Build a round silo.
A cement floor Is of value.
Cottonseed meal Is a good cow
The successful management of poul
try rcqulrcB systematic work.
Active breeds given plenty of exor
cise seldom got the feather pulling
The appearance of the orchard Is
helped by cleaning it of dead
It is better to salt the cows every
day. Two to threo ounces to each cow
Sheep will do better on rough land
than will any other kind of stock
Clean hen manure when used freely
in tho garden often causes too great
a growth of foliage.
One of the qualities of the soy bean
that commends it to the stock feeder
Is Its protein richness.
Except in special cases the dairy
calf should be removed from Its moth
er beforo It Is three days old.
Good ventilation is essential; but It
should be so arranged that the cows
shall not bo exposed to a draft
There Is JUBt as much importance
In Improving the dairy farmer as
there is In Improving the dairy cow.
Many farmers will let tho steer
trample $100 worth of feed Into tho
mud rather than spend $25 for a feed
Capons are quiet, grow more per
pound of feed than cockerels) grow
larger and bring a better price per
One of the chief reasons for butter
becoming rancid at an early ago is
the fact that it is not washed thor
oughly. Excited men and women make ex
cited birds, and that has a bad effect
on tho egg producing mechanism of,
All hens which have completed
their second laying season should be
disposed of at once to make room for
tho young stock.
Do not despise well bred poultry.
No territory has over been noted for
Its poultry products unless well bred
fowls were tho rule.
Farmers should take advantage of
any fine dayB that may occur during
these remaining months of winter to
prune the bush fruits.
A yearling treo is preferred by
many to older trees. They are
thought to be, safer to transplant
than two-year-old trees.
1 In driving cows, never hurry them
when their udders aro full of milk, or
when they aro heavy in calf as they
may be seriously Injured.
Earth floors should always be raised
a foot or more higher than tho sur
face of the ground on which tho poul
try house is placed to insure dryness.
A litter carrier will add much to
keep tho barn clean, because the boys
and men will work more readily than
iif they havo to depend upon the old
Oats as a hog food have never been
very popular for two reasons. First,
tho price is usually too high; and,
second, tho feeding value is not so
great per pound for bogs as that of
A yellow frosting is made by heat
ing tho yolks very light, and thicken
ing them with flno sugar, as you
would the whites. It will take a little
longer to harden than if the whites
The Embden Is a uniformly pure
white gooso with prominent blue eyes,
flesh-colored beak, orange legs and
remarkably strong neck. When not
allowed to become too heavy they are
good layers and their flech Is tender
' and juicy when properly cooked.
To weigh chickens by hand scales,
tako a pleco of cloth two and one-half
by one and ono-half feet, make a hole
In tho centor for the bird's feet, and
tie tho ends of tho cloth up over its
wings, and In a knot on Its back. Hook
the scales through tho knot A simi
lar arrangement makes a comfortable
hammock for holding the fowl when
cleaning its legs and feet for exhibition.
Salt tho cows every day.
Use tho manure spreader dally.
Maintain tho fortuity of tho soil.
Road dust makes a good materia
for the hen's dust bath. '
Tho bull should bo kept In a room)
box stall adjoining tho cow stable.
If meat scraps aro fed to tho pou)
try better see that they nro not toi
Dotter keep ono good hen thai
threo that you- havo your doubu
Keep tho orchard land In good tilth
Tho trees can bo set as soon as th
No dairyman should forget that hli
barn Is a placo whero human foot
Split carrots, turnips, beets, etc., it
two and allow tho hens to pick a!
them, at will.
Almost always tho cow that glvct
tho most butter-fat does it tho mom
If you havo a poor seedling pear on
apple tree It may bo entirely madi
over by top grafting.
OatB and Canada field peas mako at
excellent combination, and nro oftei
grown for hay for dairy cows.
The best way of disposing of sut
plus lato hatched cockerels (too lab
to be sold as broilers) Is as capons.
It is claimed that early-sown fal
wheat Is benefited when pastured wltl
sheep to keep down the rank growth
Well managed poultry Is preferabh
to farm crops in that poultry will pro
duco an income at all times of th
In every variety of farming, plan
nlng ahead of ttme Is necessary, am
perhaps most so in poultry hug
Ten drops of carbolic acid to a gal
Ion of drinking water makes a goo
disease preventive when cholen
A good time now to haul am
spread mnnuro on the vegetahh
garden so that tho spring rains cai,
do their part
Colts often suffer when teething
At such times steamed, crushed oati
and 'bran mashes aro most Benslbh
Do not let your young birds roos
with the old hens, as they aro Habl'
to catch diseases which old hens an
more subject to.
The average value of all propcrt;
per farm in tho United Stntes in 19U
was $6,444, an lncreaso of 80.9 per cent
over that of 1900.
The expense of caring for a mule li
less than for a horse. He eats less
requires no blanketing, no stall and ii
more easily kept clean.
If ono is obliged to feed timoth;
bay a good ration of bran and oat
will help to maintain tho owes in goo
condition in the winter.
Quiet, gentle handling of the owo
during the winter makes It mucl
easier work to care for tho floe!
during tho lambing period.
All the growth and thrift that ca
be encouraged and maintained durlnt
the first year of a colt's life Insure i
stronger and a bettor horse.
The manure spreader Is a usefu
aruciu Ul equiliuieiii. tutu nuuum u
extensively used. It saves time an
labor and distributes the manur
The stablo manure has been put
tho garden or truck patch, tho corn o
wheat fields but rarely Is it though
necessary to apply plant food of an
kind to tho orchard.
If you doubt tho advisability o
keeping dairy cows comfortable am
contented visit the man who mako
the best recordB with his cattlo am
see how ho cares for them.
If tho malo bird seems Inclined t
quarrel with one of his mates, th
chances aro that sho Is not laylnj
The males aro usually more attenttv
to hens that are laying or just read
In a recent experiment oats, cor:
dog fennel and some flower seed
wero exposed during 118 days to
tomperaturo of 40 degrees belo
zero. Afterward nearly all of th
fennel, oats and corn seeds and boiti
To bo a successful feeder a ma
must study tho habits and charactei
istiCB of his animals, tho condition
that surround them and tho quantit
and quality of tho foods that aro avail
able, and then vary tho food accord
lng to tho animal's powers of nsslti
Tho belief that use of clover an
manures, or mineral fertilizers, ar
two separate and Independent scheme
for maintaining tho fertility of th
soil has led to very many wrong cot
elusions as well as badly depleto
soils. These two must work togetbe
ESSENTIAL POINTS IN HORSE BREEDING I IDAIIITIW
4utoi nil Ki
rnnmimi mi mi iimimii m ii iinniiiiminiiiM)nMiMMrmnmiiiii inr
A few words c-f advice to tho f aimer
who Intends breeding his mares this
season may not bo amiss. There is
certainly room for Improvement In
the way some men nttend to this part
of their work. Seemingly, they do
not mix in enough brains and com
Each breeder should firmly lmprosa
upon his mind tho fact that ho is do
ing the wrong thing when ho breeds
a small mare to a largo horse, says a
writer in Farm Progress. True, tho,
large horso will bring tho better prlcef
but tho horso raised from a maro that
has been bred to a largo sire is not
worth tho price, oven though it has
Wo might say that quality and fin
ish are tho two most essential points
to bo considered in a horse and these
can bo obtained only by proper mat
ing. Mlsmatlng is what has filled tho
country with so many scrubs, and un
til breeders glvo this matter more at
tention, thero is likely to be llttlo im
provement Over in Englnnd n groat many of
tho breeders glvo their attention to
rearing cobs, but our breeders 'seem to
pay scant attention to tho domands
for that sort of animals. Tho man
who owns a compact llttlo maro of
less than a thousand pounds weight
has tho opportunity to raise a very
valuable animal If he will uso a llttlo
discretion In choosing the slro.
By breeding to il short-legged, com
pact and handsome slro ho will bo
able to secure an animal that Ib
stylish, of good bono nnd full ol ac
tion. On tho other hand, If ho choose n
big, Btupld sire woighing a ton or
more It will only bo a freak of nature
If ho secures a colt of any real valuo.
It will be almost certain to inherit
more of tho weak points of both sire
and dam than It will of their good
It Is contrary to tho laws, of nature
for tho small maro to produce a large
colt Her capacity 1b Buch that the
foetuB Is cramped and starved, henco
It Is foaled a largo, raw-boned, un
gainly colt. Even after foaling tho
maro cannot furnish enough nourish
ment, and the body Is built up weak,
flabby and without muscle.
Every breeder muBt ndmlt that tho
country is full of just such animals
ns described above, nearly all of
Excellent Types of Farm Brood Mares.
which aro tho result of improper
breeding. It would seem that our
breeders would tire of such animals
because thero is always a demand for
horses of real valuo.
Thero is very llttlo doubt that a
maro ought to be worked during tho
weeks prior to foaling. The maro
that Is allowed to stand up In a close
stablo Is more apt to prove unsatis
factory at foaling time than the one
that has been worked up to within a
day or two of her tlmo.
But there is danger of overwork
ing. A maro that Is put to tho plow
and plods all day through Boft
ground, such as Is often oncountered
In spring plowing, Ib apt to strain
Whllo tho crop that is to go tn the
ground is important, tho valuo of tho
maro and tho future colt deserve
pqual consideration. By keeping ex
act count of the tlmo that elapses
during the gestation period tho own
er can make his plans to shirk the
maro considerably as foaling tlmo
Road work, light driving and eomo
light hauling about tho farm aro
recommended by all horsemen for
the maro that is pregnant If the
roads are bad, and they are tn a
Bad condition many times In the
Bprlng, tho ranro should bo kept off
them. There is a chance that sho may
seriously strain herself.
When a maro is being worked in
tho later stages of hor pregnnncy
tho harness and the doublo-tree may
roqulro somo changes In ordor to
avoid accident. I use an extra long
slnglo-tree that will hold tho traccB
well away from tho mare's sides.
This provents dangerous pressuro
and avoids tho possibility of a pre
mature foaling through bruises or
If the maro is being driven it will
-Tr" miiiiii, i - -urn, win, mimim inMnm
bo best to drive hor In a team. Tho
slnglo buggy's shafts sometlmcH have
too narrow a spaco botwoon them for
tho innro's comfort. Their constant
pressuro on cither side may cause her
serious Injury", and bo tho means of,
losing a colt
Of course, tho stall whero sho Is
kopt should be roomy and tho doors
should bo wldo enough that tho maro
will havo no trouble n passing
through thorn. A narrow doorway
is sometimes tho occasion of tho
maro being seriously injured.
There aro Instances in every neigh-,
borhood whero tho maro haB been
worked hard all the day boforo
foaling, and then having got through
tho ordeal without tho least trouble.
Tho colts seem as sound and vigor
ous as thoso that havo had greater
pro-natal caro. Such instances ns
theso do a groat deal of harm. Not
every maro can stnnd such treat
ment, but the general Impression
gets around that they can, nnd much
harm results In somo caseB.
Thero Is a dlfforenco botwoen over
work as applied to a regular plow
team and as applied to tho maro
with foal. A whole day's work, ono
day following another, Is too much
for a mare. Most of hor energy Is go
ing Into the building up of hor young
and hard work moans an actual
drain upon her vitality.
PROFIT MADE IN
RAISING SWEET PEA
Plant Does Not Need Any Special
Soil to Attain Grace and
Beauty Few Hints.
Sweet peas do not need any special
soil to attain grace and beauty, and
while one sweot poa specialist claims
compact, strong clay soil, mado rich
with cow manuro. another Bays thoy
Unust havo light, sandy leaf mold; and
again another who lives near tho sea
advocates a briny ntmosphero neces
sary for their development, whllo ho
who lives In tho west thinks Inland
air tho best for sweet peati. Whorevor
you live and whatever your soil and
climate, grow sweet peas and mako
tho best of existing circumstances.
Hero aro a fow pointers by ono wno
has grown sweet peas In tho middle
west which wero awarded prizes, and
wo found no mystery in their growth
Select a sunny locality, and havo
tho rows run north and south. Dig
the 6oll doply and stir In plenty of
well rotted cow manuro other ma
nuro will do If cow Is not to bo had.
Walt until tho frost Ib out of tho
soil to do this. Even If tho earth
freezes It will not hurt tho sown seed.
After tho Boll Is well upadod and en
riched, firm It well, nnd then run two
furrows two Inches deep and eight or
ten inches apart Covor tho seods,
and firm tho soil. You may soak tho
seods for 24 hours beforo planting it
I you wish. Sow tho seeds thickly, and
only when tho vines begin to spin
thin out so that tho vinos stand threo
Uomomber that sweet peas llko n
firm soil and therefore, when it is
necessary to have them to kill the
weeds, firm the soil well about the
If tho season Is very dry, water,
and when tho flowers begin to bud
stlmulato tho vines with weak liquid
fertilizer. A weekly drink of soap
suds on wash day appllpd to tho roots
will help to mako woll colored bios
soms. Tho finest swoat peas grown
by tho writer wero planted in puro
leaf mold, well firmed and well wa
Provido strong, well twigged brush
for them to climb over, or wlro trel
lis, but tho fornior Is preferred by tho
sweet pea. Tho sweot pea lends It
self to various forms of decoration.
A neighbor flttod a doop and long,
narrow box on brackets to a south
window and In It planled a row of
sweet peas. They wero trained upon
a netted twlno screen, nnd when they
bloomed thoy wero very much admir
ed. However, caro wnw taken to pull
down tho white opaqua shado when
tho sun beat too warmly upon tho
vines, for Bweot peaa sorch very eas
ily. Anothor friend reported that she
had planted a lot of seeds about the
baso of a strong support, nnd tho
vines wore trnlned up to nn umbrolln
frame which was fastenod to tho sup
port Tho vines wero then allowed to
fall over tho framo, and thoy resom
bled a fountain. Thoso who llko tho
unlquo may try various ways of grow
ing tho Bwoot pea, but It gives bet
ter satisfaction grown on brush, and
COMBAT POULTRY YARD FOES
Gome Ecsentlal Measures Outlined by
Expert Poultrymen for Control of
Insect parasites aro tho causo of a
groat deal of annoyance and loss to
poultrymen. Somo cssontlnl measures
as outlined by Gcorgo M. Turpln for
their control nro:
Havo tho poultry Iioubob separated
from all othor farm buildings.
Havo nil tho Interior fixtures of tho
poultry houses, such ns roost-poles,
nest boxes, feed hoppers, dropping
doards, etc., romoved so thnt every
pnrt of tho interior enn bo readily
cleaned nnd sprayed.
Keep a good dust bath to which tho
fowls may have nccess at all times
of tho, day. Common road dust with
flno ashes nnd powdered BUlphur or
air-Blacked llmo added Is oxccllcnt
Tho road dust should bo gathorod
during dry weather for uso during
Spray tho cqops and fixtures with
a good whitewash twlco each year,
adding two pounds of snlt and one
fourth gallon of crudo carbolic add
to every CO galonB of tho spraying
Setting hens should havo access to
a good dust bath such as mentioned
above If llco nro found lator on tho
chicks, rub lnrd In tho feathers of
tho head nnd throat, and In bad cases
also under tho wings.
SHIPMENT OF BABY CHICKS
Llttlo Fellows May Be 8ent Long Dis
tances by Express Without Dan
ger or Discomfort
Ono of tho moat intorcating branch
cb of tho poultry business Is tho ship
ping of baby chicks hundreds, oven
thousands, of miles, nnd yet havo them
arrlvo In good condition for further
growth and development. By ship
ping direct from tho Incubator whon
tho chicks aro ono day old, ndvnntage
is taken of that period In tho llfo of
tho chicks when nature lntonded that
thoy should bo without food, and thoy
can thoroforo without Injury or dis
comfort bo sont long distances by ox
prcBs under any conditions of climate
ChlckB when first hatched require
nolthor food or drink. Indeed, Buch
is harmful. During tho first aovon-ty-two
hourB tho chick's llfo Ib sus
tained by tho assimilation of tho yolk,
for tho embryo chick Is dovcloped
from tho whlto of tho ogg, nnd Just bo
foro hatching tho yolk Is drawn up
into lta system and furnishes nil the
food any chick Bhould hnvo for the
first threo days of Its llfo. It Is dur
ing this period thnt chicks can be
shipped' as far aB express can take
KEEPING RATS FROM POULTRY
By Inverting Tin Bucket on Posti
Supporting Houce Rodents May
Be Kept Away.
If there nro many rata In your vlcln
lty It will pay you to" mako It lm
posBlblo for thorn to enter your poul
try house. Put a post In tho ground
for every corner of tho houso, Bays s
writer In tho Iowa Homcstoad. Invori
Rat-Proof Hen House.
over tho top of tho post an old threo
gallon tin buckot Set your houso on
theso postB and when Mr. Rat at
tomptB to climb a post nnd go Into tht
poultry Iioubo ho Blmply goes up in
sldo tho bucket and does not accom
pllsh his purpose.
HEN MANURE AS FERTILIZER
Has Greater Value Than Any Other
Kind Used on farm Should
Be Well Taken Care Of.
Hen manuro as a. fertilizer hai
greater valuo than any other fertiliz
er on tho farm. It Is generally sup
posed by somo poultrymon that tlu
manuro will pay for taking caro ol
tho hens, but this dopends much on
how It is kopt, Tho dropping boards
under tho roosts should bo kept cov
ercd with some absorbent to preserve
tho strength of tho droppings.
Land plaster or South Carolina rocs
Is good. Nevor uso wood ashes oi
llmo with tho poultry droppings. The
ammonia or nltrogoh would be set
froo, nnd part of tho valuo of tho fer
tilizer lost. Tho droppings should not
ho applied on a growing crop, or cov
ered soil. Uso It on corn by puttlnn
a handful on each hill at tho tlmo of
last hoeing, It should bo kept under
cover until used.
Killing a Turkey,
Tho proper way to kill a turkoy Is
to tie Its feet together, hang on a
pole, then cut tho throat and allow to
bleed freely. Dry pick, leaving head
and wings on. After picking, dip In
hot water nnd then in cold. TIiIh will
rlvn tho skin a fresher look.
They arc trying tn arrange It tto that
man may unfitly fly;
Tliey arc trying to learn moro about tho-
Ktnrn up In tho sky;
They nn- digging up old ruins so that
each of ub may know
Whnt people did for ploasuro and far
profit lonp ngo;
Hern ami thero in somo ono trying to re
vive the lovo of art,
Hero nnd there noma poet bravoly slugj
a pong tluit'n from tho hoart,
Dut away with nrt and science and tho
What wo watlt Is some suro way in which-
to Oct Klrh Quick.
Men are lighting still for freedom, light
ing still to havo the right
To address their God unhindered wheiv
they kneel to pray nt night:
Thoy ore chnflng 'ncath oppression aa
their fathers did beforo,
Thoy are tugging at tho fetters which
their luckless pnrcntn worn;
Hero nnd thero nomo irinn arisen nnd at
tempts to lot us know
How to mako fair pence forovor tho sweat
mistress hero below,
But wo hnvo no tlmo to bothor over such
affairs; wo stlok
To tho hope of finding ways In whtnu to
Get Illch Quick.
Tho prcnehcrs keep on prcnchlnft of tho
Klorlen over thero
Where the boodlors cenio from troubling
nnd tho proRpcctii all aro fnir,
Tho nnxlous, eager doctors keep on striv
ing to defy
Grim Nature und nrrnngo It so thnt poo-
plo needn't dlo;
But nwny with all tho dreamers and tho
foolish ones who prench,
Who enrca what the Htnrs nro nindo of.
or whnt nnclont tablets teach?
Wo nro looking for the hero who will
show Um nil tho trick,
Who will kindly point tho way in which
to Oct Itlel Quick,
Wo pass the lovelorn youth and smllo
Iecauso ho reaches happlncsH
Through building airy castloB whllo
Wo grasp at shadows of buccosh;
Wo scoff bocaiiBO ho gladly dreams
Of ono wIioho gracoo may ho fow
Of one that foolishly ho dooms
Too sweet for earth, too precious,
Wo pass him by careless jest,
Or cunning sneer, bocnuso tho Joy
Of lovo Is in his callow breast
And hope Ib In his heart, poor hoy I
Ah, wo nro moved to laughtor by
Tho love-lorn look upon his faco,
nut what, alas, would you and I
Not glvo If wo wero In his placo?
Why He Was Depressed.
"Somehow," hq said, disconsolately,
"I don't seom to mako fnrmln' pay."
"Mnybo you haven't tried tho right
"Yes. I'vo dono ov'ythlng. I'vo
ended meeting's an JInod clubs an'
voted fur ovory cnudldato that said ho
knowed tho way to help us aloiiff.
Ilut It don't soom to do no gpod, nn'
I mus say I'm getting clean discour
aged." Chance to Get Some.
"I havo Alwnys thought," said Mra,
Oldcastlo, "that I would bo tho hap
piest -woman In tho world if I only
had a Botticelli."
"Why don't you ask Mrs. Thompson
to get somo for you?" asked hor hos
tess as sho hung ono of her ropes of
pearls over tho back of a chair, "sho
has a cousin down In tho country who
sonds her somo of tho best every
fall that I ovor at."
"I'm getting awfully sick of tho kind
of plays wo'vo been having in thia
"Why, I thought thero had been a lob
of goods bIiowh hero recently,"
"I havep't Been ono all this Heasoa
whero I had to cry tho lonat bit" I
Too True. '
"There's nothing llko a baby in thfj
houso to brighten It up."
"Yob, especially whon It ought td
bo dark nnd Btlll." ,
Oh, whnt a heaven earth would be 4
In every way how nice I
If people here wero half aa free
With help as with advlcol
v It?!. IAs
I . :&- JPfi Wrim Vv$
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