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Trlllcu frequently chango tho courao nt history. Many of the outlying pos Aonftlons of the British Empire were acquired by chance; almost, certainly ly taking advantage of trivial things. Tlireo hundred years ago tho Dutch hold tho monopoly of all trado to Asia and India. Suddenly, In lf99, they raised tho prlco of pepper from tlitTti to six shillings n pound. This wuh rnoro than Englishmen could Htand. Tho worthy morchnnts of Lon don mot together to protest against thu "un-Chrlstlan prlco of pepper." Thoy. did moro than protest, for thoy determined to got their own pepper from India rather than yield to tho Dutchman's domands. Thoy formed n company called "Tho Governor and Company of tho Merchants of London 'railing to the Hast Indies," and sub-M-.rlhcd a capital of $350,000. On tho l int day of 1000 nearly three centur ;h ago Quoon Elizabeth granted Miom a royal charter. They opened a trado with India and gut tholr pepper nt a 'Christian prlco." And they got rnoro than pepper, for It was this company that gained a footing for tho Kngllsh in India, drove out tho French und established British rulo over that vast peninsula nnd ono-flfth of tho hu man race. It was only nftor tho mu tiny, In 1858, that tho company ccaa !il to rulo India, and tho Queen assum id tho rolns of government. Thus, for an extra twoponco an ounco on popper, a handful of morchants laid tho foun dation for tho British I lull an Empire. Moro than ouo bit of tho British Em pire has been secured to Britons by tho closest of Bhaven. Tho British Hag was hoisted In Australiathen a barren continent, Inhabited by tho most degraded of mnnklnd only three weeks before a French vessel nrrlved to make It a possession of France. By a narrow squeak New England was secured to tho Anglo-Saxon race. Sovcnty yeara ago English missionaries and a few sottlers went to Now Zoaland. The French began to look enviously on tho two fertile lslnnds. The British gov ernment was begged to annex thorn. They took no stops whatever to forc ntull tho French and to protoct the English already there. Private enter prise stopped In. A New Zealand com pany was formed by tho Earl of Dur ham nnd Edward Gibbon Wakefield. Tho company shipped off n cargo of settlers to New Zealand. The voyage took nlno months then, and, seeing tho pcoplo were In earnest, tho gov ernment tardily decided to annex tho land. In May, 1840, a party landed from a man-of-war and hoisted the Union Jnck, proclaiming tho Islands British territory. They were Just In time. Three days lator a French Bhlp dropped anchor In ono of tho natural harbors. Great was their rage on see ing tho EngllHh llag Hying, for thoy had como to hol't tho tricolor. Tho French missionaries, In full canoni cals, protested to the British officers, but they wore forestalled. It was to that lucky chanco tho New' Zealand of today, with its 7G0.000 whlto settlors, forming tllo most advanced and Ideal community In tho world, owes its existence. mm 5 THE TRADE WIND. Tho floutheast trades nro almost as 1 Hiiro In their oporatlon ns is tho rccur ronco of day and night, says tho Spec tator. Tho homeward bound sailing "hip, onco having boon swept round tho Capo of Good Hopb In splto of ad verse winds by th& irresistible Agul huu curront, usually finds nwnltlng her a southerly wind. Sailors refuse to call It tho first of tho trades, considering that nny wind blowing without tho tropics has no claim to bo called a 'trade." This fancy muttorB llttlo. Tho groat thing Is that theao helpful breezes uwalt tho homoward bounder close down to tho southern limit of his pausngo, nwalt him with arms outspread In welcome, and colncldcnt ly with tho pleasant turning of his Hhlp'H head homoward, permit the yardB to bo Bquared, and tho course to be sot as desired. And tho ship llko a docllo horso who, nftor a long day's O ALLEY-SLAVES. Tlmy Woro OIiIIboiI to Do Itcmluc En tirely Nuked, During' tho alxtoonth and seven teenth conturlos tho galleys of Franco. Hpuln and tho Italian republics wero iisod nB tho moans of punishment for all criminals, ovon thoso who hud com mitted capital crimes. Oalloy slaves wero aubjectod to tho greatest lndtgnl tlOH nnd cruoltles. Tholr heads und i'noos woro shaved, thoy woro nlwuys c.hulnud to . tholr bonches, nnd thoy rowod ontlroly naked, being only al lowed to wear clothing when In port. Thoy woro Befdom roloafiod, oven when tholr tlmo of sorvico was accomplish ed. Honry IV., of Frnnco, ordered tho captains of all gniloys to rotaln prison ers of six years, ovon though condemn ml for n shorter tlmo, nnd under Louis XIV.. jtalloy Blavoa Bontonccd for only two or throo yonrs woro often retained for llftoon yoara nnd moro. In tho most anelont. times, to row In tho galleys wot) considered honorablo; but as tho work was vory laborious, and it was dlHluult to procure voluntary recruits for It. prlBOuars of war wero put to this Htirvlco, Thou It bocamo customary to condemn criminals to tho work. Tho galley van a long, low, narrow vessol of war, having sails, but chiefly pro- nollod by oars on oauh Bide. U ilrow but llttlo wntor and waa especially con voulont for coast sorvico. 1 hey wero nbollBhod In Franco in 1748, having boon gradually going out of ubo In that and other oountrloii for a uumbor of yourn. Journoy, finds his head pointing atabloward and settles down to a clinking pace gathers way in. stately fashion, and glides northwnrd, at n uniform rate without any further need of Interference from her crow. Throughout tho long bright days, with tho sen, wearing ono vast many dlmplcd smile, nnd tho stainless bluo nbovo quivering In light uninterrupted by tho pnssago of n single cloud, the whlto-wlnged ship sweeps Borencly on. All nround in tho paling blue of tho sky nenr tho horizon lloat tho sleepy, lleecy cumuli peculiar to the "trades, without perceptible motion or change of form. When day steps abruptly Into night, and tho myriad glories of tho sunless hours reveul thcmsolvos shyly to un unheeding ocean, tho silent ship still passes ghostlike upon her placid way, tho stondfast wind rounding her canvas Into tho softest of curves, with out a wrinklo or a shake. A TALL JACKPOT. Neat Hum of lo.OOO Won nt n Uttle (Initio. rJow York Special to Chicago Tlmcs Hcrald: A story of a poker gamo with a tall Jnckpot has leaked out. Tho game, so tho story goes, wus played at tho Democratic club, and Maurice Untcrmyer Is winner thereby of tho ncnt sum of $15,000. Among tho losors arc mentioned somo of tho leading lights of Tammnny Hall, John F. Car roll being not tho loast of these. Last Friday afternoon five members of tho Democratic club Bat down to a game of poker. Two of tho llvo wero Mr. Carroll and Mr. Untermycr. Tho gamo grow In In teres t and tho stakes In slzo until 7 o'clock, when, It 1b stated, Mr. Untermycr remnrked ho would soon havo to lcavo to go to his brother's at tho Groystonc. "Well, wo will havo Just ono moro Jackpot," said Mr. Un tormyor, "nnd then quit. Tho others agreed nnd tho cards went around, but as no ono caught "openers" tho pllo of chips continued to grow. Finally ono of the players camo Into u hand which enabled him to open tho Jackpot. No body out. Two drew cards, ono dis carded his whole hand nnd drow a now ono. Mr. Untermycr drow ono card. Mr. Carroll drow ono card, and formor Judgo Howard of Philadelphia, a vis itor, rcmnlned pat. Betting began cau tiously. With seomlng reluctnnco Mr. Untormyer pushed a stack of flvo bluo chips toward tho center. Mr. Carroll oyed him suspiciously, Bmlled nnd saw him flvo better. "You can't tell," said ono of tho other players; "gentlemen may somotlmcs bluff. I guess I'm still In it," and ho pushod his llttlo stack' of blues forward. Judgo Howard kept In tho raco with an Impcrturballty that had mado tho others nervous. Mr. Untermycr had by this tlmo apparent ly fnllon Into a brown study. With a mechanical sort of movement ho shov ed a triplo row of bluo stacks to tho fore. "You have olther n royal flush or a royal nervo," Bald Mr. Carroll. Guess I'll drop out." Two others dropped out also. Judgo Howard re mained. "Well, I'll call you," ho final ly snld. Mr. Untermycr laid down a royal Hush of hearts. Judgo Hownrd romulned. "Woll, good-by, gentlemen," snld Mr. Untcrraeyer, alter cashing In chips. "Sorry to havo to Interrupt tho gamo." Judgo Howard, It Is Bald, made out a check to Mr. Untcrmycr's order for $15,000. IN THE PHILIPPINES. BRITISH CONSULS ON AMERI CAN IMPROVEMENTS. Ijiit n'ml Order Ilelng Itestorcd nnd Native lloturnlni; to Agricultural Pur sults Improvement Kvery where Postofflco iinil Telegraph Woll Conducted ludlntt Uepnrtee, , From "Tho Reminiscences of tho Uhihop of Minnesota": An Indian agent, who was a militia colonel, do Hired to Impress tho Indians with tho mugnltudo of his dignity Ho droasod himself In full uniform, with his sword hy his nldo, and rising In tho council told thorn that ono reason why th J rout Father had had ho much troubl with bin rod children was that ho had Hunt civilians to them. You are war rlurH," ho Bald, "and when tho Great Kuthor flaw mo und said- 'I will send thin man, who Is u groat warrior, to my red children, who uro warriors, anil, thoy will hoar his words,' " An, old chlof arose, and, Biirvoylng tho tqmakor from head to foot, anld calm ly:, "Hlnco I wub a small boy I have lumril that whlto nam have great wur rloni. i have always wanted to boo duo. I havo looked upon oue, und now I am roady to tllo." A GLOVE MARRIAGE. ouple 0,000 Mile Apart United hy Citlile. An extraordinary ceremony recently took place In Amstordnm, with a coun terpart in Airicn. it appears mat a young mnn left Holland somo tlmo ago to servo In tho tolcgrnph department of tho Trnnsvnal. It had been his am bltlon to make n certain young lady In Amsterdam his wlfo If h6 ever attain eu to prosperity. Hut wlion success was.nchlovod ho was unublo to leavo his work to mako a Journoy to Hoi land. In this dllllculty n mnrrlago by proxy known In Holland as a glovo mnrrlago was suggested. Tho dotalls wore all carefully arranged, tho differ onccs of tlmo cnrofully calculated arid continuous cable connections between Pretoria and Amsterdam woro secur etU The bridegroom and his friends assembled at tho Hotel Krugor. An operator, using a wlro from tho cable, notified tho lady's family In Holland that all was In readiness, nnd tho re ply camo that tho ceremony would then begin. In tho Amsterdam man alon n friend of tho brldogroom mado tho responses, and when tho tlmo ennib to clasp hands ho produced n glovo bolonglng to tho brldogroom wWch he had worn. The proxy holding ono end of tho glovo and the brldo the other, tho promises woro oxchanged and the ceromony was completed. A cablegram from tho brldo to her husband, 0,000 miles away, gnvo him her wlteiy greeting, to which ho responded. Thoro was a wedding feast In Pretoria nnd another In Amsterdam, nnd tho cable was kept busy with congratulations. Then the brldo said farewell to her family anil stopped on board tho steamer to bogln her voyage to her now homo. The custom of tho glove marriage dates hack to tho old colonial days, when they wero more common than In tho3o times of ohenp Journeys. Hpectre of tho llrockon. Tho summit of tho Brockcn, or Blocksborg, tho highest of tho Hartz mountains In Prussian Saxony, pre sents a slngulnr optical phenomenon eight or nlno times during the year. It is usually seen nt Btinrlso or sunset nnd consists of n gigantic projection of tho obsorvcr, or observers, upon misty clouds, which rlso out of tho valley on tho Bldo of tho mountain opposite to tho sun. Sir Walter Scott wroto'of tt: Among tho various legends curront In that wild country thcro Is a favorlto ono, which supposes tho Hnrtz to bo haunted with a kind of tutelar demon, In tho sliapo of a wild man of hugo stuturo, his head wreathed with oak lenves, and his mlddlo alncturcd with tho Bame, wearing In his hand a plno torn up by tho roots. It Is certain that many profess to havo Been such a form, traversing with hugo Btrldcs, In a lino parallel to tholr own courso, tho opposlto rldgo of a mountnln when di vided from It by a narrow glen; and, Indeed tho fact of tho apparition is so gonorally admitted that modem skep ticism has only found rofugo by ascrib ing It to optical deception." monograph In Ijuikuhko Study. It has boon proposed to employ tho phonograph ns an aid In lenming for eign langunges. In learning a language It la necessary first of all to- havo tho oar trained to catch and rccognlzo tho sounds, nnd tho only way to accom plish thls.ls to llston to tho continual repetition of tho sounds until tho ear becomes familiar with them. Many porson3 havo to loam a foreign lnn guago without nny aid rrom a teacher that can apeak that languago correctly, and oven thoso that nro so rortunnto as to havo a competent teacher cannot constantly havo tho toachor at hand. Now It is proposed to have phono graphic records of langungo lessons; then tho student enn havo tho machlno repeat tho lesson ovor und over again until ho Is perfectly familiar with It. Food for relloctlon 1h frequently hard to digest, but If used properly will not produce mental nlghtmuro. Outnltled hy Whlto Men "Flftoon years ago two negroes woro elected to olllce In my district," Bald O, 11. Mopley, of Eutaw, Ala. "They wero nover permitted to nsaumo their ofllco, and nono fina over boon elected since. At tho time of tholr olectlon tho law required them to qualify within ten days by taking tho oath. Neither waB acquainted with this fact, al though both presonted themsolves to qualify. They woro advised that there was plenty of time, and wero Instruct ed to qualify lator. At tho expiration of tho ten duys, not having qualified, a vacancy was declared, and whlto men woro appointed In their stead." Washington Times, Viiltin Ynut-Hfllt Highly, To collego and business women nllko, to nil who must bo wngo-earners, tho prnctlcal verities appeal. Sot a high value on yourself, dear toller, and llvo up to your own estlmnto. Havo beforo you an ideal or truo womnnhood, and prny dally that you may not fall bo- low It. If tho prcclso work you wish for does not offer itself, take something olso, oven If you do so only tempor arily. Margaret E. Sangstor, In tho Juno Ladles' Homo Journal, Consul Halstcad sends from Birm ingham, Juno 11, 1900, the following nbstract of tho annual report of tho British consul at Manila: "Tho collapse of tho Insurrection last November and tho opening of tho ports since January 1 having restored confi dence, great activity In commercial quarters has ensued. Law and order arc being restored ns rapidly as pos sible, but tho Immense slzo of tho coun try renders It a difficult task. Tho natlvcsi, I believe, would willingly re turn to tholr agricultural pursuits, but tho Influence of their lenders appears sufficiently ntrong to keep them from surrendering. "Prices have Increased to such an ex tent that Manila, which till recently might bo classed as a cheap placo to llvo In, muBt now bo considered tho re verse. As yet the provision markets are not seriously affected, though fruit, vegetables, game, etc., are 20 per cent dearer; but houso rent, servants, carriages, horses, launches, nnd labor of every description nro already treble the price of last year. In conscquenco of tho great demand, launch hire and everything connected with shipping commands Us own prlco. Improve ments are vlslblo in every direction, and already tho tpwn has quite a dif ferent nppearnnco from last year. The work of draining tho filthy town ditch es nnd otagnant pools, which Is in contemplation, may possibly entail nn epidemic, but the ndvantago to poster ity Is Inestimable. Tho recovered land of tho city walls and moat will provldo building altos which Ameri can enterprlso will know how to utl llzo; and nlthough Manila will never become a fashionable watering place, It may become a groat commercial power in these waters beforo tho first quarter of tho century Is pasacd. "Tho two well-known leading Indus tries of Manila hemp and tobacco will, 1 fear, suffor very severely for somo tlmo from the lato Insurrection; but there aro no doubt at present gold en opportunities for the employment of capital and talent In many local trades. Ico manufactories, livery stables, ho tels, and goneral enterprises arc much wanted; but I moat Btrongly deprecate young men without capital (no matter what their education may be) coming hero in search of employment. The departments of tho post-office and tele graph, being now under Amorlcan and British control, nro ndmlrably con ducted. The telophono. tho water sup ply, nnd tho electric lighting aro Span ish, nnd nlso desorvo great praise. Tho electric-lighting plant Is being enlarged nnd Manila will soon be one of tho best lighted towns In tho cast. "Tho Chlneso labor question Is ono of great Importanco In theso Islands. America's experience of It In Califor nia not being satisfactory, thcro Is strong Influence against It; but, taking into consideration tho natural indo lence of the Filipino, it will probably be found Impossible to do without tho Chinese. Ono of tho principal objec tions Is that by their Industrious hab its they gradually obtain a monopoly In nil retail trades; but this may bo remedied by confining their enterprlso simply to manual labor, and for this thoy aro most ndmlrably adapted, and In the hot season positively necessary. The Filipinos mako excellent clerks, If thoy can bo well overlooked; but If allowed, they will spend tholr tlmo In gambling nnd cockflghtlng. They havo no Idea of putting energy Into any of their pursuits, and havo no commer cial instincts; they alao caro llttlo for money, loss or gain being to them ap parently a matter of Indifference." Tho British vice-consul at Hollo say a: "The United States forces havo now successfully occupied tho better part of tho Isand, tho end of tho year augurs woll for a happlor future, and, when onco a peaceful rulo Is established, many Important Improvements will take place. "Tho Island of Negroa Is In a moro satisfactory state, and, although tho crops for 1900 may not bo vory large, owing to tho dlfncultlc3 which had to bo ovcrcomo In procuring labor, tho planting for tho 1900-1 crop Is extensive." Uon that Presldont McKlnley fills tho Ideal ns chief executive. His person ality stamps him as a truo gentleman nnd a loyal patriot, tho highest typo of an American, nblo, ioasclcntlous and devoted to the work which comes to him In tho discharge of his public duty. His Is a nature in which tho elements arc so happily blended, that, whllo his nblo nnd dignified public course commands respect, his private Hfo wins sincere affection. Connected ns ho Is with tho present happy condition of our country, ns tho result of an entire Republican admin istration of Republican principles, thcro Ib a fooling of satisfaction and confidence In tho future which will call for his renomlnatlon and rc-olec-tlon. M. A. HANNA. HOW WILL DRVAN VOTE. Ill Increased Prosperity Should Cause, lllm to Support McKlnley. "Tho Republican party Is on tho de fensive. It will talk prosperity, of course, but we'll bo willing to tnko tho votes of all tho people who havo not had their share of prosperity, and lcavo them tho votes of tho pcoplo who havo been prosperous." W. J. Bryan at Chicago, Juno 13th, 1900. Tho following figures are taken from tho books of tho Assessor for tho Fifth ward of tho city of Lincoln, Nob., which Is tho ward in which Mr. Bryan makes his home, and they show tho nssessed valuation of his personal property for tho years Indicated: Years. Assessed Valuation. 1893 $ 280.00 1894 $ 200.00 1895 $ 340.00 189C... i $ 270.00 (Last year of Democracy.) 1897 ?1,485.00 1898 $2,980.00 1899 $2,980.00 1900 $4,550.00 Tho above figures are ofllclal and prove conclusively that Mr. Bryan should vote for William McKlnley In this year of our Lord, 1900. THE NATION'S MONEY. Over 831,000,000 of Silver nnd Moro Smnll Money Coined. For the flscnl year that has Just end ed tho colnago executed at tho United States mints amounted to $184,323,793 pieces, valued at $141,301,960, as fol lows: Gold, 7.G62.7SG pieces, valued nt $107,937,110, sliver 75,359,254 pieces, valued at $31,121,833; minor coins, 101, 301,753 pieces, valued at $2,243,017. In 1899 the total number of pieces coined was 122,270,945, nnd tho valuo, $13G,855,G75. In valuo tho lncrcaso over 1S9G Is considerable, but there la an Increase of C2.000.000 pieces, repre senting a great deal of hard work for tho mints and showing tho activity In trado circles. Tho total circulation of national bank notes nt tho closo of business Juno 30, 1900, was $309,559,719, an ln crcaso for tho year of $G8,291,023, and an Increase for tho month of $9,070,830. The circulation based on United States bonds was $274,115,552, an lncrcaso for tho year of $G8,851,458, and an Increase for the month of $11,02G,435. NATIONAL FINANCES Surplus licnl of SHI, 230, OOO, 111 the Yenr Just Kndcd. The receipts of the National Treas ury for tho twclvo months of tho last fiscal year amount to $5GS,98S,948, and tho expenditures, $187,759,171, making a surplus for tho year of $81,229,777. Tho receipts for tho full fiscal year havo been derived from tho following sources: Customs, $233,837,958, an in creaso over tho fiscal year 1899 of $2S, 729,577; Internal revenue, $29G,299,388, an Increase as compared with tho for mer fiscal year of $22,802,227; miscel laneous, $38,831,001. an lncrcaso ovor tho previous year of $2,400,000. Tho expenditures for tho last fiscal year wero $118,313,008 less than for tho fiscal year 1899. Wool nnd Shoop Vnlues. Farmers in Wyoming would do woll to pasto tho following figures whero thoy can sco them when having tholr ovening smoko. Thoy nhow tho actual prlco at which wool and Bhcop woro sold In Wyoming in glvon years: HEAVY MERINO SALES. Cents per Yenr 1893. 1894. 1895. 189G. 1897. 1898. 1899, 1900, F.O.B. to Pilgrims Visit Holy Places, A bund of pilgrims left Scotland a fow days ago for Rome. At London they wero met by Bishop Chlsholm of Aberdeen, who used to bo their lender, In tho absence of ArchblBhop Eyro of Glasgow and Archbishop Mncdonald of Edinburgh, who aro both In 111 health. Tho pllgrlmago Is In nccordunce with n decree of the popo to tho effect that tho holy yenr should bo celebrated by tho visit of pilgrims to vnrious holy pieces. A Wonderful l.lttlo Hook. Perhaps tho smallest book in the world la In tho osaosslon of tho Earl of Dufforln. It la an edition of tho sa cred book of tho Sikhs, nnd la anld to bo only half the slzo of a postage stamp. SENATOR HANNA Gives Ills Opinion of President McKlnley 's Administration, Tho country Is to bo congratulated that wo aro to havo no chango nt tho head of the Republican ticket In the coming political contest. A favorlto saying of McKlnloy'a Is that "you can always trust tho people." And this Is their opportunity to show their appre ciation of his confldenco In tholr Judg ment by trusting tho management ot their affairs for four moro years in his hands. Mutual confidence moans succoss. And tho success of tho Re publican party menus a continuation of our material development nnd pros perity. For a candidate this tlmo tno peoplo wnut a man who has been tried and not found wanting, a man oqunl to nny emergency, ono who la broad nnd liberal onough In Ideas to keop abroast of tho rapid evolution of nations, whllo keeping to tho policy which coatrlbutea most to tho best In terests ot our own country, A study I of the present ntiminiBiruuun during jtba post three yoars decides tho ques- 8 10 13 1G SHEEP SALES IN FALL. 1891 yearling owo3 $2 00 1895 yearling ewes 2 00 1890 yearling owes 2 50 1897 yearling owes 3 25 189S yearling ewea 4 00 1899 yearling owes 4 00 r.iports of Miinnfncturc. Prior to 1893 Imports of manufac tures always exceeded exports of man ufactures. In 1888 Imports of manu factures wero 2Ms times tho amount of exports of manufactures; In 1893 they wero still moro thnn doublo tho amount of tho exports; In 1890 thoy were nearly 50 per cent greater thnn tho exports, and In 1898 for tho first time, tho exports of manufactures woro grenter than tho Imports of man ufactures, tho figures for that year be ing, respectively: Imports of manu factures, $22G,000,000; exports of man ufactures, $290,000,000. Slnco that tlmo oxports of manufactures have steadily Increased anil, ror tho year Just ended, will exceed tho Imports of manufactures by about $100,000,000. DEMOCRACY ON SHIPPINQ. Itm No I'lan hy Which to llnlld Up Cim Only Tcnr Down. The platforn; utterance of tho Dem ocratic party regarding American shipping Is a clear index of tho inher ent inability of that party to con strucL It seems only to bo ablo to op pose and denounco tho constructive policies of Its progressive political op ponents, Tho foreign commerce of tho United Stntcs Is regarded tho world ovor as tho most Important of all. To this country como tho finest foreign ships. Tho greatest and most poworful steam ship lines vio with each other for our trado. Tho largest, tho swiftest, tho safest and tho most luxurious ships that are built ore for tho carrying of tho trado In merchandise, passengers, specie and malls from and to tho United States. , But 8 per cent of our foreign trado Is carried in American ships. For eign ships carry 92 per cent. This cnrrylng is worth fully $200,000,000 each year. All but 8 per cent of it goes out of the pockets of Amorlcan producers and consumers for paying foreigners for doing our foreign carry ing. Not only does It go out of our peoplo's pockets, but It goes out of tho country. It goes abroad and Is there used to pay for tho building and run ning of foreign ships. It gives tho em ployment to foreigners that tho carry ing of our forlegn commerce creates. Peoplo ask, Why 1b this? Tho an swer is simple. Foreign ships nro built moro cheaply than Amorlcan ships. This, however, Is a disadvan tage that could In tlmo bo ovcrcomo It tho shipbuilding Industry wero put on a basis of permanency. If a Bteady and largo demand wero created for our ships vory soon tho cost of their con struction would bo reduced to tho lovol of foreign prices. It Is tho unsteadi ness, tho Irregularity, and tho uncer tainty of employment In American shipyards that keeps tho cost of Amor lcan ships from 20 to 25 per cent high er thun tho cost of foreign built ships. Better food and moro of It is given on American than on foreign ships. This also creates a disadvantage which tho American ship cannot caally overcome. Then again wages on Bhlpboard are much higher under tho American than under foreign flags. In tho cases of officers tho wages on American ships aro on tho average twico as high as they aro on foreign ships. Worse than all this, however, for eign governments pay their merchanl ships great subsidies and bounties Great Britain Bpcnds about $6,000,000 a year In this way; Franco spends over $7,000,000 a year. Germany, Itnly, Spain, Russia, Austria and Japan nil give largo subsidies to their ships. In all the subsidies and bounties paid by foreign governments to their ships amount to more than $20,000,000 each year. Unaided Amorlcan ships, it must bo clear, cannot profitably compoto with foreign shlpa under tho conditions nbovo described. That Is why It la that foreign ships havo driven Amer ican ships from oft tho seas. Tho Re publican party, recognizing tho un equal condltlona which confront American ahlpa in tho foreign trade, is committed to a policy of subsidizing American shlpa In that trado. Tho nmount of tho subsidy proposed Ip, barely onough to enable Anerlcuh ships to compete on terms of equality with foreign ships. This bill Democrats havo Blngled out for denunciation In tholr national platform. They "opposo tho accumu lation of a surplus to bo squandered In such bare-faced frauds upon tho tax payers ns tho Shipping Subsidy bill, which under tho fnlso prctonso of pros poring Amorlcan shlp-bulldlng, would put unearned millions Into tho pockets of favorlto contributors to tho Repub lican campaign fund." Tho alternative of tho shipping subsidy bill Is to kcop on paying nearly $200,000,000 a year to foreign ship owners whoso govern ments in paying them subsidies on able them to prevent American ships from competing. Rather than havo our government pay n subsidy to American ships the Democrats would prefer to havo our pcoplo send nearly $200,000,000 out of tho country each year to build and sustain foreign ships. In tholr plntform tho Democrats "es pecially condemn tho 111-cancealcd Republican alllanco with England." When wo remember that Democracy's platform denunciation of tho Shipping Subsidy bill will nowhere bo received with such favor and gratitude as in Great Britain, whoso command of tho sea and especially of American forolgn carrying the Democrats would perpet uate, and which present British mon opoly the paBsago of that bill would do much to destroy, tho Insincerity nnd tho secret pro-British leanings of the Democrats aro clearly de cerned. Not a word havo tho Democrats to utter In behalf of a policy that would causo tho building of tho ships our foreign commorco employs out of American material and with American labor, instead of, as now, tholr con struction out of forolgn materials by forolgn labor In other countries. No policy Is suggested by them thoy merely denounco tho Republican policy that would substitute Amorlcan for British and other foreign ships In our foreign trado. Having no plan of their own to suggest for building up our shipping In tho forolgn trndo, express ing no regret nt seeing nearly $200, 000,000 nnnunlly paid by Americans to forolgn ship ownors (chiefly British) for carrying our commerco, tho Dem ocrats, on tho shipping question nt least, proclaim themselves tho allies of England. ' III Greater Dcmnml. Tho demand for farm-hands in Kan sas Is largely In excess ot tho demand for Popullstlc oratory.