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The North Platte semi-weekly tribune. (North Platte, Neb.) 1895-1922, November 22, 1912, Image 6

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1IANKSG1VING day ns it
la now celebrated is a
composite of tho ancient
HnrvL'Ht foBtlvnl, whoso
origins go buck to the
dim pre-hlstorlc begin
nings if n vllhn Mrtn ntld
yyjy i "" - ........ -
4E , of tho solemn Puritan
rJg rollgloiiH corcmony of
thanksgiving. Tho Joy-
ouh celebration of tho gathering of the
ycar'B hurvoat, a day or weok of feast
ing, song, danco and rovel, is found
In all ages und among all peoples.
Thanksgiving; days are also common
to all religions, past and present, but
they wore not regular or periodical
avontH occurring generally after
jiomn victory of war. "Tho Puritans
and tho Pilgrims brought with them
from England both tho Harvest festi
val and tho Thanksgiving days, tho
IrittoV 'being observed whonovcr tho
deeply religious mind of tho Puritan
naw In their prosperity or good for
tune tho direct Intervention of Provi
dence. Tho Puritan also stripped tho
undent Harvest festival of much of its
rudo Itconso that had grown up around
tho celohration in England, nnd grad
ually through tho two centuries fol
lowing the solleniont of New England,
thero grow up tho prnctlco of combln
Jng tho two ovonts nnd making tho
Thunkglvlug annual, Tho rollglous
element has been greatly BUbordlnntcd
as tho years passed until nt tho pros
mil tlmo It is to a majority of Ameri
cans oaly an Incident that by many Is
obfsorved only in tho brench.
To tho otorn old Puritan of almost
threo centuries ngo, tho Thanksgiving
day of 1812 would seem llttlo leas than
sacrllogo tio far as tho thlnksglvlng
foaturo of It Is concorned. But he
Winjd unthjrstand and appreciate tho
day's feasting nnd rovel as a part of
Iho celebration of tho Hnrvost festi
val. Tho difference Is apparent In tho
jrocordB of tho oarly sottlnmont ot
jVmorlcn. Tho first thanksgiving sorv
llco hold In North America was ob
,oorvod with religious ceromouleB con
ducted by un English minister In tho
year 1G78 on tho shores of Newfound
land. This clergyman, accompanied
tho oxpodltlon under Froblshor, who
nettled tho llrst English colony In
America. Tho records of tills signifi
cant day have been preserved In tho
quaint rules and regulations of tho ex
pedition kb follows:
PUM!PUi; To banish swearing,
illco ana card playing, and filthy com
munication, and to aervo God twice a
day with tho ordlnnry servlco of tho
Church ot England. On Monday morn
ing. May 27, 1578, aboard the Aydo,
vie rc;cjvcl all, tho communication by
Wt minister of "Qravosend, prepared
ns good Christians toward God, and
rnsoluto mon for till fortunes; . .
mill Mulstor Wolrall mado unto us a
gnodlyo Bormon, exhorting all cspo
dully to bo thnuktul to God for Ills
lUraugo nnd marvelous dollvoranco In
those dnngqrous places."
Tho second record of a thanksgiving
ncrvlco In America Is that of tho Pop
hum colony which settled at Sagada
hoc on tho Malno coast In 1G07. It
consisted of prayer and sermon aa in
the llrBt Instance Theso wore thanks
giving days puro and simple, nnd after
tho Rottlamont of Plymouth many oth
om ot a similarly solemn rellglouB na
ture occurred.
Tho first Harvost festival held in
America was upon Dccombor 13, 1G21,
It has been callod, wrongly, tho first
uutuinual thanksgiving held In Araer
Ion, but it was In reality tho observ
ance of tho Harvest festival, with
whloh tho settlers hud been acquaint
ed In England. It was not a duy set
apart for religious worship and It Is
not likely that any rcllcloua Borvlco
was held; on the contrary, it wub tho
beginning of a whole weok of festiv
ity In celebration ot tho successful
guruorlng 0f thoir first harvest In
their now homo. Qaintly dona
"Mourt's Relation" chronlclo tho
"Our harycbt being gotten in, our
Govornour sent fouro nieu on fowling,
that so wo might after a moro speclall
manner rojoyce togetlier, after wo had
gathered tho fruit of our labours;
they fouro In one day killed as much
fowle, as with a llttlo helpo besldo,
served tho Company almost a weeko,
at which tlmo amongst other Recrea
tions, wo exercised our Armes, many
ot tho Indians coming amongst ub,
and amongst tho rest their greatest
King MasBttsoyt, with some nlnetlo
mon, whom for threo dayes wo ontor
tnlncd nnd feasted, nnd thoy went out
and killed Deere, which thoy brought
to the plantation and bestowed upon
ho Cnptalno, and othors. And al
though It bo not alwayos so plentiful,
aB It wub at this tlmo with us, yot
by tho goodnesso of God, wo nro so
farro from want, that we often wish
you partakers of our plonlio."
While tho bill of faro of this first
American colebratlon ot tho Harvest
festival has not been preserved tho
feast was no doubt a royal one oven
If sonio of tho food nnd tho methods
ot preparation would oecm strange
nnd outlnndlsh to present day Amor
lcnna, Tho provisions must havo been
bountiful for thero wero about 140
persons Including tho 90- of Mas
snsolt'B company who wore enter
tained for tbrooj days, and all had
their shnro of supplies. From other
BourccB wo know that tho foods of
tho sea wero abundant and tjtat tho
Pilgrims had mado tho acquaintance
of tho oyster. Ducks thoy hnd In
plenty of tho choicest species and also
goeso. Gnnio, from grouso to veni
son, was brought In from tho forest
In abundance, and thero wub a "great
Btoro" of wild turkeys. Dnrloy loaf
and cakes ot corn meal wero highly
"Havo you cut tho wheat In tho blowing Holds,
Tho barley, tho oats, and tho rye,
Tho golden corn nnd tho pearly rice?
For the winter days are nigh."
"Wo havo reaped them all from Bhoro to shore,
And tho grain Is safe on tho threshing floor."
"Hnvo you guthored tho borrlos from tho vino,
And tho fruit from tho orchard treoB?
Tho dow und tho scent from tho rOBes and thyme,
in tho hlvo ot tho honey boos?'"
"Tho pouch and tho plum and tho upplo nro ours,
And thu honeycomb from tho scented flowors."
"Tho woalth of tho snowy cotton field
And tho gilt of tho sugnr enno,
Tho savory horb and tho nourishing root
There haB nothing b?en given In vain."
"Wo havo gathered tho hnrvest fromhoro to shore,
And tho measure is full nnd brimming o'er."
Then lift up tho head with a song!
And lift up tho hand with a glttl
To tho ancient Glvor of nil
Tho spirit lu gratltudo lift!
For tho Joy and tho promlao of spring,
For the liny and tho clovor swoot,
Tho barley, tho rye, and tho onta,
Tho rlco nnd tho corn nnd tho wheat,
Tho cotton and BUgar and fruit,
Tho flowora nnd tho flno honeycomb,
Tho country, so fair and so froo,
Tho blessings and glory ot homo.
I fitfif
prized by tho colonists and played
their part In tho feast. For vege
tables tho Pilgrims had much the
same as they had in England, Gov.
Bradford's list naming beans, pense,
parsnips, carrots, turnips, onions,
melons, cucumbers, rndlshes. "Bkir
ots," beots, coloworts, and cabbages,
in addition to wheat, rye, barley and
oats. Resides theso they had tho
lndlgeous squash and pumpkin, and it
may be taken for granted that a care
ful Pilgrim houBOwlfo had preserved
during tho summer by 'lrylng a quan
tity of strawberries, gooseberries and
"rnspls." Tako it altogether, tho food
basis of tho first Harvest Thanksgiv
ing day celebration In America was
much tho samo as today.
Rat If tho good housewife of today
waa obliged to proparo tho thanksgiv
ing feast with tho utensils nnd Incon
veniences of the kitchen of three con
tures ago sho probably would throw
up her hands In hopeless despair. Tho
kitchen with Its great glowing fire
place wub the housowlfo's domain and
tho general living room of tho entlro
family. Tho walls and tho floor wero
baro and tho furnlturo meager and
comfortless, while tho kitchen furnish
IngB wero odd and strange. It was In
this great cavernous chimney that tho
Pilgrim wifo cooked her thanksgiving
dinner. Plnced high up In tho yawn
ing chlmnoy was tho heavy backbar.
or lug-hole, of green wood, afterwards
displaced by the great Iron crano. It
was beyond reach of tho flames, and
from It hung a motley collodion of
hooks of vnrlous lengths and weights.
Thoy hnd many different names, such
ns pot-hookB, pot-bangles, pot-claws,
pot-clops, trammels, crooks, hakes,
gallow-bnlko, wordB that would puz
zlo a housewife of today to dollno.
From these wero suspended tho pots
and kottles in which tho food was
cooked. At both sides of tho fire-
place were large ovens In which bak
ing and roasting wero done.
Thero wero no tin utensils in those
old days and brass kettles wero
worth $15 a piece. The utensils were
mostly of iron, wood, pewtor or lat
tern ware. Glassware was practically
unknown and bottlos were mado of
leather. Wood played a great part
In kitchen and tableware. Wooden
trenchers from which two nto were
used on (ho table for a century after
the settlement' at Plymouth. Wood
was also used for pans and bread
troughs and a host of other things
displaced by tin in tho modern kitch
en. Of wood wero made butter pad
dles, salt cellars, noggins, keelers,
rundlets, and many kinds of drinking
bowls which were known under the
names of mazers, whlsklns, plgglns,
tankards and kannes, words many of
which havp disappeared from use.
Tho dining table of theso old days
was the old Anglo-Saxon board placed
on trestles, and the tablecloth was
known as the "board cloth." Thus
wo have tho origin of the time-worn
phrase: "Gather around tho festive
board." And tho furnishings of the
"board" were simple Inventories of
that period mentioning only cups,
chafing dishes, chargers, threnchers,
salt cellars, knives and spoons. The
table fork was an Innovation not yet
In general use; tho flngors of tho
enter w.ero used to thrust tho food
Into tho mouth. The spoons wero of
wood and pewter mostly. Silver
"spoons wero rare. There was no
chlnawaro on the tables of the early
thanksgiving feasts; for no chlna
wnrc came over on the Mnyflower.
That and tho lack of glassware and
Bllver would malo a thanksgiving
table of tho seventeenth century look
Impossible to a housowlfo of today.
Complete the picture by imagining
large trenchers', square blocks ot wood
hollowed out by hand, placed around
tho "bourd" from each of which two
people dig their food out with their
fingers, and you havo nn Idoa ot tho
manner In which our ancestors cele
brated Thanksgiving threo conturles
Rut If the kltchon and tablo furnl
turo would apponr strange to a houso
wlfo of today some ot the dishes
Bervod would appear oven stronger.
How many housekeepers of today can
cook "suppawn" and "samp" from
corn meal? Or baao mancnei, Bim
mels, cracknels, Jannncks. cocket
bread, cheat loavoB, or "wasol" bread?
Tho colonists did not tako kindly
nt first to tho pumpkin, which in tho
pie form has becomo a distinctive fea
ture of tho modorn thanksgiving feast.
Thoy called them "pomlons' men,
nnd this Is nwo-lnsplrlng reclpo from
which tho colonlnl housowlfo made
"pomplon" pie:
"Tako a half pound of Pumplon
and slice It, a liandful of Tyme, a llt
tlo Rosemary, Parsley and sjveot Mar
joram slipped off tho Btalka, then tho
cinnamon, nutmog and pepper, and alx
cloves, nnd bent thorn. Thon mix
them nnd beat them togethor and put
In as much sugar as you see fit; then
fry them like a frolz. After it is
fried lot It Btand until it bo cold. Tako
sliced apples, thlnno roundo ways, and
lay a row ot tho frolzo and a layer of
npplos with currents botwlxt the layer
whllo your plo Is fitted, and put in a
good deal ot snoot butter before you
closo It. When tho plo is buked take
six yolks ot eggs, some white wlno
or Vergls nnd mnko a caudlo of this,
but not too thick. Cut up tho ltd and
put It In. Stir them well togethor
whilst the eggs and tho pomplons be
not perceived nnd sorvo It up."
Thus Balth tho old cook book, nnd
tho modern housowlfo who faithful
ly follows this reclpo can have at
least a unique concoction, fearfully
and wonderfully made, to grace her
Thanksgiving tablo.
tween Turkey and othor Islamic nations. Tho Russian persecutions in Per
sia havo fired the Mohammedans there, and the Asiatic Moslems nro looking
for a champion who can come to tho rescue of tho threatened Islamic states
Turkey and Persia,
Ilabibullah Khan, Amir of Afghanistan, Is the man. Ono word from
him, alarmists say and others fear, will bring on a series of religious clashes
that will entangle every nation in Europe, Asia nnd Africa.
Tho amir has not failed to tako ndvautago of tho almost universal mani
festation of respect paid him, and in a meeting held In Kabul recently to
express sympathy with tho Turks ho spoko in no uncertain manner.
Reforc the stato legislature In Al
bany, N. Y., this winter will bo pre
sented n plan for America's first "de
partment of home assistance," tho
first organized government bureau to
caro for tho destitute home. More
than a generation ago governmental
aid for tho families of tho very poor
was abandoned In New York city;
living conditions and living's cost
havo changed radically since then;
today the specially appointed commit
teo of investigation for the city con
ference of charities and correction
urges governmental aid as tho only
hope of real "social Justice" and liv
able support for tho homes of tho
destitute. There are hundreds of
women and children starving In New
York for whom only tho government
can adequatoly caro.
"Of course It Is, primarily, a mat
ter of tho cost of living," said O. F.
Lewis, chairman of the conference
committee on governmental aid of
New York city. "Tho price of tho necessities of life haa Increased so much
that destitution has become a problem too great for tho private societies to
meet alono I havo no doubt that tho prlvato charitable organizations could
take caro of the dostltuto families If thoy only had enough money; but under
present conditions they have not enough money; and so something oiso muBt
be done something else must bo added. ,
"What wo aro suggesting Is something absolutely now. But It la simply
the outgrowth of present conditions. It ia a question that has 'broken
through' many times lately in various parts of tho United States; hero in
New York we aro first bringing it to tho point of definite, organized action."
iT ' ?.
,. ..,. ..; f.
A- i
'v'vtvSs ';
W w
v .
lances, others propped against the
"Only throe wookB to proparo
thlB Is only tho beginning."
m-W -J.-Xl . -r - -V
Mm nrnvnr Cleveland, widow ot
tho former president ot tho United
States, is to bo married next April to
Prof. Thomas Preston, an honorary
professor at Prlncoton University and
uow occupying tho chair of archao
clogy at Wolls College, Aurora, N. Y.,
tho institution nttended by Mrs.
Cleveland, then Frances Folsom.
Although formal announcement
has not been made and probably will
not bo mado until after tho debut of
MIsb Esther Cloveland this winter,
tho fact of tho engagement haB boon
known for Bomo tlmo among tho In
tlmato friends of Mrs. Cleveland nnd
Professor Preston.
Tho second romance of tho womnn
who ob "tho bride ot the White
House" charmed a nation and whose
high charactor and dovotlon to her
distinguished husband have been, by
example, a national Influonco toward
high ideals of wifehood, Is tho out-
como of an acquainiancesnuj oi uun
moro than a yenr'B duration, with a man practically unknown In Amorica.
Professor Preston, who Is about fifty yeara of ago, a literary scholar and
a linguist of International distinction, is a man of strong but retiring per
sonality, and, although ho haa held a high place among the faculty of Prince
ton for years, It is said that his first meeting with Mrs. Cleveland took placo
not many months ago.
Tho specter of a holy war Is un
folding itself before tho oyes of Eu
rope. It began when Italy clashed with
Turkey in Africa, and now that tho
llttlo Christian states, that act nB a
buffer between tho larger powers and
Turkey, aro at war, tho cloud Is dark
ening rapidly among all tho Moham
medan nations.
In tho mosques of India, tho pago
das of Malaysia and tho shrines of a
dozen other nations prayors aro being
said for tho success of tho Turkish
arms. ,
All Islam haa thrown Its religious
BUpport to tho kahllfato at Constanti
nople, and should tho sultan, as head
of tho Moslem faith, unfurl tho green
flag of tho prophet It Is feared tho
fanatic Mohammedan nations would
begin holy wars.
Even tho most conservative of
European diplomats admit thero Is a
possibility of political alliances be
According to press reports from
Greece, tho hospital nrrangoments ot
the Greek army aro entirely inado
cuate for emergencies. Tho army has
acted with such rapidity that it is im
possible for tho field ambulances to
keep paco with it. Princess Alice,
wifo of Prince Andrew, tho fourth son
of King George, with a staff of picked
nurseB, ia following tho army and ren
dering first aid to the wounded, by
whom sho is spoken of as "tho minis
tering angel."
At Sarandopor sho performed al
most miracles, flitting with her Btaff
from ono quarter to another until
late in the ovcnlng, when sho was
compelled to stop because her cloth
ing was drenched with blood.
Princess Helena, daughter of tho,
Crown Prince, has also arrived with
her hospital train.
Looking around tho railroad sta
tion at Larissa, which was Uttered
with wounded men, somo on ambu-
walls, Bhe exclaimed In pathetic tonc.s:
for all this! It was not enough time, and
v i&i w&t
h to --r fcn---M

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