire and two gallons of kerosene poured In. With a upray pump the mixture Is then forced back Into itself for about five minutes, when H will look like a thick cream, and no longer sepa rates on standing. Seventeen gallons of water added to the three gallons thus prepared will give a 10 per cent, solution. The cost will bo 4.3 cents a gallon and three or four gallons will save a large tree from destruction. Doubtless you have noticed upon the apples you brought home in a paper ' bag and those that fell from your own cherished tree a cres cent mark. This means that a busy little curculio has had Its beak In your apple before you and has probably laid an egg at the sign of the crescent curcullos. A spray compound of 12'4 ounces of acutato of lead and four ounces (t arsenate of Eoda to fifty gallons of water, If used three or four times, will catch practically all these orchard destroyers. Among the insects Injurious to health the common housefly takes first rank. Dr. Forbes has found that 75 per cent. . of the common house files breed In horse manure. As the reme dies that will kill tho housefly maggots ore too dangerous to be used In stables, except boiling water, which !s hardly practicable, the only protection stains to bo In screening stables against flls as we do our houses and in careful city sanitation. MOFSC Laws Galore 7171 io Protect iT aSiliOIlS Dumb Animals Iy TI1URDR RAYLE IHtUCE I NTICKUEITY societies, humane societies and endowed and A I well-supported institutions for tho benefit of our speechlea I Animal friend nr nVimulnnf rw1 tliixm hnvn law crn1nn Yflt in the city of Chicago horses by the hundreds are abused, mu tilated and cruelly tortured on mir streets. In the statutes of Illinois, published in tho Humane Ad vocate, the fortieth annual report of the llum&ne society, there is a chmee reading that "whoever cuts the solid part of the tail of any horse in tho operation known on docking, or by any operation performed for the purpose of shorten ing tho tail, and who shall cause the same to be dono or assist in doing such cutting, unless such is proved to be a benefit to the horse, shall bo punished by imprisonment in the county jail not exceeding one year, or by a fine of not less than $25 nor more than $100. "Conocerning Cruelty to Animals" another clause reads, "by carry ing or driving, or causing to be carried or driven or kept, any animal in an unnecessarily cruel manner." Both of these clauses folly cover docked tails, short checkreins and curb bits, now so universally used. Little attention has been paid to the cruelties of the curb bit. It is an instrument of torture belonging to the dark ages. As it lies across the tongue of the horse it cuts cruelly and brings a horse down to heart broken submission. The construction on the outside is sufficient to prove its wicked torture. These bits are largely used by bus drivers and society people, who sport smart equipages. In order to look smart their horses have tails cut so short that they stand erect in the air in an atrocious manner, shamefully disfiguring the horse. As if this was not enough, the curb bit is used and an extra stsnp is brought across the nose and then the poof animal is checked up so short that it is in misery if it moves. According to the statutes of these societies all these atrocities could bo stopped, the offenders pun ished and the fines go into the treasuries of the soci eties. Will some humano, Christian people interest themselves in our noble friend, the horse, and join the Humane society and Anticruclty society in such numbers that they will force activities among the membership. LAW STUDENTSEATING TERM Porter Summons the English Barris ters to Meali With a Silver Mounted Horn. In the hr;rt of London, between busy Fleet street and the broad Vim bnnkment, there Is earrl"d out a cus toin that has been In vogue for sev eral couturtes, a Louisville Times' London lettor says. Kvery night b twrcn 5 and 6:30 o'clock, one of the porters of the Temple, tbe I'niveikiliy of Law, goes round the dull old quad rangles Mowing tin old-fashioned, sliver-mounted horn to call the stu dents for dinner. In each law term there Is a period culled the eating ttrm, during which the barristers to be are compelled to attend at least uix dinners in Ihi T 'tnplo Hall. Temple Hall was built in 1572 and has a magnificent oak roof, richly carved, and a fin' oak screen. On the dais at the end of the hall, Shake speare lit believed to have acted la 'Twelfth Night," early In 1602. The long table at which the students dine was the gift of Queen Liizabeth to the benchers and was made from a single oak In Windsor Turk. Thero Is also a small dining table con Ktructed from the timbers of Drake's ship, the dolden Hind. At present about GO students dine here nightly. Not only has thin miniature univer sity town memories of tho old crusa ding tlmep. Its flavor la mingled with associations of the literary history of tho eighteenth century, "it la the most elegant spot io the metropolis,' wrote Charles Lamb, who was born In Crown Office How. "What a cheer ful liberal look hath the portion of It which, from threo sides, overlooks th greater garden that goodly pile 'of building strong, albeit of paper height,' confronting with massy con trast, the lighter, older, more fan tastically shrouded one, named Har court, with the cheerful Crown Of fice Kow (place of my kindly engen drure) right opposite the stately stream which washes the garden foot with her yat scicly trade poUut waterB. ... A man wq;i1J give something to have been born In such places." A Conservative Method. "When you make a speech you never tell us unything we didn't know," said the constituent. "Of course," replied Senator Sor ghum. "The idea in addressing the people is to express their own Ideas. Then tbey give you credit for be ing a smart man because you agree with them." Long Hours of Poorly Paid Dru Clerk By M. HOWELL Iet me tay a word for the man that works from 7:00 a. m. to 11:00 p. in. every day in the year the druggist. I think the druggist is tho greatest slave to the public of any business man. Now, of course, you can't bcc why. It is very easy for a man if he knows his busi ness to fill a proscription, sell a patent medicine, face powder, cold cream, toilet water and perfumes. But where his big gest trade comes in id the advertising branch of the newspapers, telephone checks, water bills, gas and electric light: bills, money orders, express and postal or ders and stamps. The druggist has considered the public's needs thor oughly. He has done much to make things convenient for you all. You know how easy it is to run over to the drug store to have your baggagei sent to the station ; how very convenient it is to get a money order writ-i ten or cashed there; how extremely convenient it is when you have spent1 yonr evening at Home writing a letter to your sweetheart to get a stamp from the druggist. You aren't even courteous about it. Hie man who is worn out must rise from his scat or let his customers wait and drag his aching feet maybe the whole length of the store to give you a stamp, for which he receives nothing, not even "Thank you." Then if ho is a little irritated or gruff you are hurt, but he (mould not be hurt over the fact that you have given some one else the profits of your purchase and the druggist must live on the profits of a money order written at 11 o'clock at night, or, worse still, a one-cent Btamp! . Aviation Accidents on Rapid Increase By ANTHONY WAGNER We frequently read of aviation fatali ties and recently the list of thoao killed is increasing at the rate the sport is growing. I predict that before man can conquer the air there will be an appalling sacrifice, not only in the number killed or injured, but in tho terrible deaths some will suffer. What could be more dreadful, while consciousness lasts, than plunging from a height of hundreds of feet, knowing that mangling must result? Count Zeppelin's airship was disabled; on its initial passenger trip, it being, I believe, the first to carry regular passen gers. This serves as a warning that we are decades from a safe commer cial end of the game, and it will never be half as safe as transportation on tho earth's surface. We have witnessed balloon ascensions at amusement grounds and have seen the aeronaut descend safely in a small parachute which would weigh but a few pounds. Why don't the aviators supply their planes or dirigibles with life preservers in the shape of parachutes. These, however, would not be of much use over water and flights over channels seem to be a recent diversion. Getting Rid of Noisy Rooster By L SLEPNER It seems to me keeping and raisingof thickens should not be allowed inside the city limits. Doubtless some one will say, "Oh, you crank!" Call me any old name you like. That doesn't disturb me in th least. I?ul to be awakened alwut four o'clock every morning by a great big speckled chanticleer a few feet from my window, with his cockadoodle-do, which proceeds every few minutes until tho time when I myself should be up, is, to say tho least, anything but enjoyable. Nature as well as physicians tells ua we should take plenty of good, refreshing sleep, and to be deprived of this makes one feel 6ort of disgruntled and unfits one in a measure foa one's everyday duties, no matter what they are. The writer lives in one of the most desirable parts of Chicago, and my neighbors are all right otherwise, but they will keep chickens. "It's so nice to have a few fresh eggs every day," they will tell you. True, it is. We used to indulge in such luxuries ourselves when wej lived in a country town. When we came to Chicago to live the hennerjj was left behind.