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THE 6EMIAVEEKLV TRIBUNE. NORTH PLATTE, NEBRASKA.
r OX WARBLES ATTACK BACKS OF CATTLE HAT THE s .A GOVERN MENT IS DO ING TO MAKE FIRST CLASS MEN AND WOMEN OF THE SONS AND DAUGH TERS OF REAL RED MEN-SOME EXCEL LENT RESULTS. COfYINOHT IY VUUM4 Htvsrmx union By EDWARD B. CLARK. O OTHER bureau m any othor depart ment of tho United States govern ment employs as many mon and women In its Hold of work as doos tho offlco of Indian affairs. Hero Is on ofllco which In a vital way has control of tho affairs of 350,000 peoplo who onco owned all or tne continental United States. Thoro aro about as many Indians In this land as thoro woro tho day that Columbus Inndnrl. 11 fnnt ally known. It Is recognized by ovorybody that tho Indian has certain rights of fostering caro and of direction along tho road to civilization, pros perity and health, and it Is for this high and hu mano roason that tho ofllco of Indian affalrB, of which Cato Sells la tho dlroctlng chief, must bo admlnlstored sanely and helpfully. Even today Amorlcan peoplo, notably tho East crnors, think of tho Amorlcan Indians in tho mass as still being In n moro or loss savago stato, or at any rato, a state of barbarism. Tho old-tlmo .problom had to do lorgoly with tho mon who constantly wont on tho warpath and who woro a monaco to tho advancing civilization of tho whites. Tho Indian problom for a long tlmo waB in consld orablo part a war department problom. Today things havo changed. Tho problom largely is with tho young Indians, tho, boys and thoglrIs who must ho trained along lines running dlamotrically opposito to thoso followed by tholr ancestors. It Is largoly a problom of education, and tho United States government today Is trying to teach tho young Indians In ordor that whon thoy bocomo old Indians thoy will present no audi task of regulation and of government as that which confronted tho authorities in tho casos of tholr forofathors. Today thoro is only ono roving band of Indians in tho continental Unitod States, and. oven this band Is now at rest within cortaln limits whoro it probably will remain contontod. Of course on occasion tho roBtlcss oldorB among tho Indians wander nbout a llttlo, but tho nbortgl hob no longer aro roamors and wandorora In tho eonso that thoy woro as Into as a quarter of a contilry ago. Tho ono roving band Is that of Chlof Rocky Doy, and this llttlo group of about throo hundrod Indians has roused pity and mado occasional troublo for a good many years. It Is a Montana band, and whllo many years ago con gress tried to do something doflnlto for Rocky Hoy and his followers, tho nttompt camo to llttlo or nothing, and thoy kopt on roving, a chargo If not a monaco to tho pooplo of Montana. I Tho present commlBBlonor of Indian affulra, Mr. Soils of Toxas, a lawyer, a banker and a farmor, transplanted temporarily at least Into a Hold of pndoavor concerning which ho know a good deal boforo tho transplanting, has succeeded In induc ing Rocky Doy and tho mon, women and children tn his following to locate upon government land In Montana, whoro thoy havo an area equal to four townships on which to dwell, thoro to till tho soil to oarn tholr living. Congress will bo asked this winter to BOt asldo this land as a reservation for Hocky Doy, tho rover. As has boon said, tho chlof problom today Is with tho young Indians. If thoy can bo educated properly tho Indian problom In a few years will vanish. Itocontly thoro was hold in Washington ft meeting of tho supervisors and superintendents and Instructors of tho greator Bchools for tho In diana throughout tho Unitod States. Thoy woro called together by Commissioner Sells to consider n reconstruction of tho system of Btudy for tho Indian children of school ago. A courso of study has boon proparod and has boon adopted. II Is hoped that It Mill glvo to tho chtldron of tho Indians tho best vocational training offered by uny school system in tho United States. Concornlng this courso of study which has Just been adopted tho commissioner says: "It emphasizes tho otudy of homo economics und agricultural subJoctB, bocauBo any attempt tn cuango tho Indian population of this country from h dopondont to an Independent pooplo within a roasonablo Iongth of tlmo must glvo special con uldoratlon to tho Improvement of tho Indians' homes and to thcdovolopmont of their lands. Tho usual subjects of school Instruction aro not nog looted, but thoy aro subordinated to subjects which, If learned practically, lead directly to pro ductive efficiency and self-support." The Indian children of tho United States rocolvo primary, provocations and vocational Instruction. In an Introduction to tho report on tho now courso of study proparod under tho direction of tho commissioner this explanation is mado: "Tho prlmqry division Includes tho first three V r h - . i 1 I 7Z (POOR? It ii t. X: iff' 55 a? axptoac the gradoa. tho nrovocattonal dlvlRlon inolndnn next threo grados. and tho vocational division con tomplatos a four-yoar courso abovo tho sixth grado. Tho first group is tho beginning stage, tho second group is tho finding Btago, and tho third group is tho fitting stage." Thoro should bo Intoroat In knowing how this courso of atudy for tho Indiana comparoa with tho courao which whlto children follow, In tho first alx years tho Indian courao parallola tho pub lic school courso In nil tho ossontlals of acadomlo work. In this period tho principles aro taught and application of them is mado Just as soon after tho principles aro understood. Tho knowlodgo of industrial and domestic activities at this Btago contors moro or loss around tho conditions essen tial to tho proper malntonanco and improvement of tho rural homo. For years tho adult Indians rosontod all efforts to Bocuro tholr consent that their chtldron should attend the Indian schools. In December, 1890, thoro was an Indian uprising produced by varl oua condltlona and fostorod by what waa known aa tho ghost danco crazo. On tho Pino Ridgo rosorvatlon in South Dakota nt that tlmo tho Indians woro divided Into two camps on tho ques tion of allowing children to attend school at tho agency. Thoso who rofuaod to allow their chil dren to go to Bchool looked upon thoso who woro In favor of tho school plan as cnomlos of tho Sioux raco. Whon tho Indians that year woro upon tho war path, tho children of tho peaceful ones contlnuod to attend school at tho Pino Rldgo agency. Ono day a band of wnrr'.ors loft tho main body of In dians In tho Hold and swopt down by tho agency and fired a fuslllado Into tho Bchool building, which Btood on a blurt. Happily ono of tho school teachers had soon tho Indians hiding behind n clump of willows on Whlto Clay creek and had sounded an alarm. Tho school children woro hur ried to tho basomont of tho building and thus escaped Injury when tho structuro was rlddlod with bullctB. This Incident Is spoken of only to show tho vast difference that has boon created by tlmo and by tho udvnnco In civilization. Today Commis sioner Sells reports that tho vast majority of tho Indians aro anxious and urgont that tho llttlo ones shall go to tholr lossons. Tho problom now Instead of being ono of how to Induce tholr par ents to lot them como, concerns Itself with provid ing school room for all of those who Book to at themselves for tho life's work. AggroBSlvo stops havo been takon toward tho development of improved vocational training among tho Indians. Tho Indian offlco has adoptod plans which it bollovos will accomplish tho edu cation necessary to Instill In tho Indian youth tho responsibility of self-support and citizenship. Em phasls is bolng placed on agricultural and domos tlo sclenco. This program will bo carried out In all tho Indian schools. Next summer teachers' Institutes will bo hold in different parts of the West and all tho Indian school Buperlntondonts and teachers will attend to oxchango views with a view to bottoring tho service. In addition to this tho best-known edu cators In tho country will bo lnvtted to attend tho Institutes and address tho teachers. Tho final offort Is to glvo tho Indlau exactly what ho needs to bettor his wny, health and Industrial prosperity bolng two of tho main objects. Tho Idea la to hurry tho day whon tho Indian no longer will bo wholly or In part a conaumer of thlnga pro vided for him, but will become a producer In his own behalf. There aro many farma for tho uao of Indian puplla. Thoy usually consist of largo tracts of fertllo land capable of raising every crop that tho climate In which tho school Is located will pormlu In some casos theso farms nre well Irrigated. Evory Bchool. Commissioner Sells Bays, has boen or will bo furnished with all tho equipment neces sary for tilling tho farms to tho fullest extent, and they will bo furnished with stock so that les sons can bo glvon In tho caro of animals and In their raising. It Is behoved that a substantial showing along thoso lines can bo mado. Every farm is expected to grow all the crops that It la posglblo to raise In tho localities In which thoy aro situated, corn, oats, wheat, alfalfa, clover, timothy and so on. Tho schools are ex poctod to raise all tho potatoos and othor vege tables with which to supply tho tables of tho pupils. At tho Chocloco Indian school on tho odgo of Oklahoma laBt yoar tho pupils put up for their own uso 20,000 gallons of vegetables and fruits. This, of courso, wob In addition to the fresh material which was on tho tablo during tho ripening season. In a letter to tho superintendent of tho Indian schools, Commissioner Sells says: "1 bollovo thero is a splendid chanco for In creased efficiency of our school servlco by special offort and co-operation along tho lines indlcatod. I must Insist that you glvo tho development of tho school farm your most caroful attention to tho end that tho highest degroo of efficiency and results bo accomplished. Thoro Is absolutely no gxcubo for a waste aero of overlooked opportu nity on tho school farms. Wo need all thoy will produce and wo cannot Justify tho purchaso of. anything wo can ralso. It Is Inconsistent to ex poet tho Indian hoys and girls to roturn homo from tholr schools and "do moro than thoy havo witnessed tholr tcachors doing for thorn whon thoy aro supposed to bo qualifying themselves for Industrial equipment and self-support." Tho Indian schools proparo the children for vocational and Industrial work. Thoy aro expect ed, and tho records show that tho expectation Is not vain, to go back to tho places from which thoy camo, thero to become solf-supportlng, to tako tho samo Interest In llfo's work that the whlto man doos and thus eventually to solvo forovor what has been known for some centuries of American life as tho Indian problem. CHEATING HI8 STOMACH. Laudlady You didn't wear glasses when yon camo hero, Mr. Nowbord. Why do you wear them now? Nowbord 1 want to mako the food look as largo as possible. There aro about 85,000,000 Oorman-speaktng pooplo In tho world and about 82,000,000 speak ing Spanish. Stacker Steers In Pasture. (From Weekly News Letter United States uujurinieni 01 .Agriculture.) 8pociaHsts of tho department nrn Urging cattle owners, In tho North aa well as In the South, to tako stops to rid their cattle of ox warbles or "wolves," tho imnortanco of which to tho cattle Industry haa been generally underestimated. Ox warbles aro tho whitish grubs or maccots which de- volop from tho eggs deposited by cer tain flies known as warblo flies or heel flies, and which injure the hides. reduco milk flow nnd retard the growth of tho animals. Tho maggots aro com monly found Just below tho skin on tho backs of cattle in tho spring. Their presence Is rovealod by local swellings about tho size of pigeons' eggs, each with a small central hole or perfora tion through which tho maggot breathes. From this hole tho maggot, whon mature. emerges to enter tho ground nnd change to tho adult or fly Btage. When full grown tho grub la bout three-fourths of an Inch in length. In the past trouble from tho warbles has largely been confined to cattln in tho South, but recently tho bureau of entomology has discovered that a sec ond species, heretofore not found In this country but known to bo oven a raoro serious pest in Europo than is our natlvo warblo, has become well es tablished In certain districts In tho northern part of tho United States. While it is probable that this so-called European ox warblo will not bo of as great importance In tho southern part or tho United States as tho apecie8 al ready established, there is overv ren- son to believe that unless checked It will bocomo generally distributed throughout the northern half of the country. This European species is now gonorally distributed throughout now York and tho New England states and a fow specimens havo been ob tained from western Pennsylvania, western Maryland, southern Michigan, eastern Iowa and Missouri, and west ern Washington. Attention is also di rected to tho fact that this species la now generally dlatrlbuted throughout southern Canada. Tho dopartment, therefore, la calling attention at this tlmo to tho danger of spreading this pedes promiscuously about tho coun try, and is urging cattlo owners to take tho simple means necessary to pro vent its spread. Until recently warbles wero not re garded as serious even In tho South, because It was thought that tho loss Ihoy occasioned camo principally from the damago thoy did to hides. Even this loss in the aggregate, however, is Important, aa hides show warble holes threo to bIx. months in tho year, and dealers pay from 60 cents to $1.50 less for hides that show oven moderate warblo infestation. In many cases tho scars left after the holes havo healed cause buyers to cut prices conBld Brably. Tho loss from tho warblo, howovor, Is by no means limited to the holes tho muggots cut in tho hides. Extensive Investigations In Germaijy and Den mark indicate that the losses through reduction in milk supply In dairy cat tle, tho retardation of growth In young Btock, and tho loss of flesh in all classos of animals are twofold greater than tho damage dono to tho hides. In some of theso tests tho early extrac tion of tho grubs from tho backs of in tested cattle resulted In an Increase of nearly 25 per cent ir. tho milk produc tion. Animals from which ho grubs had boen extracted Bhowcd a gain of more than five per cent in weight over similar animals In which tho pesta wero allowed to dovolop normally. Thus far tho veterinarians and en tomologists of tho department havo determined no bettor way of control ling theso posts than through tho sys tematic extraction nnd destruction of tho grubs from tho backs of infested animals. When the larvae aro nearly ready to leavo tholr host thoy may bo easily squoezod out .by pressing tho swelling with tho flngors, but if not so far de veloped It Ib often very difficult to get them out by squeezing. In such cases a slondor pair of forcopa may bo used for pulling thom out. If tho awolllng nnd lt3 opening nro etlll vory small, the best way of extracting tho grub Is to mako an incision with a knifo, after which the grub can be squeezed out by applying strong pressure. Kill tho grub whon removed. It is Important that warbles bo ro moved as early In their development as posiilblo. This relieves tho infested animal from tho Irritation and pro vents too enlargement of tho exit holes. Whllo this practice Is not ap plicable to ranch conditions, It 1b easily put Into effect on small farmj and In dairies. In tho southorn states tho herds should bo gono'over early in Decombor and about twico later nl monthly intervala. In tho northcrc states tho extraction should bo beguu six weeks to two months later. If nc grubs aro allowed to drop to the ground and reach maturity, tho num ber appearing in cattlo In subsequent years will bo materially reduced, and If extraction is followed up for several years almost complete eradication will result. Of course It Is important whero posslblo to get concerted ac tion among tho Btockmen In tho do structlon of theso pests. In cxtenBivo experiments along this lino in Germany it waa determined that the cost of removing all of tho warblea from tho backs of cattlo during one Beason was nbout three cents per head. In this caso men were employed es pecially to do tho work. It Is possible for practically evory farmer and dairy man in this country to accomplish this work without matorlal exponso or loss of time. It is suggested that in thoso com munltleB whoro cow-testing associa. tiona havo been formnrl thn mon charged with this work could in many cases devoto part of their time to edu cating tho stock raisers as to the losses caused by ox warbles, nnd to aiding tho members of tho association in destroying tho pests. Investigations conducted by tho do partment indicate that eradication also may bo accomplished by tho use of arsenical dips, which aro extensive ly employed at tho present tlmo foi destroying cattlo ticks. Theso Inves tigations aro being extended, and ex perimental work Is in progress which It is hoped may establish effective and practicable methods of destroying war bles. The arsenical dip appears to act not upon tho well-dovoloped grub be neath tho skin, but upon tho eggs oi tho nowly hatched larvae, probablj tho latter. It Is not unlikely that the destructive action of arsenical dips up on warbles is moro or less dependent upon tho fact that- nrsenle la stored ur Dipping Cattlo. in small quantities in and upon the skin of cattlo which aro repeatedly dipped in arsenical dips. Tho discovery of tho European or warblo in cortaln sections of tho North makes this post significant to northern cattle raisers and to thoso who import pure-brod or othor cattlo from these sections. During tho winter and spring months considerable numbers of pure bred livo stock arp purchased in the northeastern states and nro ahlpped tc varioua parta of the country. It is urged that all animals thus transport ed be examined by tho purchnsors and all grubs destroyed during the spring and summer. Anlmala purchased at any season of tho year may harbor theso pests. In tho winter nnd spring thoy will bo found bonoath tho skin on tho back, whllo at other times of the yoar the grubs aro elsewhoro in the body of tho host, and It will bo neces sary to watch for tho appearanco of theso grubs during tho following sea son. In thOSO States in whlr-li rncrln. trntion of all Imported animals 1b re quired It would bo comparatively easy for tho authorities to follow up such Importations and seo that any warblea aro destroyed. Slogan for Dairymen. Moro land In alfalfa and less in pas two Is a new slogan for nlry farmers. On tho aamo principle if they will savo ono of tholr full silos till mldsummor they will gain excellent resultB.