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FAEM AND GARDEN, j
MATTERS OF INTEREST TO AGRICULTURISTS. Soma Up-to-Uato Hint About Cul tivation nf tlio Boll nnd Yield Thereof Horticulture, Viticulture nutl floriculture Horticultural Observation Tho authorities that have chargo ot tho work for tho erection of buildings on tho exposition grounds at Paris have adopted a novel method of pro tecting tho shade and ornamental trees. Ono strong objection against tho uso of certain parts of tho grounds at Paris was that thoro woro valuable trees In the way that would apparent ly have to be sacrificed when tho exca vations for tho foundations ot tho buildings woro made. But the French men thought out a schema and put It into operation. Around tho" roots of each treo they built a wooden tank, enclosing both roots nnd dirt. Tho trees woro thus boxed up, but In such liberal proportions that they went right on growing as If nothing had happened. Derricks and tackling wero arranged and tho boxe3, trees nnd nil, woro lifted high abovo tho heads of tho laborers and kept thcro till tho work was dono. After tho foundations woro In placo tho troes wero dropped back into placo and tho boxing removed. Tho applo market Is In a somewhat unsettled condition, owing largely to tho atmospheric conditions nt harvest time. Tho warm, moist weather In somo parts of tho applo bolt affected tho fall and early winter varieties. Tho fruit at picking tlmo appeared sound, but soon began to rot. Somo of tho old stand-bys oven began to rot on tho trees. The result Is that this class of apples ha3 arrived In the market in n condition that may bo denomi nated "doubtful." Nevertheless, theso "apples havo been rushed Into cold storage, although somo of tho buyers declaro they know tho apples arc not fit to bo put Into tho storago houses. They say that It Is either that or put ting them upon a weak market and forco sales that would mako tho mar ket still weaker. It Is, howover, feared that when theso apples aro taken out of cold storago they will bo so soft that they will have to bo disposed of at an enormous sacrifice. Wo hear that a number of cars of Redstreaks wero sold out to peddlers nt CO cent3 per bushol. Tho peddlers wero tho only ones thnUwould handle them oven at that low price. They took them knowing that they could get rid of them In a few hours, whereas tho grocers know that they would havo to hold them for days. Tho hotter apples aro being held back ns much ns pos slblo for two reasons; ono of which Is that tho fruit men believe that tho market for first-class apples la to tako' a jump, and tho othor tho realization that It is necessary for tho present holders to get rid of their short-keeping varieties. Moro and moro tho English market Is coming to depend on American ap ples, by which wo mean apples from tho United States and Canada. This year tho apple crop of England is re ported decidedly short, and what ap ples thero aro thcro, aro of tho fall varieties, and will not at nil stand In the way of tho sale of winter apples. Added to that, thoy aro reported to bo not keeping well. This means that thoy will bo used up by tho tlmo win ter sets In. Germany, Belgium nnd Holland have good crops and Franco has a fair crop. Repcrta from abroad would seem to Indicate thnt If thero is any surplus on tho continent thnt can bo shipped to England It will consist mostly of fall nnd not of wintor ap ples. Americans aro not very likely to mako largo shipments of fall apples, and so our applo trado with Great Britain should not bo affected. Unfor tunately for our own part In tho trado tho American applo crop is not so largo that wo aro In a position to fill tho English market very full of good apples. Wo fear the tendency will be to send forward other than tho best fruit, as tho best Is likely to bo kopt at homo by the high prices. Tho moral of tho situation is that moro wintor varieties should bo planted in this ;ountry. Thero aro largo areas of hilly land that Is good principally for tho growing of apples, such ns somo of the worn-out farms from Now York and Pennsylvania eastward. Wo Bhould have such n large supply of lato winter apples that wo will always bo In shapo to hold what foreign mar kets wo may galu. Hogs Clotting finer. An observant farmer who had given a good deal of tlmo and study to swlno exhibits at tho recent Iowa Stato Fair called nt tho offlco and mndo this rath er significant romnrk: "I believe hogs aro gottlng finer nnd smaller ovory year," says Wallace's Farmer. Wo have not had tho opportunity ot study ing tho hog exhibits carefully for a good many years, and thereforo can not pass judgment as to tho accuracy of his observation. It Is, howover, what would naturally bo expected as the result of tho scoro card. A good many breeders havo made tho remark to us prlvntely that while thoy had a good deal ot admiration for tho typo ot hog dovoloped by tho scoro card, thoy did not buy hogs by tho scoro card when selecting for pork production. In other words, thoy did not buy for practical purposes according to the standard which tho breeders li.vo sot. Wo aro very suro that they aro right In this practice. Tho scoro card Is val uable In training men's Judgment be causo it requires tbetn to noto carefully ach particular part of the animal. In selecting hogs for show purposes, they will keep In tnlud tho requirements ot tho scoro card, becauso it Is by that the hogs aro to be Judged. When It comes, however, to selecting hogs for tho pur poso ot producing pork for tho barrol, It Is not n sato guide, nnd In this tho breeder nnd practical farmers aro and must bo at variance until n scoro card Is devised which provides a different slnndard. Betwixt tho scoro card am a diet very largely nil corn, farmers aro In danger ot gottlng their hogs too small and too flno in tho bono for prac tical purposes. Tho Soy Mean. Glycino hisptdn 13 tho scientific name. A government bulletin says of it: This is one ot tho staplo crops ot Japan, which attracted little attention In this country till about ten years ago, but It Is now becoming qulto common. Tho crop is cultivated like- corn, tho seed bolng planted In drills at tho rato of half n bushel per acre. Tho stems alono aro too coarso to mako good hay, but aro covered with such n denso growth of leaves and aro so prolific In fruit that tho hay Is prized high ly, especially for milch cows and for fattening animals. Tho yield of green forago Is very heavy when grown on good soil, and tho yield ot beans Is usually from twenty to thirty bushels per ncro. Thoso who havo had most expcrlcnco with this crop find that tho best way to handlo It Is to cut or pull the plants when tho first pods begin to open, and thrash as soon as dry enough. In this way tho coarse stalks are so broken in pieces and mixed with tho leaves and lmmaturo fruit that nearly all will bo eaten. It is doubt less tho best of tho legumes for tho silo, as It can bo moro easily handled for tho cutter than plants Uko clover or cow peas. Thero are a number of variotics, differing mainly In the tlmo ot ripening and tho color of tho seeds. Growing Crnmborrlo. At a recent meeting of Canadian fruit growers tho question of growing cranberries was discussed and ono of tho leading growers offered somo testi mony from which tho following Is di gested. Tho land for planting cran berries should bo worked up and sand ed, tho sand to bo from tllreo to six Inches deep. Tho Irrigation Is Im portantIn fact, Is essential to cran berry growing. Tho land should al ways bo kept damp. Beforo tho frost comes, tho patch should bo flooded and kept so until tho 1st of May. Tho ber ries do not thrive well when oxposod to tho winter's frost. If a long spell of dry weather takes place in summer, irrigation should bo repeated. Ono speaker said: "I grow tho Cherry Bell variety and I realized $300 net for what I grow on ono ncro last year. I would llko to know If thero Is anything else cno would put an aero to that would bring tho same returns. Sand will correct all weeds. I havo now fifteen ncre3 under cultivation, and all my neigh bors havo token up tho Industry, al though they laughed at mo when I started mine. I enn recommond tho cultivation of cranberries as a profit able business, from tho experlenco I havo had." AUalfft in Stock Foad. Tho first crop of alfalfa Is much tho best for horses, writes a contributor to Nebraska Farmer. Tho Btems aro moro woody, but horses will cat them up clean and, If ovorfed, will allow tho leaves to accumulate In tho mnngor, showing that they prefer the stems, A cow, on tho other hand, very much prefers tho leaves, so that a common custom In alfalfa-growing districts Is to gtvo tho horses an amplo allowance and clean out tho manger for tho cows. Tho second crop Is a littlo less woody than the first and will bo eaten up clean by cows as well as horses. Tho third crop Is not so well relished by horses, nor will they keop In so good condition on It, as It affects tho kidneys too much. But cows do well on It. In any alfalfa district tho first crop will sell best for horse feed, and Is consid ered moro nutritious for any stock. But tho later crops aro considered nlmost ns good for young stock, and will bo eaten up clean by cows. Minimize ClioTern I,oe Jns. Riley says: If tho hog oholora should break out on our own farm, then all tho pigs that havo been ex, posed to It should bo confined in small lots so as not to spread tho disease on the farm, The pig that has tho cholera should bo confined in a pen to itself, and It should bo sprayed three or four times each day with chloro-naphtho-lovni twenty parts water to ono ot the chlorcv 9p.1l tho floor oi the pen ahouM bo kept white wltn slaked llrjo, ni 1 II the pis died, if it can 1 rt no, rnui somo logs anil wood nnd btm It in ins tho pen w-horo It died, but If not, ba suro that every cholera garm 13 klllel on tho way from tho pan to tlia placo whero tho pis 13 burned. By using sum vigorous measures wo havo stricoedert In stamping tho chnlsra out novoral times on our farm. Amorlcan Swlno. herd. - , Fnett Against Dilution Separator A Washington, D. C, correspondent it the Farmors' Revlow writes: Tho department ot agriculture has recently been preparing somo matter on cream separation by dilution. Tho various gravity or dilution separators placed upon tho mnrket have caused consld jrnblo gonoral discussion of tho sub ject and nt tho Now York Cornell sta tion tho subject ot patents on theso "separators" was Investigated nnd practical trials wero made of several 5f them. In all ot tho cans tho separa tion of cream depends upon gravity, and tho designation of them as separators Is misleading inasmuch as that torro Is by common usago applied to contriv ances In which the cream is separated by ccntrlfugnl forco. It Is stated that tho patents granted on theso cans cover unimportant details of construc tion, nnd that "anyono desiring to use this process of doubtful utility Is frco to do so without let or hindrance f f"u tho holder of any patent-right wllat over." In the practical test3 nt tho Cornell station, dilution with water betweoa 50 And CO degrees Fahr., savo results approximately tho samo as thoso ofe tallied by deep sotting in Ice water wl& a Cooloy can. With milk from cowa comparatively fresh, cold, deep sotting gavo considerably better results than tho dilution method. After n two week's trial ot a dilution separator by tho Michigan station tho verdict was "not only was tho loss exccsslvo (fat content) but tho skiramtlk thus di luted with so much wntcr could not bo fed to advantage nnd tho cream soured rapidly. Ono hundred nnd twenty trlab of tho .;amo "separator" woro made at tho Vermont station, which reports "Tho gravity separator left in tho skimmllk, 13 per cent of tho fat of tho mixed milk, 40 per cent of the Ayrshlro milk nnd 17 per cent of tho fnt of tho strip per milk, The centrifugal separator left betwojn 1 nnd 2 per cent of tho fact of these milks behind In tho skimmllk." Treating ntach-log In Oklahoma. A bulletin from tho Oklnh'oma sta tion says: Black-leg is ono ot tho most Important diseases among cnttlo In Oklahoma and is commonly known ns black-leg or black-quarter. Tho dls easo may assumo a number of forms but usually is noticed ns a local swell ing In either tho front or hind limb. This swelling contains gas which causes n crackling sound when the hand is passed over the swelling. Tho swelling Is nt first hot and painful, but after the gas begins to form it is not sensitive and the skin becomes dry and parchment like. Tho dlsenso Is ono common to young cattle and is rapidly fatal, death generally occurring in from twelvo to thirty-six hours after tho first symp toms aro noticed. Thoro is no successful medical treat ment for tho disease. Vaccination Is now recognized as the most successful way to provent tho disease. The neces sary apparatus, which consists of a hypordermlc syringe, n smnll porcelain mortar, glass rod and Alter funnel, can bo purchasod. from any instrument dealer for threo or four dollars. With this apparatus any careful individual can do tho work successfully. Tho ex periment station nt Stillwater Is pre pared to furnish n small amount ot vaccine, with full Instructions for us ing, to parties who need It for their own uso nnd who will supply them selves with tho necessary Instruments for doing tho work. A Mortgage on Hlioop. The Pacific Rural Press thus an swers a man who wanted to know If a uiortgago on sheep included tho wool: It seems that your chattel mortgago wi a (lock of sheep does not Inaludo tho wool clip unless so agreed. A man gavo a chattel mortgtsjo on a herd of sheep In Kern county, tho mortgage to cover "the Increase thereof." Tho mort gagor sheared tho sheep, and the mortgagee claimed tho wool. Suit was brought for Its recovery, but tho lowor court ruled against tho mortgagee. Tho Supreme court, in afllrmlng tho Judg ment, has laid down the lnw that tho "lncreaso" of a herd ot sheep-or cattle, or other domestic animals, moans the young ot such animals, and cannot ap ply to tho wool in quc&tlo.i any mora than tho chattel mortgago of a dairy would cover the butter and cheese to bo hereafter produced. It was hardly to bo supposed that tho poultry business would como Into tho sphere of great commercial move ments and concentrations. But some thing of this nature seems to havo taken place in Europe. Within a few years thero has been a marked tend ency to eliminate the small poultry enterprises and supplant them with large ones. Some capitalists have been buying poultry in Italy, taking It to Belgium and parcellnj it out In lots of from 300 to C.'jO laying hens each. Tho birds aro kept for two years nftor purchase, and thus two seasons' egg product is secured, after which tho birds are fattened and sold for tablo poultry, Tho importation begins In May and continues till August, and sometimes as late ns September. They have found by experience thnt birds Imported from October till April do not stand tho chango well, a3 tho transference from sunny Italy to cold and moist Belgium Is too great for them except under the most favorable circumstances. Whon thoy aro Im ported In the summer tlmo they be come acclimated before winter sets in, Tho variety cf birds mostly purchasod In Italy is Brown Leghorns. Th chango scorns to Improve their egg pro ducing capaclly, and ogg3 produced In Belgium welch moro on tho nverage than egca ot I ho samo lions produced In Italy. DAIRY AND P0IJLT11Y. INTERESTING CHAPTERS FOR OUR RURAL READERS. ITow Surceiful Tanner O pom to Tlili Department of the Farm A Few Illntcn to tlio Cnro ot LIto Stock and l'oultr. Oalry Note. At tho Kansas Experiment Station thoy havo beon testing tho milk sent In by dairymen nnd complain that in many Instances tho milk arrives at the collego In a hnlf-churned condlMon and unfit for test. Tho ndvlco Is given to fill all bottles brim full ot milk. Then make a small holo In tho cork through which milk can run. When tho cork Is thus pushed In tight tho surplus milk will flow out through tho holo, which can then bo stopped up by n 'lttlo plug of wood. This will provent tho churn ing motion nnd tho consequent forma tion of littlo grains of butter on tho sides of tho bottles. Another fraud In milk selling has been discovered In England and wo may oxpect that In duo tlmo It will got to this country. Tho authorities find thnt In some of tho English coast towns what Is called milk oxtract Is bolng sold to dairymen. This Is n chemical possibly, but tho reports aro not doflnlto enough tu lndlcato tho composition of tho so-called milk ox tract. It Is used by dairymen to ln creaso say 400 gallons ot milk to E00 gallons, hot water being added. Or dlnnrlly tho adding of hot water or any other kind of water can bo easily dotcctcd, but by tho uso ot this powder tho milk and water Incorporate so thoroughly that tho addition is hard to dotoct. A "Babcock Shilling Fund" has beon stnrted by tho dairymen pt Now South Wales, and tho money collectod will bo forwarded to Professor Babcock of tho Wisconsin Experiment Station ns a thank-offering. As many of our read ers know, Professor Babcock gavo his Invention to the world, so that no man ufacturer will over bo ablo to havo a monopoly of tho making nnd selling ot tho machines. For that reason many firms mnko Babcock milk testers and tho competition thus brought nbout keops tho prlco down to tho lowest point thnt will admit of a profit. Sinco all that buy machines get them at a greatly reduced cost on account of tho generosity of Professor Babcock In not patenting his Invention, tho thank-offerings that aro occasionally sent him meet tho npprovnl of every man inter ested In dnirylng. Tho dairy propaganda seems to bo reaching out Into nil lauds. Even Tunis, on tho north coast of Africa, Is being considered ns n field for dairy operations. A largo amount of dairy products is being brought Into that country, In which rcsldo 110,000 Euro peans. Besides that population that is given to tho consumption of dairy products there nro numerous hotols that entertain tourists by tho thou sands. Perhaps the dairy may provo as beneficent n factor In thnt be nighted land as It has proved In tho moro enllghtcd countries of the world. It was not a generation ago that Den mark took up tho question of dairying In oarncst nnd now sho has bocomo tho leading dairy country of tho world, so far as butter exports aro concerned. Wo may In tho future havo to meet .11 tho London market not only butter from Denmark, Franco and Australia, but also butter produced along tho shores ot tho Mediterranean sea. Corn-foil Fowl. Llko corn fed cattle and swine, corn fed fowls nro all very well for mar ket, If they nro marketed when thoy should bo, nnd not when Just ready to dlo from ovcrcorpulcnce. But for all practical purposes, tho corn fed fowl Is a valueless fowl, for sho Is Invari ably burdened with fnt, says n con tributor to Epltomlst. Tho Leghorn will partako quite regularly of a corn diet and will stand up woll under this careless way of feeding her, or allow ing her to help herself. But tho lnrgor, heavier breeds will break down, Would that wo could havo tho corn crib and tho swlno lots so substantial ly, thoroughly and closely fenced in, that not a fowl could enter thom. Every western farm Is dotted over with corn fields nnd corn cribs, and so vast and common is this farm crop of tho west, that overywhero the corn fowls may gorge thomsolvos without taking many steps; nnd tho over fat hen Is an almost everyday occurrence, wh!ro precautionary mcasuroa are not taken to prevent this consumption of corn. Somo of tho oldest writers upon poultry topics havo boon telling us for years of tho detrimental qualities of com an food for hens. For chicks and growing fowls It is excellent fed In. moderation, and not to iho exclusion of everything else. For laying hens and pullets It Is nlso oxccllcnt ns ah oc casional food. But corn threo times n day, or so placed that hens can holp themselves to it without let or hind rance, will provo harmful almost with out exception. Wo had tho les3on to learn, and learned it at great expense. When one has lost n few hens that aro readily worth from $5 to $8 a piece, and many times much moro, ho begins to count tho cost and cry down tho cause. Whon largo, plump, beautiful hens will sing to you ono dny and bo dead tho next morning, you may al most Invariably count upon over fat aa tho cause. By dissecting tho bird tho causo will usually bo found to bo great sheets and layers oi r!c?i, yellow fat interlining the cntlro body. Tho liver will bo found to bo of a palo, pluklfb color, whereas to bu In a healthy condition, It should bo a bright red. But an over ttt hen is not In a healthy condition. Unless saved from her own greed, sho will soon succumb to tho Inevitable Glvo tho over fat hen prompt attention. Plnco htr where sho can securo such food ns you see fit to gtvo her, nnd let that 00 a trifle to begin with. Plenty to drink nnd nothing to cat will bo tho most heroic treatment that can woll bo adminis tered for n "first taking In hand" of a fowl. Let her btcomo desporntoly hungry, and then feed her lightly, nnd but Boldom, until a very perceptible de crcaso In her weight tins takon placo. Glvo plenty of sharp grit, and Rochello or Epsom salts tu licr drinking water occasionally. It Is hard to resist tho coaxing ot hungry fowls. But hungoi, nnd not food, Is what Is needed In the caso of heavy, over fat hens. Tlio Flrrro ot tlio I.ml. Th fleece ot n ram should bo nt lotst half heavier than that of a owo ot tho same breed, partly from addi tional bIzc, nnd partly from tho fact of his dovotlng nil his food to his own nutriment and adornment, says J. M. McCory in Tho Farmer. A owo that Is not raising lambs shears much heav ier than ono that Is milking. Tho samo dlfforouco makes a corresponding dlffercnco In tho weight of tho fiecco ns between rams and owes. Not only with regard to quantity, but with rcgnrd to tho places bearing wool, should tho ram differ from tho owo. Tho ram should have tho wool crowd ing luxuriantly on every part of tho body on which wool may appropriate ly grow. It Is an easily observed fact that In tho males of nearly nil domes tic animals and birds, ns well ns thoso In a frco stnt males are gonerously adorned us compnred with feninlos. This Is supposed to bo duo to surplus nutriment crowded to tho exterior ot tho males, but otherwise) used to nour ish offspring In tho females. It may be safely laid down, thon, thnt a ram light In iho fiecco has not tlio nppo tlto and, consequently, vigor nnd con stitution thqt appropriately belong to him as a male. It Bhould bo remark ed horo that thoro aro great variations In different breeds ns to tho amount of covering deemed right at tho ex tremities; for example, on tho faco and legs. Tho LcIco3lors, on tho ono hand, havo a baro poll and legs, whllo tho Shrops nro woolcd to tho noso and toes. What has beon B:tld with regard to wool at tho jxtromltlcs, thon, must bo taken with appropriate modifica tions with regard to different breeds. IMi wllli Croup F. M. B Rushvllle, O.: I havo nine teen head ot Poland-China shoats a lit tlo over four months old, says National Stockman. Thoy havo boon running on good clovor nil summor nnd hnva boon fed n littlo corn twlco n day. Thoy aro in good shapo, will wolgh between 80 nnd 100 pounds, havo plenty ot fresh running water, and a good, dry placo to Blcop In rainy woathor. Roma of them havo been ailing. Thoy nra suddenly seized with n terrlblo wheez ing and somo cough. Thoy havo to keep their mouths opon to broatho, and can bo hoard novoral rod3. When first taken I noticed two ot thom vomit n littlo In coughing. Thoy don't seem to bo very sick, but can't cnt for n day or two on nccount ot hard breathing. Thero also, seems to bo a kind ol phlegm in tho throat. Four havo been sick, two got woll In about a week, one Is bettor, nnd tho other has Just takon sick. Answer: Tho symptoms that you glvo lndtcato that your pigs aro attack ed with "croup." Pigs aro subject to this ns well us children. In bad cases the pig uccds treatmont similar to tho child. A ub of wator as hot as can bu used without scalding should bo pro vided nnd tho pig put Into It for ton or f:fteen mlnutco whon thoro Is danger of suffocation. In milder cases, yet so vcro, glvo compound syrup of squills every hour until breathing Is onBy; loss frequently In mild cases. Syrup ot Ipecac given will rollovo If takon In time. Tho doso of elthor of tho syrups Is n tcaspoouful to pigs ono to four months old. An Fgrot Farm. Tho Arizona Sentinel gives tho fol lowing nccount of a new Industry to bo started near Guaymas: "Tho cgrot Is n tropical bird of tho heron family, and Is found In great abundance near tho mouth of tho Colorado river. Thoy havo a white crest on tho head, tho feathers of which aro valued at $32 an ounce. It has been figured out that twenty birds will yield nn ounco of feathers twlco u year, or ten birds will yield nn ounco of feathers every year, which would bo ?32 a year for ton birds. Tho birds havo been, and nro being, killed for their feathers, and aa a cousequencu they will soon bo extinct. Charley proposes to fence 100 acres of marshy laud along tho rlvor bottom, near Yuma, and domesticate the egret. Ho thinks this could bo dono by clipping their wings. Ho has several birds In his possession now, nnd thoy seem to ntnnd cnptivlty woll, and nro easily tuuicd. Tho schemo Is feasible." rlHcne of Ilicop lii (leriiiimr. Consul Pltcalrn, at Hamburg, roports to tho Stato Dopartmout nn Interest ing resumo of the Bheop nnd wool In dustry In Germany. Tho averago los3 to German farmers, he says, In tho last twelve years, caused by tho falling off In sheep brooding, amounted annually to ?8,GG8,000. Tho numbor of sheep bus decreased 12,000,000 head, causing thereby n meat-valuo loss of 5,712,000. In 1891 Gormany Imported 373,800,000 pounds of wool and produced 41,000,000 pounds. In 1893 sho Imported $30,830, 000 of wool, practically nono ot which was from this country. 'Docs not this," ho concludes, "look llko n poa. slblo opening for American wool?" Agricultural Note. How deep shall tho tlio drain bo lata In clny soil? This Is n question that has been agitating farmers for soma years. At first It was believed that a. drain In clny soil should bo shallow, but mora recent Investigations scorn to Indlcnto thnt drains should bo laid deep In both sandy nnd clayey soils. The effect ot tho draining In clay soils Is to render tho soil abovo tho drnlh moro triable. Tho ground is also more subject to what Is known ns tho iteration process. This aeration is In dry weather of great Importance Tho warm nlr being forced Into tho ground, or rather drawn In, carries with It much molstuo, which Is condensed by tho colder soil nnd thus helps to add to tho moisture In tho soli. This Is n good tlmo of yonr to find out what kind of work has been done on tho roads. When tho fall rains como tho badly mndo road noon gets Into n condition whero It Is woll nigh tmpassablo. It Is not difficult to bult'l a rond thnt will do well In dry times, but to build ono that will stand tho effects of heavy rains Is nnother mat tor. Tho man that will mako compari sons between different parts of tho samo road built under different uy toms will learn something. Tho road thnt hnn r. tlio drain on each sldo cf It should show Its value nt this tlmo If tho crown has been put on proporly. On tho other hand tho flat road that la not drained at all except by open ditches will bocomo rutted and form bnslns to hold tho water. Thero is no tlmo Uko tho present for inspections nnd for tho formulation of plans for tho next campaign nt vond building. In Holland, nnd probably In soma other foreign countries dovoted large ly to ngrlculturo, It is not unusual to sco manuro stored in pits In tho ground. A Dutch farmer onco told tho writer how the manuro was stored. Itn said: "Wo dug an immense pit, say thirty feet long nnd ten feed wide and six feet deep. It was In hard soil so that tho walls formed a hard, compact surfaco to keop tho manuro from lench Ing out. Tho bottom was so hard that no manuro could oscapo that way. Then all through tho fall and wintor tho hard manuro was thrown Into this pit and tho liquid manuro was run Into tho pit nlso, with what bedding It was necessary to throw nway. In thv spring when wo took out tho manuro wo did It by backing n cart down to ono end of tho pit, for thoro wns a tlrlvowny constructed that would allow tho wneols- ot tho cart to reach tho lovel ot tho bottom ot tho pit. Wo found tho manuro packed almost ns hard as clay nnd It wnB cut and spadod out In flno shape, having lost nono of Its fertilizing properties through tho leaching ot wntor." Thoro nro n num ber of things that wo must Imagine, but which should havo beon elucidated at tho tlmo ot conversation. Wo Im nglno, for Instance, that thcro was a covering ot somo kind over this pit JLo v deflect tho rains, nnd nlso thnt it was so protected by shallow drains that water from tho surrounding land would not run into It nnd causo It to over flow, thus carrying tho dissolved ma nuro onto tho adjoining lands or per haps Into brooks nnd streams. Wo also aupposo that tho cart road that ran down to tho end ot tho pit must havo beon cut oft nt tho boglnnlng ot tho pit by bonrds to keep tho manuro from flowing out Into tho road and filling it up. Tlio Cuming Hug. I talked with a man last week wha advanced tho slngulnr theory that wo aro, year by year, brooding n raco ot potato booties that aro, In ono sonso, becoming lmmuno to poisons, writes a contributor to Rural Now Yorkor. Ho thinks tho failure to kill tho bcotlo may not bo wholly duo to adultera tions In Purls green. It actually takes stronger doses to kill tho Insects. As wo well know, thoro nro arsonlc cators Nho havo takon tho poison for years, gradually Increasing tho doso until thoy can safely cat a quantity that would kill an ordinary person. Moun tain climbers or guides In hilly coun tries havo becomo so far lmmuno to tho poison that thoy safoly eat It, as It helps their "wind." Tho theory Is that, by moans ot "natural scloctlon," tho booties best nolo to stand tho poi son nro left each year for breeders. This, kept on long enough, would ro sult in a brood ot booties thnt could cat Paris green without a sorlous stom ach ache. Somo light, lndolont man, who has been bred nnd fed for genera tions us a "high liver," would be per fectly happy aftor eating a quantity ot rich food that would destroy tho hnppl ness of a farmer. Theso "feeding hab its" ot living things moans much to tho man on tho farm. Grnpo Julco. A toport of tho Canada oxperlmcntnl farms gives nn account of n scries of experiments on tho best means of sterilizing grnpo julco. Tho conclusion, which probably applies to sweot cldor nH woll ns to grapo Julco, was that "tho natural flavor of grapo Julco may bo preserved Intact by rais ing tho temperature of the Julco grad ually to 170 degrees F., keeping It at this point for ten minutes nnd then quickly bottling It, taking cnro to uso absolutely air-tight nnd thoroughly sterilized vessels. Theso vessels should be taken from n tank or kottlo of boil ing wntor, Immedlntoly filled, nnd corked or covered with tho least poa slblo delay. Tho tall of tho year 13 tho tune to fatten nnd sell any sheep that do not appear to bo thrifty. They aro llkoly to got sick during the winter, and It Is hotter to sell them In tho fall than to run tho risk ot losing them alto gether in tho winter. Do not keop moro fowls than can ba properly taken caro of.