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Martin land it tonally rich, and atT It needs to make It productive Is drtdnage. The fall of the year Is the best Mme to drain before the winter rains set In. If the ground is not too soft for the horses, one or more fur rows may be run out with the two horse plow. Hook three horses to tho plow. An extra man should fol low with Sharp ax to cut the roots. Tho ditch may be deepened by the use of the lifting subsoil plow. To do good work a heavy match team In the hands of a capable plowman Is neces sary. After land is drained, turn the sod over with the three-horse plow. M.'. . t i. V - 1 J v-i' if- o rW v 1 ;,.;.. 1 ,v .V---;. jv IV "V C EXT to a goodly supply of I turkeys tho most lmpor- I r? I tnn requisite for a sue- 11' N coRsful Thanksgiving Is a berries of Just the proper tart flavor. As well have a Thanksgiving dinner without turkey as without the appetizing cranberry sauce. However il. pcoplc? of the United States have scant cause to worry be cause of this feature of their holiday menu. It has been years since a failure of the cranberry crop was eported and cranberry growers have been so Increasing their productive areas that despite the Increase In demand, due to the country's Increase In population and other Influences, here continues to be year by year a pretty lavish supply of the crimson berries, and most Seasons find them available at very reason able prices. Cranberries, like so many of the other good things of life, are distinctively American deli cacies. To be sure, cranberries grow wild in Borne other quarters of the globe for Instance In Europe, but it is only in the United States khat they have been cultivated a3 an article of food. Even here tho growing of cranberries is confined largely to three states Massachu setts, New Jersey and Wisconsin. How impor tant an industry it Is may be surmised, however. HE autumn of 1621 waned on a prosperous community. Plymouth, Mass., was both healthy and wealthy. Sickness, though it had destroyed one-half the company of pilgrims, had ceased, and the crops, as a whole, had been good, the peas alone failing. All the houses in the settlement had been put into con dition and a goodly stock of furs and prepared lumber had been made ready tor export to England by the next ship. The waters swarmed with fish and sea fowl were abundant The call of the wild turkey was heard In the woods and tho patter of the fleeting deer was nothing strange. The summer was past; the harvest ended. The pilgrims decided upon a period of recreation. The governor 6ent out four huntsmen, who In one flay secured game to last the colony a week. Hospitality was extended to Ma.ssasolt, of the neighboring sottie jnent, who brought iiO people with him. The guests remained 30 days. The company engaged in rounds of amusements, in which military drills and religious services formed a part. Thus, heartily and loyally, was inau gurated the great New England festi val of Thanksgiving. For two centu ries it las continued to be observed, at first 'mostly In the eastern states, but It has now become national, Its annual return finding a welcome from boundary to boundary, both at top an. I bottom and either extremity of the nation. Thanksgiving day is peculiarly an Am' rican custom, though there aro pome writers who claim that it is not possible to determine the dale of the first observance. John A. Citxidwln. In hW historical review, -The I'llgrlm H -public." is positive, however, that tin- tirpt celebration occurred In the fall i.r this heinK followed in 1C23 bv (he fir.-t Thanksgiving proclama tion. Ijv t hi governor of Massachu setts. In li'.'.O there arrived at Plym outh 11 vfssels. bringing with them ssii coloiii.-ts, making the number nearly 1,'Jeii instead of a mere "ii'l. On Jui.v N, ' 1 : !', aiioth.-r Thanksgiving was held in acknowledgment lor this ! '-ion I i tl:r ranks of th colon-I.-1 Tin- I'e.tch governors of the New Thanksgiving Nowadays the Thanksgiving pmclu matem of tho state ami national ex c'ltivcs ar I rief compared to what tney were tn the early days of our republic. In the ease of the latter he d'wm't fet cshadow Ids forthcoming unnti .tl ti). .'age us was somewhat tho vok'ue iii President Washington's time. This is seen in the Thanksgiving proclamations issued by our great and good firm president In the early part of the year 1 7H5. in which he appoint fini& waned on a prosperous fr'-S'- X&l ) community. Plymouth, '4gM "-- l I Mass., was both x'wA'tit- ' ' (flVPgi ' 'T-';.-:--,.7-- . $W healthy and wealthy. W$ Sickness, though it had V Xim'ihSV- W.'WtM -'kS S. ' W? destroyed one-half the WffjiZ WM tmfij'f from the fuct that the Cape Cod district in Mas sachusetts, the greatest cranberry region on the globe, sends to market as many as one-third of a million barrels of cran berries in a single season. The average person Is wont to term all berry areas "patches," but cran berries do not grow In patches but in bogs and, as may be sur mised from the name, most of these tracts are located adjacent to rivers or lakes or ponds, so that they can be flooded In the late au tumn and kept under water until spring. The berries grow on a vino which nestles close to the ground In a perfect tangle, and save for keeping out the weeds and battling with tho insect pests, which are numerous, tho cranber ries do not require very much cultivation or attention until harvest time approaches in the autumn. Then the cranberry grower must look forward to a period of anxiety, a careful, ser ious scrutiny of the weather. He must keep close watch on the weather, for if a frost comes ere the crop la harvested It will work sad havoc unless the grower has been fore warned and flooded his bog or built great bon fires to keep up the temperature. In years gone by the harvesting of cranber ries was done solely by the hand picking ineth- Netherlands also appointed different dates for public thanksgiving, from time to time, and in some historical works there is record of a dispute as to which of these colonies deserved the credit for having first Inaugurated the day. Most of the best founded historians, however, give the credit to tho New England states. The Hutch governors of New Neth erlands uppointed occasional days of thanksgiving In 104 1. 1C4:,, 1C5."i and 1 ; I . and the English governors fol lowed their example in 17."." and 1700, and the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States In il prayer hook, ratified in 17S9. recommends for Thanksgiving day the first Thursday in Novem'n. r, unless some other day he appointed by the civil authorities. There were also occasional recommen dations by other religious bodies, but no regular annual recommendation by the governor of New York before 1817. The struggle of the colonies for in dependence marks the beginning of in Year 1795 ed I'Yb. pj us "a day of public thanks giving iuuI prayer." The "Father of ills Country" was then 0 years of age and was serving bin sixth year as president. It was a long document and covered quite a number of points. Of these, I will advert very briefly to only three or four which are peculiar ly significant. In the preamble he mentions, as the first subject, "demanding the public r 1 I - J in r tec-rffi rat? CtV years, however, has witnessed a revolution. Now almost all cranberries aro picked by the aid of machines, and because it is tiresome work manipulating these machines It has come about that most of the women and children have been forced out of tho industry and the task is largely in the hands of men, tho more skillful of whom receive from $3 to $5 per day. The picking machine most extensively used has the appearance of a huge wooden scoop, the bottom of which is mado up of a row of metal bars, tipped with sharp prong3 and BPt closo together. In operation this scoop is shoved with some considerable force Into the tangle of cranberry vines and then is drawn up ward and backward with the result that the vines which have been caught slip between the metal bars but leave tho berries, which are too large to pass through the openings, as do tho vines, and in consequence are stripped from The aurTS fJTMAIME-r Thlf?TY general observances of days of thanks giving in this country. The congress of 1777, the one which prepared tho articles of confederation for adoption by the colonies, adopted a resolution setting apart the eighteenth day of December, 1777. to be observed as a day of solemn thanksgiving and praise throughout the T'nited States. Washington, during his administra tion, Issued two thanksgiving ;rot:hi mations, one in 17X9 and the other in 17LC, Just after the suppression of the Whisky rebellion," which had threatened the peace of the country, ami President Madison Issued one upon Hie declaration of peace in 1Kir. However, ill the arly yeara of the nation the rule was for the co Ion ial cuMom to be followed and the proclamation mude emanated from the governors. The western blates, largely people from New England or New York, early followed the lend of these portions of the country. As we have set n, tho annual reeommenda- attention on this lolenm occasion, our (xcmption from a foreign war" and next proposes, as "an object of grati tude" tho "increasing prospect of Hm continuance of our exemptions from a foreign war." Which propositions evi dently relate to the settlement, through special envoy, John Jay, of our serious troubles with Greut lirlt ain, growing out of the continued oc cupation by the British of the western forts on Iko Erie, contrary to the treaty of 17S3; and the seizure of American vessel bound for French od, much as raspberries or Btrawborrles are picked, and most of tho cranberry picking was done by women nnil chil dren. The "Cratilwrry King" used to hire ns many as 1,100 pickers on his great bogs on Cape Cod and tho pick ers, many of whom jour neyed long distances, "camped out" on tho bogs during the picking season. The past few hauled been sold tlon by the governors of New York began in 1817. From that time the observance gradually crept southward an.I westward, and in 1885 Governor Johnson of Virginia adopted it, and though in 1857 Governor Wise of Vir ginia declined to make the proclama tion on the ground that he was unau thorized to Interfere In religious mat ters, in 1858 a Thanksgiving day was proclaimed In eight of the southern states. Decorative Conceits and Favors For the Thanksgiving Festivities The pious, hard-driven, worn-out, but thankful Puritans who sat down at their tables one November, a few cen turies ago, and made tho first Thanks giving Day, never knew to what lengths they were to drive tho in genuity of their poor descendants. Hut it wasn't their fault after all, that the preparer of tho Thanksgiving feast today lias to attend Just as much to the turkey's surroundings as to the turkey Itself. It was good enough for thoni to have a well-stocked larder from which could como the turkey, the celery, the pumpkin pie, the cranber ries and all the other goodies which history puts down to their credit. Even tho comparatively recent New Englanders were content with all theso as long as they looked tempting and tasted good. Hut today, even the Important fowl Itself Is hardly more Important than the ribbons, the can dles, the favors, the adornments of all kinds, which must appear on the Thanksgiving table. "Don't bother about having too much to eat," an up-to-date daughter was heard to say to her New England mother the other day. "I want plenty of room for the ribbons and the candy boxes." It's tho same way with other (laugh ters of an esthetic turn of mind, rath er than a practical one, and it looks as if their ambitions to "make things look pretty" may be realized this year, for there Is a goodly array of Thanks giving favors and table decorations of all kinds. Of course Hie turkey reigns su preme, even if It. Is in paper, and Is seen in all sizes, all kinds, roasted to a beautiful dark brown as the cook book says, or standing Important anil majestic with its big fun-shaped feath er tall high in the air. In most cases the favor turkey Is meant for candy, but certain new china turkeys are mustard cups. The pumpkin I.h next In Importance uid Is seen in many of the novelties, riiero aro large paper pumpkins for centerpieces and all sorts of Muall ports by British ships ami the Impris onment of American seamen. Another causa for thanksgiving, ac ordlng to the same high authority, is "tho great d gree of Internal tran quillity v.e have enjoyed." To which Is added "our cause for l hanki'iilncss for tho recent confirmation of that t runquilllty by the Puppresslon of an insurrection whh-h so wantonly threat cued It." And in another place the president repeats this Idea, asking his people "to render s tribute of praise and grat Stems and remain In the Hrnntv nhonrn they are transferred to the tray which each pick er has closo nt hand. An expert picker with a machine will do tho work of from half a dozen to a dozen hand pickers. The cranberries as picked on the bogs are placed in huge wooden boxes ami transferred to a nenrby frame building, where they are passed through a machine known an a "separa tor," which takes out all the leaves, twigs and other foreign matter. Then they are sorted for the elimination of any bad or worm-eaten ber ries and finally are placed in barrels, which are away to railroad yards to be loaded into cars to tho tune of from 220 to 240 barrels to tho car, refrigerator cars being used exclu sively. Up to the present time cranberries have In bulk, but this year sees an innova tion in the appearance of evaporated cranberries, for which aro claimed all tho advantages of evap orated peaches or apples, and In the introduction of cranberries put up In pnsteboard enrtons. Hearing cranberry bogs of the most desir able kind cost from $G00 to $1,200 per acre, but in a bumper year a grower may got his money back the first year, and during the worst year the Industry has known In a decade most of tho growers made from 10 to IB per cent, on their Investment, mid that, too, In spite of the fact thnt cranberries were so plentiful that they brought only $2 a barrel, whereas $5 to $7 a bar rel Is accounted an average price, and there have been years when a famine of cranberries sent tho price up to $10 per barrel. The day had thus naturally grown to be a national institution of almost universal observance, when the Civil war brouglvt to sudden ripeness this along with many other tendencies, and President Lincoln put upon it tho seal of his official proclamation. Presi dent Lincoln's first proclamation was in 1802, on account of the first impor tant victory of the national arms. He issued a similar recommendation in 18G.1. ones in pnpier mache or tissue pape which are candy boxes. Fruits and vegetables of all kinds seem to be suggeativo of tho season of feasting, and many good imitations are found among the candy box collections. Goblinesque Iittlo men are made of paper fruits and fixed up to have a very grotesque appearance, and funny little figures are made of peanuts, and mounted on cards. Nuts are tied up in ribbons and are found to bo prize packages for the receiver, for in them aro neatly packed little stick-pins, whistles, etc., all carefully concealed within the paper shells. The place cards allow of a great many new designs, and an eBpoclnlly new feature among these is some small mirrors. The chrysanthemum is the leading flower among the paper bowers, and those in yellow or orange seem to be tho most desired shades. Other Imitations which are especially "Hfu-like" are the painted piece of the pumpkin pie, the tin of Boston baked beans, the plum pudding and tbe car of corn. LENT INSPIRATION. "I am gratified," said the first prom inent citizen, "to observe the under current of Joy In tho Thanksgiving proclamation of the governor. Hith erto the proclamations have been ulong the old cut and dried, stilted forms, but In this instance there Is a certain tone of joyousness.of thankfulness, of pure gratefulness that Is really In spiring." "Yes," agrees the second prominent citizen, "but. it's no wonder the govern or felt good when he wrote that proc lamation." "No. lie has started on what seems destined to be a good administration, already there is talk of promoting him to some higher office in the gift of the peo " "Ami besides," interrupts the second man, "the governor owns one of the largest turkey farms in the state. itude to the Great Disposer of all events, for tho seasonable control which has been given in a spirit of disorder In the suppression of the Into insurrection." What the president had In miml in this allusion was the "great whh-ky Insurrection" In Penn sylvania iu 171)1, caused by tho pas sago by congress of acts imposing du ties upon spirits distilled und upon slillh. It was finally suppressed by Goiernor I.ee of Maryland, with 15,000 troops, acting under orders of the president. - The problem is not how much land you have, but bow well you cultlvnto It, Make tho bay land produce nlno tons per acre, ami four or five acres of hay will be enough. Make the corn land produce C 00 bushels per acre, and cut down tho area to one-fourth. Do the same with the other crops, and you will soon find that you have much more land than you can possibly cul tivate. The farmer raises cattle and hogs with a view of rapid development of fat, but tho l:orse is used for mechan ical power and should develop great bone and muscle. Muscular develop ment cannot bo attained In close con finement and tho young animal should not bo tied in a stall and fed corn and timothy hay to fatten him for the shambles. Unless there is an experienced and successful com breeder in tho vicinity who makes a specialty of growing first- class seed corn, every farmer had bet ted make his own selection from his own field or from the best fields of neighboring farms. No kind of live stock cau thrive and do well In ill lighted, poorly-aired buildings. Ono of the first require ments in a stable is that it should be well provided with windows, and have means for letting fresh nir in and foul air out. The Introduction of tho English sparrow by its driving away the little native birds has been responsible for more damage by insects and weed pests than all other causes combined, including cats, and boys with guns. If the hens aro protected against the cold winds while tney aro enjoying the sunshine of the yards, they will surely lay more eggs than if not thus shield ed, while tho reduced feed bill will compensate for the expense Incurred. Paint the staves on nil sides before erecting the silo, rather than to paint tho exterior later on, Btnco paint put on the outside afterward holds water In the cracks and causes the staves to decay more rapidly. If the cows aro stabled at night, much fertilizer Is saved that would otherwise be dropped In the pasture and disintegrated by wind, rain and sun loso its strength and be lost. Nine tons is a large yield of hay from a single acre, and few would ex pect this yield from Bermuda graBS, yet such Is the case, or at least from an acre of vetch and Bermuda. The largest beet sugar factory in the United States is at Spreckles, Cali fornia, which has a capacity of Blicing 3,000 tons of beets per day, equal to 100 carloads of 30 tons each. The women folks oa the farm should assert their rights and have the mod ern and necessary equipments In the dairy, and thus produce, with less la bor, a good article of butter. If there Is any doubt whether land needs lime or not, teBt it. One meth od Is to grow common garden beets. This plant makes a very poor growth on soli which needs lime. Fashionable folks are taking up horses again, the automobilo having becomo too common for them. And farmers are buying automobiles to Bave their horses. Tho dairy cow. If able to express herself In a way which tho human family would comprehend, might well lay claim to being man's best friend. For home use, the garden, the arbor, the boundary fence ami even the veranda are the locations generally available for tho growth of the grape. Tho succulent grasses ure rich In muscle nnd bone-forming materials and aro loosening and cooling to the system. Probably no one ttirng enters more Into commercial fruit growing than proper packing. No other branch of farming pays as well as a good orchard, if well taken care of. Once settled Indoors, tho house plants must be sure of regular atten tion if they are to be a success. Horse manure is much better to be mixed with other manure and worked ver by swine. A useful and ornamental plant Is parsley. It may easily be kept for u.so all winter. Tho ewes Intended for breeding purposes should bo sorted as early us possible and put upon good pas ture. Ewes for breeding purposes should not be overly fat, but In a strong, vig orous, thrifty condition. A hog cun bo starved to eat almost anything, but seldom does well ou spoiled feec. Cabbage growers should Insure fu ture crops against club root. It Is now time to be thinking seri ously of winter protection for small fruits. For strawberries, the usual covering of straw Is good. In mild locations a layer of straw not less than four Inches thick should bo ap plied. In more severe locations this would be Increased to si., luehes, and in the prairie sections It ' Jeslrf,tie to use eight Inches of straw, or er" more. Tho prevailing fence of today la the woven wire variety. No better fence was ever devised, provided It 1 put up well, and no other fence Is so poor, ugly and Inefficient if it Is erect ed in a slipshod manner. Pick tho fruit, empty It onto the sort ing tables and pack it right In the or chard. If this method Is practised much labor Is saved, for the whole work is completed as soon as the fruit Is gathered from the trees. It has been conclusively proven that hens kept in a yard and fed right will lay more eggs than hens that run at largo all over creation. Tho feed bill will not be so large cither, a fact that Is worth considering. If swine aro kept penned and are given absorbents enough to keep them fairly clean and dry, they will nearly earn their keep In the amount of fer tilizer they will make, and It Is the best of Its kind. Apples will not be over-produced un til every man, woman and child in tho land has all the apples he or she can use, and gets them at a moderate price. If not done, plant, your gooseber ries and currants this fall. Grape vine should be laid down and covered with straw. Even the old Concord cannot stand our strenuous winters. Start the trap nests so It can be known which are the best winter lay ers. Almost any old ben will lay In spring and summer; It takes a good hen to lay In late fall and winter. Not all regions and all soils are suit able for growing a good quality ot onions, and only recently have onion growers found out that peaty, swamp lands made the best onion ground. Nitrate of soda will force the growth. of melons, tomatoes and other plants. A tablespoonful scattered about each tomato plant and slightly raked in will produce good results. There is a great region of country where the blackberry may be called the poor man's fruit. This la true be cause ot the ease and certainty with. which It Is produce.. Every foal at weaning age has tost the breeder considerable money, and the preservation and development of the foal has much to do with the prof Its of the farm. In marketing onions the first essen tial Is to properly grade and clean tho bulbs, in order that they may present an attractive appearance when offered for sale. Insignificant matters often do not at tract attention, yet a little crack in the poultry house, if near where the fowls roost, wll cause suffering sooner or la ter. The sow that has proven herself extra valuable as a breeder and a mother should bo one of the most prized animals on the farm. In mending a steep place In the roadside, briers, brush and all fence, row mowings make good material to lay down to place the dirt upon. In erecting a woven wire fence one If the essential things to be consider ed Is that of strong and well support ed corner or end posts. The great value of lime In the soil Is Its power to correct soil acidity, or sourness, and to improve its texture or physical condition. Well bred better calves may tea be purchased cheaply of people who live In town and keep but one cow for family use. The market for small fruits la great er than ever, because the fruit ts now bought up by the canning and preserv ing houses. To make a success of dairying yoa can't know too much about your cows. No two cows are Just alike. The products of tho dairy are per haps the most useful articles includ ed in the human diet. Fall rains are searching. IX there is any doubt about the roofs get at them now. Location has much to do with the profitable disposal of second-class ap- ploB. If there were no birds man could not live on tho earth, and birds are decreasing in this country. The advice to rake up the fal'.en leaves and uso for a mulch In tho garden Is often given. The spring is the time when aspara gus roots are usually set, though the. work may be done in the fall. Tho Minnesota station heartily rec ommends fall plowing ot the land for corn.