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THE SEMI-WEEKLY TRIBUNE, NORTH PLATTE, NEBRA8KA.
1 ives Da THOMAS W. LAWSON How the youth of other times celebrated the festival of love which antedates Chris tian era, Romans ob served event first y seeking sweet hearts THE ROSE IS RED, THE VIOLET BLUE, 8UGAR 18 SWEET, AND 80 ARE YOU. The oldest valentine verse in the world. It has traveled to all quarters of the globe and been translated Into every tongue. It Is believed to have originated In the Greek In some much more lovely form. OME nnd St. Valentine's dny so far buck In the Christian cen turion Unit the festival of love hud not yet unncxed to Itself the uitino of it Christina saint I So snys n welter In the Now York nernkl. v On this great dny the Sacred urn, prominently placed so thnt none might Ignore It, wns do ing a rushing business, bub bling forth Its fateful messages for tho coming year. For the first valentines wero not sweet or saucy documents, of lighter Import, like tho migary rhymes of our grandmothers time nor tho ilowcrs and gloves of today. Instead, they wero real human beings whom destiny paired for the wpneo of a twelvemonth. It wns tho duty of tho Roman youth on the day of tho feast of Lupcrcalln, which, according to nnclcnt chroniclers, coincides with our St. Vulcn tine's dny, to repair to tho Sacred urn In search of n swecthenrt. In tho urn wero tho nnmes of the maidens of tho neighborhood, written on slips of parchment. Tho Itomnn youth novcr thought of shrinking from tho ordcnl. Any attempt on Ills part to go around by tho back streets on his way to business or to spend tho day on golf links Instead of doing his duty as n man and a citizen would have marked him out as n man with no sporting blood in his veins. So, assuming an nlr of gny Indlfforcnco, ho took his place In tho line, called upon tho gqds for succor and boldly plunged his hand Into tho Sacred urn. Then, llko tho historic Horner, ho pulled out, let us hope, not ft plum, but, In tho modern Innguago of admlrntlon, u peach. If so, his. fnco lighted de lightfully nnd ho hurried out to buy an unusunlly rich nnd varied assortment of sacrifices for tho altar of Venus, Cupid nnd tho rest of tho really Important divinities. If, however, fnto had gono against him nnd ho had drawn an undcslrnblo maiden from tho bowl, striking his clenched fist fiercely upon his brow, ho Htrodo In sllcnco from tho plnco of doom. But ho novcr thought of demanding n second helping. No, tho gods had willed It, nnd so It was to be. Ho had acquired n sweetheart for n year, und ho stuck by her until next St. Valen tino's dny gnvo hltn tho opportunity to break tho engagement. It was In tho yenr -100 that I'opn Gclaslus, noting with pnln tho ancient method of observing tho feast of Lupcrcnlin, which took plnco on Februnry IB, decided that something would have to bo dono ribout It. As tho youths of tho time tfeomod to bo strangely addicted to tho practice of pulling tho nnmes of young women out of tho Sacred urn, It was decided thnt It would not do to deprive them altogether of this plnyf-l diver sion. Instend, they could bo led by easy stages away from tho hcnthcnlsh portent of the gnmo. So tho lenders of tho reform movement hit upon tho scheme of permitting tho Sacred urn to per form on Its usual dny, but tho nnmes of snlnts nnd martyrs wero substituted upon tho pnpors which tho youths picked out of this roceptncld for those of mnldens In tho community. Then, rensonod tho Voform leaders, tho youths could consider that tho Amliits whoso nnmes they drow out were tholr matron snlnts nnd could pnttcm their lives by ihoza of theso worthy persons. This would bo quite us exciting ns picking out tho nnmo of one's next season's girl. And to mako tho transformation of this day of flmgan rites luto n Christian festival complete It twjw decided by tho reform element, that the dny SiTouUl henceforth be known as St. Vnlentlno's dny nnd that It should bo set on February 14 In honor of tho fnct thnt In 270 A. D. the good bishop, oftorwnrd St. Valentino, wns bchended by tho persecutors of tho enrly Christians becnuso he had performed tho remarkable intmclo of making his Jailer's blind daughter sec. Tho Day of Lovers. SL Valentino's dny Februnry 14 Indeed becntno, but, nlas for human frailty, although Uo name was changed, tho spirit of tho day remained ns before. Down to our own tlmo It is still tho dny of lovers tho world over. The nnmes of the snlnts which enmo out of the Sncred urn instead of thoso of tho pretty girls of old Homo wero powerless to turn tho thoughts of young men nwny from lovo nnd happiness townrd self-sacrifice and piety. Tho undent usages persisted, nnd thus originated tho Incongruous sttuntton whereby nn ecclesiastic of ascetic llfo nnd pious history has given his nnmo for nil time to n festlvnl dovoted to tho ImpiiB eloncd sentiment of lovers. In inter dnys, when valentines nnd como to bo ilollcnto missives In which lovors expressed their ardor In their own verses, tho duko of Orlenns was ono of the ninny Krcnt personnges who thought ho Inditing of vnlentlno verses not too smnll n oal for his poetical ambitions. It wns lifter Charles was taken prisoner nt tho battle of Agin court, in 1415, that ho did -tho greatest amount of his vnlentlno poetizing. Ho composed tho first ivrtttcn vnlentlno which npw exists. As ho wbh u prlsonor of England for 25 years, ho hnd plenty of (liee to polish up theso dainty epistles, nnd ho left Thomns W. Lnwson of Boston who Jumped Into the limelight again by his charges of "leaks" from Wash ington to Wall street, Is not un.s grotesque figure In tho eyes of the flnnnclnl community, which has' been familiar with his methods ever since hp first beenme prominent, more than n quarter of a century ngo as a Joint promoter with "Gasmnn" Addlcks of the grent speculative bubble, the Bay Stnto Gns compnny of Delnwuro, but Is n very painful one to thousands of Investors, great nnd Bmall, whoso losses In tho last scoro of years hnvo run Into tho millions. Lawson began his speculative ca reor over 40 years ago ns n clerk In n Providence bucket shop. It wus said at the time that he wns a nntural-borri speculator, and his shrewdness of per ception, his ability to grasp specula tive opportunities nnd his agility nnd daring as a market operator soon be gan to nttrnct.attentlon In Stnto street, Boston, which afterward became tho scene of his activities. While a very young mnn, Lnwson hnd accumulated a fortune and hnd achieved some locnl repututlon ns n financier. As far ns Wnll street's recollections go, he first attracted attention on the New York stock exchange as one of the most active promoters of Bay State Ons of Delaware. This stock once reached a quotation of $28 a shnro on the New York stock exchange. At high prices n largo amount of the stock was unloaded by Lawson nnd his friends on tho public, among which he had by thut tlmqj built up a substantial following, largely through his spectacular methods. r NEW RUSSIAN PREMIER The appointment of Prince D. B. Golltztno as Russian premier mnrks a definite victory for the reactlonnrles In the councils of the czar. While the prince comes of a family with a his torical reputation for liberal leanings, he himself belongs to a group of ex treme conservatives. Ho Is a firm be liever In tho responsibility of ministers to the czar alone, und his nttltudo to ward parliamentary government Is summarized in a saying of his known all over Russia : "The duma will keep quiet as soon as It gets a beating." Golltzlne Is tho first prince to be come premier of Russia, though In 100-1 Prince Mlrskl wus minister of the interior, a post which before the proc lamation of the constitution In 1005 corresponded .largely to the premier ship. Golltzlne Is head of ono of the four noblest families of Russia, n fam ily which once refused the crown and which hns been as distinguished In arts nnd letters as In wnr and diplomacy. Tho new premier embodies tho military, diplomatic and literary traditions of -the family; he Is a general of cavalry, has been n member of the imperial council and enjoys a high reputa tion ns a writer of poetry and fiction. As grand huntsmun of tho czar he was before tho war a conspicuous figuro in the society of the Russian capital. Ho was born in 1SG0. about 60 of them, a strangely bright nnd lovely memento of thnt drenry sojourn In tho Tower of London. The following Is typical of his vnlentlno verses : Wilt thou bo initio? Denr love, reply Sweetly consent, or clso deny; Whisper softly, nono shnll know Wilt thou bo mine, lovo; nyo or no? Splto of fortuno wo mny bo j t Happy by ono word from theo; i Llfo llces swiftly, Ero It go " Wilt thou bo mine, lovo; nyo or no? It was an nnclcnt Idea cherished through mnny generations thnt St. Valentino's day wns tho day of mating for birds ns well as for men nnd women. Horrlck rofers to this chnrmlng fnncy In this lovely vnlentlno verso: Oft have 1 heard both youths nnd virgins sny Birds choso their mates and couples, too, this day, But by their flight I never can divine When I shall couple with my valentine. Lovers less talented who found rhyming on their own nccount exceedingly difficult wero obliged to resort to books which wero rcgulnrly published with n view to supplying vnlentlno verses nnd replies npproprlnto to nil stntlons In life nnd nil trades. These verses, published In small volumes, with highly colored frontispieces, wero not usually of tho loftiest order. Reply valentines wero very much tho fashion for a time, ns were thoso In which there wns n play of words upon some particular calling, A Valentino for n butcher and his sweetheart, tncluded among thoso supplied In n llttlo book published In Lon don, was as follows : Valentine From a Butcher. Strong as nn ox my lovo for thee. Thou tender bit of venl; 'Though small thine eyes ns pigs' they see I Too well my lovo to Btenl. This hnst thou dono, and something more Deprived mo of my sleep; Oh, then, ho kind, nor shut tho door Against tho hapless sheep 1 To this tho bcautcouB maid of tho butcher's fancy roplled: Good Mr. Butcher, I must own, although I, am no glutton, I'm rather partial to tho tasto of beef, pork, veal and mutton; ' I've half a mind totgrant your suit, hut ono thing makes mo falter; I fear, when tied, you'd tako mo straight to Smith field In u butter. In some Instances lovers Tilso choso St. Vnlen tlno's day ns nn occasion on which to reprovo their sweotltearta nnd cut them off from further com munlcntlon. ns shown In tho following verso: To a Lady, Fond of Public Places. I hnvo kept company, It's true, At least for three long months with you. But this Inst week I'vo found you out; You're given for n gndnbout ; And I'vo been told your protty fnco Is well known In each public place. And If we wed you'll soon adorn My brow with antlers from Capo Horn. Thus prudence mnkes me to decline Your company, my Valentine. To this tho reply was tart, not to say shrewlsu Indeed, our own more polite ago would scarcelj care to hear so crude a letter from a feminine versifier. These valentine books, from' which mosi of tho lovelorn swnlns of tho curly eightcentli century culled tho lines that they wrote to theli loves, wero published In collections benrlng such titles ns "Cupid's Directory," "Cnrvalho's PollU Valentino Writer" nnd "The Frolicsome Valentine Writer," tho last a collection containing mans examples of enrly eighteenth-century humor of a sort which nlmost reconciles ono to tho merry profosslonnl Jests of one's own era. The Manufactured Valentine. It was a girl who started tho business of ruanu fncturlng vnlentlnes for snle In tho United Stntci n most enterprising girl nnmed Esther Howland, who had Just been graduated from Mount Holyoue semlnnry and resided with her father In worccs tor, Mass. In 1840 sho received from England b manufactured valentine, tho first she hnd ever seen. It Interested her so much that she decided to see whether she could mnlto somo of these vnl entlnes nnd find n sale for them. With laco paper, cut-out pictures nnd printed verses sho manu fnetured several samples nnd gavo them to hei hrother to tako out on tho road to show custom ers when ho wont on his trip for their father's stntlonery business. To her nmnzement, her broth or returned with orders for $5,000 worth of vnl entlnes. Miss ITowland, of course, wns qulto un nblo to carry out tho orders herself, but sho called her young woman friends to her assistance, anil they Immediately started what later developed lute n very largo and prosperous vnlentlno mnnufnetur- ing plnnt. In a fow years they were sending out $100,000 worth of valentines ench season. Tho comic vnlentlno. which wns pnlnfully ugly nnd coarse, nnd which nourished very brondly nl ono tlmo, hns now nlmost entirely passed nway, at least In Its cruder forms. It used to be tho grent est hnpplness of tho schoolboy's llfo to purchnse n very largo assortment of these wretched comic? nnd leave them on the front doorstep or nts scnooi tencher, male or female. Then when lo had loft n fow comics on tho steps of tho village constnblc nnd pnld his respects in similar fashion to the Sundny school superintendent ho felt thnt St Vnt cntlne's evo had been well spent. Tho Joy of St. Vnlentlno's dny has diminished grently since tho prnctlco of throwing vnlentlnes on tho doorstep, ringing tho hell nnd running, gavo place to tho less exciting method of mall delivery. But In splto of up-to-date Interference with tho vnlentlno spirit, St. Vnlentlno's dny nlways will hold Its own. Tho most famous vnlentlno verse over written Is still being nttached to homcmado valentines In pnln fully nent children's hnndwrltlng In vnrlona hnppy districts whero hoys nnd girls hnvo renl fun without spending much money for vnlentlnes or anything clso. Roses aro. as red ns ever nnd vlo lets nro still truo blue In tho Joyous land of boy nnd girl lovo nffnlrs whero reigns tho good St. Vnl. entlne. mm j - ' PRESIDENT OF HAVERFORD The recent selection of Dr. "Wll llnm Wlstar Comfort, professor of ro mance languages at Cornell university, to bo president of Haverford college Is In line with tho recent policy of sev eral colleges in bringing young blood Into their managements, us ho Is only forty-two years old, having been born In Germantown on May 27, 1874. His mother beforo her marriage wus Miss Susan F. Wistnr. In 1002 ho was mar ried to Miss Mnry Fales of Lake For est, 111., and ho Is tho father of four children, a son nnd three daughters. Throughout his scholastic career at Haverford, Doctor Comfort was a leader In tho activities of his class, being Its president In Its senior year. He also was president of the collego Y. M. 0. A. In his Junior und senior years ho was n member of tho first cricket teams nnd ho took an interest In music as well as athletics, being a member of the mandolin and bnnjo club. Doctor Comfort wns graduated from Haverford In tho class of 1894. Ho took his A. B. degree at Harvard In 1805, his master's degree ono year later nnd hla degree of Ph. D. In 1002. Ho was Instructor at Haverford collego in 1807-08, studied In Franco and Germnny for several years, and returned to Haverford In tho fall of 1001 as Instructor. In 1003 he was raado assoclato professor, holding that position until 1009, when ho resigned to become tho head of tho romanco languages' department In Cornell university. PHILLIPS' RAPID RISE By his nppolntment ns assistant secretary of state, William Phillips has gono higher In tho diplomatic serv ico more rapidly thnn any ofllclal other tlinn Secretnry Lansing himself and Ambassador Fletcher. Starting as prlvato secretary to Ambassador Choato In London In 1003, ho has worked his way up through posts In various parts of tho world to a posi tion ranked only by tho secretary of stato and tho counselor of tho stato department. nis appointment is known to have been made in lino with Secretary Lan sing's policy to keep the stnto depart ment out of politics. Secretnry Phillips, throughout tho war, has been In immediate charge of European affairs, Including relief work, questions ns to prisoners, passports, deportations, consulnr work, diplo matic changes nnd appointments, and llplomatlc etiquette. Secretary Phil lips is n graduato of Harvard university and Harvard law school, has beeu second secretary of legation nt Peking, chief delegate to several Interna tional gatherings, nnd was appointed third assistant secretary of stato March 13, 1014. His transfer to tho assistant secretaryship Increases his salary from $4,B00 to $5,000 a yenr. .