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THE NORTH PLATTE SEMI-WEEKLY TRIBUNE.
i mWKHVim mem r mki PA$Ti PPTSINT I .dBHWHiKflTST wbk fiOBi& 2zrcs- J ImSSBmmtml. tttSFn&Ti&tmirro jUr. tsc- tttji , nSf T r -i HANKS0IV1NG DAY 1ms a long and curious history and did not originate entirely with the Pil grims at Plymouth, for Thanksgiv ing days nro mentioned in the Bl- liln flnvu c-nf nimrt fnr trlvlriP" Pit m thanks to God for soma Bpecial mercy. iiiuhu uuys ui iiiml uuu prayer woro cuHtomary In England before tho Hcformatlon, and later tho Protestants appointed certain days of pralso and thanks for various blessings. Tho discov ery of tho Gunpowder Plot In 1C05 In London brought the common sentiment of Thanksgiving. scheme had been formed to blow up parlia ment house on tho 5th of Novomber, tho first day of the session. Grent quantities of gunpow der and inflammnblo material were found con cealed in tho vaults underneath tho building. Tho plot wns dlecovorod and tho traitors were exe cuted. In con-equenco of thlB deliverance the day was ordored to be kept as "a public thanks giving to Almighty God" every year that '"un feigned thankfulness may never be forgotten, and that all ages to como mny yield praises to God's dlvino majesty for tho samo." All ministers woro Ordered to sny propers thereon, for which special forms woro provided. This annual thnnksglvlng, together with one established later on May 29, . wan abolished in 18113 In England, for both had fallen Into dlsuso. For soveral years aftorwards, however, these days wore recognized In Now England, by tho Episcopal church on account of itn plnco in their church calendars. England continued to have Bpecial days appointed for giv ing thanks, and as recently 'as 1872 there was a day selected for tho public to offer prayers of thanksgiving for tho recovery of tho late King Edward, then prince of Walos, from tjphold fovor. The first thanksgiving on tho American conti nent wua held by an English minister named AVolfall, and wns colobratod off tho coast of New foundland. This pious man accompanied tho Froblshor expedition which brought tho first Eng lish colony to North America. Tho log of tho ship tjlvos tho record of the day's observances mid tells how on Monday, May 28, 1078, nboard the Aydo, the men received communion, and how Minister Wolfall in a sermon gave humble and htarty thanks to God for his miraculous dollvorr anco in these dangerous places. This was the first Christian sermon preached In North Ameri can waters, Again In 1G07 thoro wns a similar , b rvlco hold at Sagadahoc a little villugo on the const of Maine. Thoro is llttlo record of this thanksgiving except that it consumed only n few hours of the day, after which tho pcoplo roturnod to their labors. Tho groat American Thanksgiving day had Its origin in tho Massachusetts colony in 1021, and Gov. William Bradford, tho first governor of that llttlo band of sturdy pilgrims, sent out tho first Thanksgiving proclamation, sotting apart a day for prayer and rojolclng ovor tho plenteous hnr- ctt of that year. The Englishmen recalled their Guy Pawkos thanksgiving, and the Dutch remem bered hearing their ancestors speak of tho grout tiny of praise and prayer held at Loydon, Hol land, in 1578, when that city was dellvorod from a siege. So, tho entire colony began tholr pious preparation for what proved to bo tho gayest Thanksgiving tho colony over know, for aftor tho first one, which lasted sevornl days, tho Puritan Thanksgiving meant long sermons, long prayors and long faces. Governor Bradford de termined that tho initial Thanksgiving Hhotild bo cOlolmitod with no little ceremony and that feasting should piny a part In tho occasion. His tory tells us that he sqnt out four men', who ,vcro to search for game for tho feast. iMnny fowls woro shot in fact, enough to meet tho ants of tho colony for a week Wild turkoys predominated, bo it Booms that tho turkey made I?, appearance early in the history of Thanks giving. Tho day selected was December 13 (old style). At tho dnwn of that day a small cannon was (Ired from the hill and a procession was formed near the beach, close to where tho Plymouth Hock now rests. Elder Uro water, wear ing his ministerial garb and carrying the Blblo, led tho procession as It moved solemnly along the titroel, The mon walked three abreast, with Governor Bradford in tho roar. There was a long service In the meeting house, and after It was ovor there wnB n dinner and such a din ner had never been known in tho colony, for, apart frotu tho savory turkoy and other wild fowl, the women had done their share in pro vlding good things from the limited supply nt their command. Tho most dramatic Incident oc curred when the dinner was in progress, for nB if by magic 90 friendly red men, under King MnsNusolt, appeared, carrying hauncies of vonl on na an addition to the feast. Thanksgiving day soon lengthened Into days, for the psalm Hinging and feasting, Interspersed with war dances, wore continued povcrai days. After that Thanksgiving clays took on u differ ent aspect, and occurred at any season; some times twice a year, or sometimes a year or two were skipped, just as It pleased tho governor of tho colony, until 1CG4, whon tho day bocamo a formal one In Massachu setts. Other colonics fol lowed tho example, and pretty soon all Now Eng land joined In giving thanks on the fiame day. During tho Revolution ary war Thanksgiving days bocamo a fashion, and tho continental con gress set apart at least eight days during one year for that purpose. On December 18, 1777, General Washington is sued a proclamation for a general Thanksgiving to be, colobratod by the sol diers of the Continental army. In 1789 congresB decided to ask the president to issuo n proclama tion asking tho people to suspend work nnd give thanks on a certain day of tho year. There had been considerable opposition to tho passage of thp hill, some of the reasons given being more humorous than serious. President Washington acquiesced In the wishes of congress and Issued a proclamation appointing Novomber 2G of thnt year as the day for tho American peopio to join in thanksgiving to God for tho caro and pro tection ho had given them In tholr plentiful hnrvost and freedom from epidemics. From t time to tlmo our presidents issued proclamations, but It was generally left to the governors of tho stntoB to determine on what day It should occur. Under the administration of John Adnms two national fast days were ob served, but no real Thnnksglvlng. It was not until 181G, aftor threo national fastB on account of tho war, thut another national Thanksgiving was appointed by tho president, James Madison. This wns duo to peace with Great Britain. After this thoro was another lull In proclamations as far as presidents woro concerned until 1819, when President Taylor set a day of fast on August tho third on account of tho cholera. Meanwhile tho national Thanksgiving day seemed to bo dying out, excopt In tho New England States. Then came the Civil war, and tho nation was again summoned to fustlng, and two such dnys woro kept In 1861 January 1 and Soptember 2G but It was not until 18G3 that the horizon had so brightened ns to wnrrant the nppolntment of n national Thanksgiving. Immediately aftor the Battlo of Gettysburg Mrs. Sarah J. Halo, n Boston woman, wrote to President Lincoln 'suggesting n national thanksgiving, nnd following her advice, the president sot apart Thursday, August G, as a day of "pralso and prayer." On Novembor 2G of the same year nnothor Thanksgiving was kept, and this wns really a grent festival and observed In every northern state. In 164 tho 2 ith of November wns kept. After this, with one ex ception, our groat national day of thanks haB boon celebrated; on tho Inst Thursday in No vember. Tho presidential proclamations contain very llttlo that is new or original and usually take tho form of an essay. In 1898, aftor tho SpnulBh American war, President McKlnloy had a chance to vary the conventional form by "giving special thanks for tho restoration of ponce." This wnB Just 100 years after Washington's proclamation. Prosldont HooBovelt, who always did orlglnnl things, declared "that n Thanksgiving proclama tion could not bo made a brilliant oplgrammatl cal pnpor." The proclamation of tho president stamps tho foast with a sort of official churactor something possessed by no other holiday. This proclamation does not mako It a legal holiday It merely rocommends that the people suspend biiBlnoBs for tho day. A special statute In ench state Is required to mako tho day a legal holl day, and this hns not been enacted In every stnte. The day wus originally sot apart for thnnksglv lng, fasting, prayer and rolIglouB devotions, but tho modem Thanksgiving Iiiib become a dny of feasting and Jollity, mid Is mndo tho occasion of all sorts of sports and festivities. Tho craze for outdoor llfo keeps many from tho churches, although tho places of worship continue to bo filled with "a goodly company," who gather to glvo thanks to him "fiom whom cometh every good nnd evory porfeet gift." The turkoy is still king, of the Thanksgiving feast and as an addition the good things of tho Held nnd vlnoyard have been added. Tho famous pigeon plo, which was a popular Thanksgiving dish In the early part of tho nineteenth century, is rarely seen in those days. The wild pigeons, which alighted In great numbers on tho buck wheat fields, woro enticed by a decoy duck with in a spring not nnd caught by tho hundred. They were kopt nllvo nnd fattened on grain until the day boforo Thanksgiving, when they wero killed and made Into n plo for tho Thanksgiving table. Most of the old customs of tho day have GRAFTS PIGSKIN ON MEN Best Material for Certain Operations, Sayc Physician Defore Medical Association.- Knnsns City, Mo. A number of he roes aro npt to be thrown out of Jobs, according to Dr. C. S. Venablo of San Antonio, Tex., who spoko on "Tho Uso of Pigskin in Grafting," boforo the Medical Association of tho Southwest recently in session here. Doctor Vonable, nn nuthorlty on skin grafting, nald tho skin of tho young pig 1b tho boat matorial avail able for such operations. Ho said: "It is oven hotter than human skin. Records show that only about llfty per cent, of the Bkln grafted from a person other thnn tho patient takes. Tho percentages of takes from, other ani tnalB, Including tho rabbit, frog, cat, dog, chicken and guinea pig, all of which have been used, is only about thirty-two per cent. Tholr organisms are too frail to stnnd tho strain. In oxperlmcntB covering threo years I have shown that soventy-flvo to ono hundred per cent, of tho pigskin grafted to human beings takes. "Had surgeons known of tho valuo of pigskin, William Rugh, tho Gary newsboy who gave his life to save that! of a girl ho had never seen, would bo alive today. Reba Halnds, who oweq a debt of gratltudo to ono hundred Kansas Cltlans, might owo her debt to several young porkers. "Cell conditions, especially with ref erence to their hardihood and rapidity of growth, are tho primary factors in skin grafting. My experiments show thnt when a pig is injured, oven, though it lives in tho fllthleBt of con ditions, its wounds heal more rapidly than those of any other living thing. "In a pig of from two to b1x montha old tho cells show the greatest resist ance power. I etherize the animal, carefully clean the Bkln, shave it oft below the hair foicle3 and graft. By shaving it in this way the danger of bristles on tho now body is obviated. The new skin is about the samo thick ness and texture ns human skin, and serves as an excellent substitute." UHLOOH y-v H HENRY HOWLAND 1B1K WWd FINANCING- A DUTCH CITY 'PJZGRIHS HBZI,, JZ,TTOZrr& Amsterdam Owns Most of Her Public Utilities, Yet Her Municipal Debt Is Low. London. Tho city of Amsterdam owns the gas, water, and electricity works, the street raiiroads, tho tele phone system, many cf the docks and a large amount of ground in tho cem tral business section, which is leased for building purposes. Considering all this valuable property, tho municipal debt, which stood at $50,G25,14G on January 1, 1913, is not high for a city of 591,000 population. Tho debt was reduced last year by $1,200,000. Tho annual interest ranges from 2 to -1 per cent. Tho receipts and expenditures ot the city for 191-1 are officially esti mated a $15,649,811, an increaso of Whon the enr In which you're riding Seems to barely creep along Vou are not slow In deciding Thnt there must bo something wrong? When you miss tho olevo-tor And must wait till It "Comes back Vou are likely to blame Fate, or Think tho whole world's out of whack. When the ofllco boy Is stupid , , Or the sweet stenographer Seems to have her mind on Cupid How you hato both him and her; ' When she hums Iter sweet love ditty You get overcharged with gall. i And you feel no touch of pity "When ho whistles In tho hall. When you think all men aro trying To deprive you of your own; When you wake up sadly sighing And, at night, quit with a groan; When you think that every other Finds the wrong course to pursuo It Is safe to bet. oh, brother. That the thing that's wrong Is you. Tjze&zpr&xaz&. passed out of existence. Tho turkey raffle with dice Is still a custom in somo parts of the coun try Usually tho turkoy Is a tough bird, which was purchased cheap by tho proprietor of tho saloon (for the raffle usually takes place there). Tho raffle, of course, draws a crowd of men, who incidentally patronize tho bar during the- pro ceedings. Another sportive feature of Thanks giving no longer in vogue was tho shooting mntch, where live turkeys tied to sticks woro used. This cruel practice waB abandoned be cause the New England clergy objected, not on account ot Its cruelty, but because It kept the mon away from tho church service. This reason seems to fit in with the idea ot tho men back in tho seventeenth century who, whilo they wero eating a Thanksgiving dinner of venison, discov ered thnt tho deer had been killed on Sunday. They at once sent for' tho Indian and had him publicly whipped, and also compelled him to return tho money which he hnd boen paid for tho deer. ThlB being done, they at once re sumed their dinner and finished up the venison. Now York city Is responsible for the strangest of all Thnnksglvlng customs, nnd one which has only recently died out. Young mon and boys used to dresB themselves in fantastic garb nnd parade tho streets hundreds of tho boys wear ing their sisters' old clothes, their faces smeared with paint nnd their heads covered with wigs. As late as 1885 they held parados and made the street hideous with their thumping drums and blaring trumpets. In 1870 this queer perform ance took on the dignity of n political parade and prizes wero distributed to tho companies wearing tho most unique clothing. Senator William M. Tweed, tho famous political boss of that period, was tho donor of a prize of $500 In gold. This custom wnB undoubtedly a survival of Guy Fawkoa days, carried out on a later day in tho year; for somo unknown reason It wbb practiced only In Now York city. Thnnksglvlng has always been a day of char ity, and In tho old days it was considered bad luck to turn oven a tramp from tho door, nnd today our friendly Inns, almshouses and charlt ablo Institutions, hnvo their turkoy dinners, usual ly gifts from charltnble peopio. Our prisons, too, Borvo their inmates with a hearty meal nnd have somo sort of service of praise. Tho customs of the grent nntlonal holiday mny have changed somewhat, yot the spirit of tho first Thanksgiv ing, which was held at Plymouth, in 1621, still hovors about tho nntlonnl day of prayer nnd praise of the twentieth century a spirit of thankfulnoBB to God for his mercy nnd kindness to tho peopio of our great American ropubllc. i "$ral as i S Ib SJIjjfl Inexplicable. "lo 1b generally known as a hard- -headed business man, isn't ho?" "Yes' "Thoro's something I wish you would explain, if you can. What is it that causes a hard-headed business man to pay money to a woman whoso nails need manicuring a woman whoso genoral appearanco is slovenly and who evidently finds it difficult to mako ends meet why, I say, should a hard headed business man go to such a woman for the purpose of getting her to tell his fortune to give him point ers concerning the management of his affairs to tell him when to buy and when to eell?" "Oh, you might as well ask me to tell you why a woman who knows perfectly well that you are lying when you tell her sho is beautiful keeps tempting you to repeat it and finally gets to hating your wife." Lovey's Thoughtfulncss. "George, dear," said Mrs. Doveklns, who had come downstairs in time to pour tho coffee. "I'm going to walk to the car with you thiB morning. Aren't .you glad?" Very glad, indeed, lovey It's so nice of you to think of me and to get up early for the purposo of making It unnecessary to walk those dismal three blocks alone. How much do you want?" Famous Amsterdam Landmark. nearly $800,000 over tho estimate for 1913. Receipts and expenditures are always estimated at the same amount. More than a third of tho receipts como from taxes; moro than a fifth from the municipal undertakings (gas, electricity, street cars, water etc.), and from rent of ground owned by the city nnd let on long leases to owners of buildings thereon, theso tr.'o sources contributing moro than half tho recelps. Tho largest oxponso item, $3,500,000, Is for interest and pnymonts on prin cipal of debt; tho next largest is $2, S00.000 for educational purposes; poor relief and tho support of charit able institutions take $1,200,000, while police, streot lighting, and fire depart ment together take nbout tho samo. Transport. Alas! by some degree of woe We every bliss must gain; The heart can no'er a transport know That feels a llttlo pain. Lord Lyttletorw My lord, you're off, and badly, too; What gladness may be met When you receive a check that you Did not expect to get. The Foolish Captain. "Martha," said old man Rockingham, addressing his wife, who was terribly seasick, "tho captain says tho rudder has been carried away and we are likely nt any minute to bo cast higb and dry on thorn rocks over there." "Then why In heaven's name 1b he worrying eo?" FOR ARRIVING COOKS. - "How will I find the house?" aHked tho cook, who had booked for Lonolyvlllo. "Can't go wrong." said her employer. "Our suburb maintains n reception commlttco at tho dopot." Not Responsible for Husband's Debts. Union Hill, N. J. Mrs. Albert Spra. borow of this city advertised in a local paper that she would not bo responsi bio for debts contracted by her hus band. Sho explained that her hus band will not support her and that she advertised becauso sho did not want him to borrow money in hoi namo. Collie Dog Mothers Pigs. Sidney, O. Four pigs and sovon of her own puppIcB aro being mothered by a collio owned by Judge Thomp son. Tke mother of the pigs died and an attempt to raise her offspring by the bottlo method failed They Do. "Do you boliovo dreams oor conn true?" "Yes. I dreamed last night that tht new maid my wife got the othor day would leave us before the end of this weok. She gave us notice at break fast." Complacent. "My husband has n terrlblo caso oi srlp." "What are ou doing for him?" "Nothing. Io has his llfo insured for $60,000."' An Exception. "All tho world lovea a lovor, yot know." "Not when he's loving tho girl whe throw you over for him." Ing well under the dog's caro. A Willing Admission. Thore Is in Birmingham, England, i pin factory which turnB out 37.000.00t All aro do- l'lns evory day. No, wo don't kno where they go to. r