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The North Platte semi-weekly tribune. (North Platte, Neb.) 1895-1922, February 25, 1916, Image 6

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THE 6EMIAVEEKLV TRIBUNE. NORTH PLATTE, NEBRASKA.
r
OX WARBLES ATTACK BACKS OF CATTLE
HAT THE
s
.A
GOVERN
MENT IS DO
ING TO MAKE FIRST
CLASS MEN AND
WOMEN OF THE
SONS AND DAUGH
TERS OF REAL RED
MEN-SOME EXCEL
LENT RESULTS.
COfYINOHT IY VUUM4
Htvsrmx union
By EDWARD B. CLARK.
O OTHER bureau m any othor depart
ment of tho United States govern
ment employs as many mon and
women In its Hold of work as doos
tho offlco of Indian affairs.
Hero Is on ofllco which In a vital
way has control of tho affairs of
350,000 peoplo who onco owned all
or tne continental United States.
Thoro aro about as many Indians In
this land as thoro woro tho day that
Columbus Inndnrl. 11 fnnt
ally known. It Is recognized by ovorybody that
tho Indian has certain rights of fostering caro and
of direction along tho road to civilization, pros
perity and health, and it Is for this high and hu
mano roason that tho ofllco of Indian affalrB, of
which Cato Sells la tho dlroctlng chief, must bo
admlnlstored sanely and helpfully.
Even today Amorlcan peoplo, notably tho East
crnors, think of tho Amorlcan Indians in tho mass
as still being In n moro or loss savago stato, or
at any rato, a state of barbarism. Tho old-tlmo
.problom had to do lorgoly with tho mon who
constantly wont on tho warpath and who woro a
monaco to tho advancing civilization of tho whites.
Tho Indian problom for a long tlmo waB in consld
orablo part a war department problom.
Today things havo changed. Tho problom
largely is with tho young Indians, tho, boys and
thoglrIs who must ho trained along lines running
dlamotrically opposito to thoso followed by tholr
ancestors. It Is largoly a problom of education,
and tho United States government today Is trying
to teach tho young Indians In ordor that whon
thoy bocomo old Indians thoy will present no
audi task of regulation and of government as
that which confronted tho authorities in tho casos
of tholr forofathors.
Today thoro is only ono roving band of Indians
in tho continental Unitod States, and. oven this
band Is now at rest within cortaln limits whoro
it probably will remain contontod.
Of course on occasion tho roBtlcss oldorB among
tho Indians wander nbout a llttlo, but tho nbortgl
hob no longer aro roamors and wandorora In tho
eonso that thoy woro as Into as a quarter of a
contilry ago. Tho ono roving band Is that of
Chlof Rocky Doy, and this llttlo group of about
throo hundrod Indians has roused pity and mado
occasional troublo for a good many years. It Is
a Montana band, and whllo many years ago con
gress tried to do something doflnlto for Rocky
Hoy and his followers, tho nttompt camo to llttlo
or nothing, and thoy kopt on roving, a chargo If
not a monaco to tho pooplo of Montana.
I Tho present commlBBlonor of Indian affulra, Mr.
Soils of Toxas, a lawyer, a banker and a farmor,
transplanted temporarily at least Into a Hold of
pndoavor concerning which ho know a good deal
boforo tho transplanting, has succeeded In induc
ing Rocky Doy and tho mon, women and children
tn his following to locate upon government land
In Montana, whoro thoy havo an area equal to four
townships on which to dwell, thoro to till tho soil
to oarn tholr living. Congress will bo asked this
winter to BOt asldo this land as a reservation for
Hocky Doy, tho rover.
As has boon said, tho chlof problom today Is
with tho young Indians. If thoy can bo educated
properly tho Indian problom In a few years will
vanish. Itocontly thoro was hold in Washington
ft meeting of tho supervisors and superintendents
and Instructors of tho greator Bchools for tho In
diana throughout tho Unitod States. Thoy woro
called together by Commissioner Sells to consider
n reconstruction of tho system of Btudy for tho
Indian children of school ago. A courso of study
has boon proparod and has boon adopted. II Is
hoped that It Mill glvo to tho chtldron of tho
Indians tho best vocational training offered by
uny school system in tho United States.
Concornlng this courso of study which has Just
been adopted tho commissioner says:
"It emphasizes tho otudy of homo economics
und agricultural subJoctB, bocauBo any attempt tn
cuango tho Indian population of this country from
h dopondont to an Independent pooplo within a
roasonablo Iongth of tlmo must glvo special con
uldoratlon to tho Improvement of tho Indians'
homes and to thcdovolopmont of their lands. Tho
usual subjects of school Instruction aro not nog
looted, but thoy aro subordinated to subjects
which, If learned practically, lead directly to pro
ductive efficiency and self-support."
The Indian children of tho United States rocolvo
primary, provocations and vocational Instruction.
In an Introduction to tho report on tho now
courso of study proparod under tho direction of
tho commissioner this explanation is mado:
"Tho prlmqry division Includes tho first three
V
r
h - . i 1 I
7Z (POOR?
It
ii t.
X: iff'
55
a? axptoac
the
gradoa. tho nrovocattonal dlvlRlon inolndnn
next threo grados. and tho vocational division con
tomplatos a four-yoar courso abovo tho sixth
grado. Tho first group is tho beginning stage, tho
second group is tho finding Btago, and tho third
group is tho fitting stage."
Thoro should bo Intoroat In knowing how this
courso of atudy for tho Indiana comparoa with
tho courao which whlto children follow, In tho
first alx years tho Indian courao parallola tho pub
lic school courso In nil tho ossontlals of acadomlo
work. In this period tho principles aro taught and
application of them is mado Just as soon after tho
principles aro understood. Tho knowlodgo of
industrial and domestic activities at this Btago
contors moro or loss around tho conditions essen
tial to tho proper malntonanco and improvement
of tho rural homo.
For years tho adult Indians rosontod all efforts
to Bocuro tholr consent that their chtldron should
attend the Indian schools. In December, 1890,
thoro was an Indian uprising produced by varl
oua condltlona and fostorod by what waa known
aa tho ghost danco crazo. On tho Pino Ridgo
rosorvatlon in South Dakota nt that tlmo tho
Indians woro divided Into two camps on tho ques
tion of allowing children to attend school at tho
agency. Thoso who rofuaod to allow their chil
dren to go to Bchool looked upon thoso who woro
In favor of tho school plan as cnomlos of tho
Sioux raco.
Whon tho Indians that year woro upon tho war
path, tho children of tho peaceful ones contlnuod
to attend school at tho Pino Rldgo agency. Ono
day a band of wnrr'.ors loft tho main body of In
dians In tho Hold and swopt down by tho agency
and fired a fuslllado Into tho Bchool building,
which Btood on a blurt. Happily ono of tho school
teachers had soon tho Indians hiding behind n
clump of willows on Whlto Clay creek and had
sounded an alarm. Tho school children woro hur
ried to tho basomont of tho building and thus
escaped Injury when tho structuro was rlddlod
with bullctB.
This Incident Is spoken of only to show tho
vast difference that has boon created by tlmo and
by tho udvnnco In civilization. Today Commis
sioner Sells reports that tho vast majority of tho
Indians aro anxious and urgont that tho llttlo
ones shall go to tholr lossons. Tho problom now
Instead of being ono of how to Induce tholr par
ents to lot them como, concerns Itself with provid
ing school room for all of those who Book to at
themselves for tho life's work.
AggroBSlvo stops havo been takon toward tho
development of improved vocational training
among tho Indians. Tho Indian offlco has adoptod
plans which it bollovos will accomplish tho edu
cation necessary to Instill In tho Indian youth tho
responsibility of self-support and citizenship. Em
phasls is bolng placed on agricultural and domos
tlo sclenco. This program will bo carried out In
all tho Indian schools.
Next summer teachers' Institutes will bo hold
in different parts of the West and all tho Indian
school Buperlntondonts and teachers will attend
to oxchango views with a view to bottoring tho
service. In addition to this tho best-known edu
cators In tho country will bo lnvtted to attend tho
Institutes and address tho teachers. Tho final
offort Is to glvo tho Indlau exactly what ho needs
to bettor his wny, health and Industrial prosperity
bolng two of tho main objects. Tho Idea la to
hurry tho day whon tho Indian no longer will
bo wholly or In part a conaumer of thlnga pro
vided for him, but will become a producer In his
own behalf.
There aro many farma for tho uao of Indian
puplla. Thoy usually consist of largo tracts of
fertllo land capable of raising every crop that tho
climate In which tho school Is located will pormlu
In some casos theso farms nre well Irrigated.
Evory Bchool. Commissioner Sells Bays, has boen
or will bo furnished with all tho equipment neces
sary for tilling tho farms to tho fullest extent,
and they will bo furnished with stock so that les
sons can bo glvon In tho caro of animals and
In their raising. It Is behoved that a substantial
showing along thoso lines can bo mado.
Every farm is expected to grow all the crops
that It la posglblo to raise In tho localities In
which thoy aro situated, corn, oats, wheat, alfalfa,
clover, timothy and so on. Tho schools are ex
poctod to raise all tho potatoos and othor vege
tables with which to supply tho tables of tho
pupils. At tho Chocloco Indian school on tho
odgo of Oklahoma laBt yoar tho pupils put up for
their own uso 20,000 gallons of vegetables and
fruits. This, of courso, wob In addition to the
fresh material which was on tho tablo during tho
ripening season.
In a letter to tho superintendent of tho Indian
schools, Commissioner Sells says:
"1 bollovo thero is a splendid chanco for In
creased efficiency of our school servlco by special
offort and co-operation along tho lines indlcatod.
I must Insist that you glvo tho development of
tho school farm your most caroful attention to
tho end that tho highest degroo of efficiency and
results bo accomplished. Thoro Is absolutely no
gxcubo for a waste aero of overlooked opportu
nity on tho school farms. Wo need all thoy will
produce and wo cannot Justify tho purchaso of.
anything wo can ralso. It Is Inconsistent to ex
poet tho Indian hoys and girls to roturn homo
from tholr schools and "do moro than thoy havo
witnessed tholr tcachors doing for thorn whon
thoy aro supposed to bo qualifying themselves for
Industrial equipment and self-support."
Tho Indian schools proparo the children for
vocational and Industrial work. Thoy aro expect
ed, and tho records show that tho expectation Is
not vain, to go back to tho places from which thoy
camo, thero to become solf-supportlng, to tako tho
samo Interest In llfo's work that the whlto man
doos and thus eventually to solvo forovor what
has been known for some centuries of American
life as tho Indian problem.
CHEATING HI8 STOMACH.
Laudlady You didn't wear glasses when yon
camo hero, Mr. Nowbord. Why do you wear
them now?
Nowbord 1 want to mako the food look as
largo as possible.
There aro about 85,000,000 Oorman-speaktng
pooplo In tho world and about 82,000,000 speak
ing Spanish.
Stacker Steers In Pasture.
(From Weekly News Letter United States
uujurinieni 01 .Agriculture.)
8pociaHsts of tho department nrn
Urging cattle owners, In tho North aa
well as In the South, to tako stops to
rid their cattle of ox warbles or
"wolves," tho imnortanco of which to
tho cattle Industry haa been generally
underestimated. Ox warbles aro tho
whitish grubs or maccots which de-
volop from tho eggs deposited by cer
tain flies known as warblo flies or
heel flies, and which injure the hides.
reduco milk flow nnd retard the growth
of tho animals. Tho maggots aro com
monly found Just below tho skin on
tho backs of cattle in tho spring. Their
presence Is rovealod by local swellings
about tho size of pigeons' eggs, each
with a small central hole or perfora
tion through which tho maggot
breathes. From this hole tho maggot,
whon mature. emerges to enter tho
ground nnd change to tho adult or fly
Btage. When full grown tho grub la
bout three-fourths of an Inch in
length.
In the past trouble from tho warbles
has largely been confined to cattln in
tho South, but recently tho bureau of
entomology has discovered that a sec
ond species, heretofore not found In
this country but known to bo oven a
raoro serious pest in Europo than is
our natlvo warblo, has become well es
tablished In certain districts In tho
northern part of tho United States.
While it is probable that this so-called
European ox warblo will not bo of as
great importance In tho southern part
or tho United States as tho apecie8 al
ready established, there is overv ren-
son to believe that unless checked It
will bocomo generally distributed
throughout the northern half of the
country. This European species is
now gonorally distributed throughout
now York and tho New England states
and a fow specimens havo been ob
tained from western Pennsylvania,
western Maryland, southern Michigan,
eastern Iowa and Missouri, and west
ern Washington. Attention is also di
rected to tho fact that this species la
now generally dlatrlbuted throughout
southern Canada. Tho dopartment,
therefore, la calling attention at this
tlmo to tho danger of spreading this
pedes promiscuously about tho coun
try, and is urging cattlo owners to take
tho simple means necessary to pro
vent its spread.
Until recently warbles wero not re
garded as serious even In tho South,
because It was thought that tho loss
Ihoy occasioned camo principally from
the damago thoy did to hides. Even
this loss in the aggregate, however, is
Important, aa hides show warble holes
threo to bIx. months in tho year, and
dealers pay from 60 cents to $1.50 less
for hides that show oven moderate
warblo infestation. In many cases tho
scars left after the holes havo healed
cause buyers to cut prices conBld
Brably. Tho loss from tho warblo, howovor,
Is by no means limited to the holes tho
muggots cut in tho hides. Extensive
Investigations In Germaijy and Den
mark indicate that the losses through
reduction in milk supply In dairy cat
tle, tho retardation of growth In young
Btock, and tho loss of flesh in all
classos of animals are twofold greater
than tho damage dono to tho hides. In
some of theso tests tho early extrac
tion of tho grubs from tho backs of in
tested cattle resulted In an Increase of
nearly 25 per cent ir. tho milk produc
tion. Animals from which ho grubs
had boen extracted Bhowcd a gain of
more than five per cent in weight over
similar animals In which tho pesta
wero allowed to dovolop normally.
Thus far tho veterinarians and en
tomologists of tho department havo
determined no bettor way of control
ling theso posts than through tho sys
tematic extraction nnd destruction of
tho grubs from tho backs of infested
animals.
When the larvae aro nearly ready to
leavo tholr host thoy may bo easily
squoezod out .by pressing tho swelling
with tho flngors, but if not so far de
veloped It Ib often very difficult to get
them out by squeezing. In such cases
a slondor pair of forcopa may bo used
for pulling thom out. If tho awolllng
nnd lt3 opening nro etlll vory small,
the best way of extracting tho grub Is
to mako an incision with a knifo, after
which the grub can be squeezed out by
applying strong pressure. Kill tho grub
whon removed.
It is Important that warbles bo ro
moved as early In their development
as posiilblo. This relieves tho infested
animal from tho Irritation and pro
vents too enlargement of tho exit
holes. Whllo this practice Is not ap
plicable to ranch conditions, It 1b
easily put Into effect on small farmj
and In dairies. In tho southorn states
tho herds should bo gono'over early in
Decombor and about twico later nl
monthly intervala. In tho northcrc
states tho extraction should bo beguu
six weeks to two months later. If nc
grubs aro allowed to drop to the
ground and reach maturity, tho num
ber appearing in cattlo In subsequent
years will bo materially reduced, and
If extraction is followed up for several
years almost complete eradication will
result. Of course It Is important
whero posslblo to get concerted ac
tion among tho Btockmen In tho do
structlon of theso pests.
In cxtenBivo experiments along this
lino in Germany it waa determined that
the cost of removing all of tho warblea
from tho backs of cattlo during one
Beason was nbout three cents per head.
In this caso men were employed es
pecially to do tho work. It Is possible
for practically evory farmer and dairy
man in this country to accomplish this
work without matorlal exponso or loss
of time.
It is suggested that in thoso com
munltleB whoro cow-testing associa.
tiona havo been formnrl thn mon
charged with this work could in many
cases devoto part of their time to edu
cating tho stock raisers as to the
losses caused by ox warbles, nnd to
aiding tho members of tho association
in destroying tho pests.
Investigations conducted by tho do
partment indicate that eradication
also may bo accomplished by tho use
of arsenical dips, which aro extensive
ly employed at tho present tlmo foi
destroying cattlo ticks. Theso Inves
tigations aro being extended, and ex
perimental work Is in progress which
It is hoped may establish effective and
practicable methods of destroying war
bles. The arsenical dip appears to act
not upon tho well-dovoloped grub be
neath tho skin, but upon tho eggs oi
tho nowly hatched larvae, probablj
tho latter. It Is not unlikely that the
destructive action of arsenical dips up
on warbles is moro or less dependent
upon tho fact that- nrsenle la stored ur
Dipping Cattlo.
in small quantities in and upon the
skin of cattlo which aro repeatedly
dipped in arsenical dips.
Tho discovery of tho European or
warblo in cortaln sections of tho North
makes this post significant to northern
cattle raisers and to thoso who import
pure-brod or othor cattlo from these
sections. During tho winter and spring
months considerable numbers of pure
bred livo stock arp purchased in the
northeastern states and nro ahlpped tc
varioua parta of the country. It is
urged that all animals thus transport
ed be examined by tho purchnsors and
all grubs destroyed during the spring
and summer. Anlmala purchased at
any season of tho year may harbor
theso pests. In tho winter nnd spring
thoy will bo found bonoath tho skin on
tho back, whllo at other times of the
yoar the grubs aro elsewhoro in the
body of tho host, and It will bo neces
sary to watch for tho appearanco of
theso grubs during tho following sea
son. In thOSO States in whlr-li rncrln.
trntion of all Imported animals 1b re
quired It would bo comparatively easy
for tho authorities to follow up such
Importations and seo that any warblea
aro destroyed.
Slogan for Dairymen.
Moro land In alfalfa and less in pas
two Is a new slogan for nlry farmers.
On tho aamo principle if they will savo
ono of tholr full silos till mldsummor
they will gain excellent resultB.

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