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THE 8EMI-WEEKLY TRIBUNE, NORTH PLATTE, NEBRASKA.
. Airplane Patrol for Forest Fires Federal Forest Service Is Making Experiments With Army . Machines. FORESTER TELLS ABOUT TRIP Gives Interesting Account of Experi ences Together with Observation as to Feasibility of This Method of Fire Detection. Washington, D. 0. Airplane fire pa trol o tho national forests by army machines wan begun us an experiment for the forest service recently. The flrRt report from a forester linn Just come to headquarters hero after an exciting observation flight from Mather Field made over the southern patrol route In California, covering portions of the Eldorado and Stanislaus forest preserves The trip was taken by Assistant Dis trict Forester Now for the collection of data as to the feasibility of this novel method of fire detection; wbat should bp done to fight the flames. If pos sible from the plane ; how alnrms may promptly be given; what style of plane or balloon Is best adapted, and what additional apparatus may be necessary to make successful this attempt at more effectually safeguarding remote end Inaccessible stretches of prnctl cully unexplored country from the scourge which annually destroys thou sands upon thousands of acres of tim ber rapidly becoming well nigh price-' Uss. Tells Stirring Tale. F6restcr How not only covers all these Interesting points, but tells a stirring tale of adventure In doing so. After describing his preparations for the trip, he continues: "My pilot was Sergeant McKee, who Is one of the army flying Instructors. Tho plane wo used was a Curtlss .TM-1 with an OX-5 motor. There are no con trols In front, so nil I hnd to do was to sit strapped to my seat. Wo stnrr ed about nine o'clock. I had heard so much, of persons becoming nauseated that I was expecting to feel funny, but I never hnd that kind of a symptom, My Impression was that we were stand ing still, when tu fact we wore going 70 miles nn hour. We flew up tho American valley to Plnecrvlllc; thence to Chlneso, ten miles southeast of So nora. "On tho trip wo saw fve tires, all of which were outside of the forest boun daries. The largest was near Placer vllle and had been burning a week. "The country Is so rugged that n landing could not have been made to fight a lire without a crash. The pilot agreed to this and steered to the west of tho peak Instead of to the east, and DE FOREST, THE Dr, Lee Do Forest (at left), the "wireless wlzurd," whose Invention of the audlon made possible the transmission of speech by wire and wireless over long distances as used today. The photograph was inudo nt Dr. Do Forest's labor atory nt High Bridge, New York city, Marine Rookies Shocked by Customs of Cubans. Guantanamo, Cuba. Somo newly arrived mnrlnes at this plnce nre getting their first In sight Into Cuban customs. It Is not uncommon to see naked children In tho towns about here playing In the streets. Another novel sight In tho municipal grnveyurd. Cubans have to pay taxes on the graves of their relatives, and, when the taxpayer becomes delinquent tho body or bones nre exhumed and thrown In a common heap In one qorner of the burying ground. The mnrlficH nre rapidly ac quiring the: notion that Cubans are fresh nlr fiends. Switzerland Is "considering the adoption of the 24-hour clock, abolish lug the a. m. and p. ni. by doing this, we missed seeing some of the country the patrol Is expected to cover. A forest patrol by aircraft Is more hazardous thnn the Hying (hut ! usually done. "My pilot made me understand that our trip scared him more than any other trip he had ever made, simply because he could not makejils plane attain the elevation necessary for rela tive safety. He said he would take no r.ore passengers In the future. To mc so would mean that he could cover (inly portions of the forest which could be seen from the lookout points. Getaway Extremely Difficult. "In landing at Chlneso for luncheon we broke our tall skid, but were able to replace It. Our getaway was ex tremely dllllctilt, and I did a heap of thinking. Returning, we mnde a di rect flight to Mather Field at an ele vation of 0,000 feet. When about half way the pilot said he was going to make a straight dip. He had made a series In the morning of 50 to 70 feet on an angle. This time he shot down ror fiOO feet. "This was quite thrilling, but noth CONTROL 16,000 MILES OF PHONES United States Army Perfects Fine Telephone System in Oc cupied Territory. HANDLE 15,000 CALLS DAILY Enables Commanding General to Keep Hand on Pulse of Army Opera tors Speak English, French and German. Coblenvt. At the time the Ameri cans began withdrawing from Ger many the United States army hnd per fected ono of flio finest telephone sys tems in Europe. From the headquar ters of tho third army In Coblenz Hfty long-distance lines had been set up anil It Is possible for tho command ing general to si I In his ofticc and talk with American officers In London, Merlin, Vienna, Rotterdam, Hrusscls, Antwerp, Paris and various other European points. The army of occupation has a tele- phono Kystem closely resembling the best commercial system In the United Slates. On the top floor of the head quarters building In Coblenz a nlue position switchboard was Installed soon after the Americans reached the WIRELESS WIZARD HEROIC WAR PIGEONS Flock That Did Wonderful Deeds Returns Home. "General Mulr" Comes With Breast Shattered as Result of Many Exploits. New York. With brenst shattered, but still alive, Oenernl Mulr, one of tho greatest war heroes, returned re cently. As the steamer pulled Into Now York harbor, General Mulr sat on tho dock wrapped lu a blanket that bore several wound and service stripes. There was no perceptible sign that he realized where ho was. He made no comment, Reporters tried In vain to Interview htm. Sergt. Fred J. Hermann, his commander, did all the talking. You I see General Mulr Is a carrier pigeon. 1 . He was one of the seven birds of ! the Intelligence service of the A. E. ing to tho tall spin he put the inn chine through In descending to Mather Meld. I had no warning and felt as If we wore going down n series of corkscrew curves at a (errltlc rate. The earth looked like an ocean during a benvy son. We dropped 1,000 feet In this manner and then gracefully vol planed to the field within a hundred feet of the hangar. Our total flight time was about four hours and the dis tance covered 250 miles. "Fires have already been detected from airplanes that have not bcjn picked up by the lookout man. There Is no question In my mind that It Is tho most feasible method of prompt fire detection. 1 believe, however, that the expense of establishing such n pa trol would be prohibitive for the for eit service. "I am convinced more than ever that the dirigible with helium gas will be the type of ship wo shall use In the fu ture. T predict that within five years our present system of lookout pntrol will practically be a thing of the past and also that the suppression of forest fires will commence Immediately after discovery. In other words, the fire lighting forces will accompany tho ob server in a dirigible. When n tire is discovered one or two men will climb down and put It out. There will then be different methods of fire suppres sion thnn we now use. It will be pos sible to carry largo tanks of water and motors to pump It. on a Are. Chemi cals, perhaps, may also be used." HIil no. Scattered throughout Coblcrtz are twenty private branch -exchanges of the various units of headquarters. Connected to this system are more than four hundred "subscribers" In addition to- the Hfty long-distance lines. 16,000 Miles of Wire. Within the German occupied area there has been established by the. sig nal corps under (he direction of Col. Pnrker HItt, chief signal officer, a net work of wires connecting the various units of the third army. Direct lines connect with all the corps and divi sions, approximately 10,000 miles of wire being In service. This extensive plant has hot, how ever, been built by tho third nrmy, but consists nlmost altogether of the Gor man lines taken over by the signal corps and so arranged ns to meet tho needs of the army. Sufficient circuits were left, howover, for the civilian population to carry on their business. More thnn 15,000 calls are register ed dally on the Coblenz switchboard, With the ' establishment of an ex- ennnge m uooienz it was necessary in nmtilnv nnflrntrtra vm cnnlfl Ktui'ilA' English, French and German. The fif teen operators on duty In Coblenz are all memlers of the women's telephone corps nnd hnvo been In the service more thnn a year. The chief opera tor, Miss Helen Cook, was a former employee of the American Telephone nnd Telegraph company of New York. Previous to Joining the American ex peditionary force. Miss Cook spent Mx years as instructor for the Bell sys tem In offices In Chicago, Minneapolis, Oinnhn, Cleveland, Detroit and Mem phis. . , , "Doodlebug" Code Name. The word "Doodlebug" Is the code name of the third army switchboard In Cohlcnz, the corps nnd divisions al so retaining the code names that were assigned" them during the wnr. On the back of a twenty-page telephone di rectory Issued by the third army tho arttst's conception of a "doodlebug" has been reproduced In the shape of a hug made up of a combination of sabres, rifles nnd an aerial bomb. ; All the npparatus, Including switch boards, telephone Instruments, and. In fact, everything excepting the wires, Is of American manufacture and is to be taken out when tho American?! in force say good-by to the Rhine and start for France nnd home. Gas Woodchucks. Wlnsted, Conn. Gassing wood chucks Is the Intest method of exter minating them In Massachusetts. The Idea Was tried out on the farm of El bert L. Fargo, near Marlboro, and proved a success. A hoso ,was attached lo the exhaust of an automobile engine nnd extended down tho hole. By use of a liberal mixture of gas the rodents were killed, F. that the transport brought home, General Mulr's exploits are many. one occnsion, navlug been -is-slgned to deliver a message of great Importance to a post 18 miles away, ho flew through shrapnel and gas. imi pasf a squndronNof Germans that hnd oeen sent out to intercept carrier pigeons and delivered the message in Just JW minutes. With his breast torn open, with his wings singed by fire, and eyes blind ed with blood, he kept on till he hud reached his objective. King Cole, another pigeon, Is the nearest rival of General Mulr for, fame. IK- was a messenger In the Inst Argonne drive nnd flying through a cloud of gas fell Into an abandoned trench. There he lay In tho mud for iwo uuys, ami garnering strength, arose, and enmo home with the mes sage. A patent hns been grunted for nn electrically Illuminated keyhole. mi MILK AND CREAM DEFINITION Standards to Be Used for Enforcement of Food and Drugs Act Published in Circular. (Prepared by tho United States Depart ment of Aurlculture.) Definitions nnd standards for milk and cream ndopted by the Joint com mittee on definitions nnd standards uiid approved by both the Association of Aincrlcun Dairy, Food and Drug Ofllclnls and tho Association of 0111 clal Agricultural Chemists, to be used as a guide for the enforcement of the food nnd drugs act, have been published by the United States department of ag riculture In a circular, "Food Inspec tion Decision 178." Milk is defined as the whole, fresh, clean, lacteal, secretion obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy cows, properly fed and kept, excluding that obtnlned within 15 duys before and live after calving, or such longer period ns may bo necessury to render tho milk practlcully colustrum free. Pusturlzed milk is milk that has been subjected to n temperature not lower than 145 degrees Fahrenheit for not less than 30 minutes. Unless It la bottled hot. It Is nromDtlv cooled to 50 degrees Fahrenheit or lower. ' Skimmed milk is milk from which substantially all of tho milk fat has been removed. Buttermilk is the product that re mains when fat is removed from milk or cream, sweet or sour, in the proc ess of churning. Cream, sweet cream, Is that portion of milk, rich in milk fat, which rises to tho surface of milk on standing, or Is scpurutcd from it by centrifugal force. It is fresh nnd clean It con tains not less than 18 per cent of milk fnt nnd not more than 2-10 per cent of acid-reacting substances calculated In terms of lactic ncld. WJilppingcrenm is renin which con tains not less tho't 30 per cent of nllk fat. Homogenized milk or homogenized cream is milk or cream that has been mechanically treated In such a manner is to ulter its physical properties with particular reference to tho condition ind appearance of tho fat globules. The composition of the milk pro duced by different breeds of dairy cows varies so greatly, say the food ofllclnls, that It Is not prnctlcuhle to fix a stand ard which is applicable In all locali ties in the United States and Its ter ritories. It is therefore, left to the state, and municipal authorities to adopt such standards" n's tliefr jocal production conditions mny warrant. COW TESTING IS PROFITABLE Tennessee Dairyman Expresses Appre elation of Benefits of Cow-Test-Ing Association. (Prepared by tho United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) "I would not take four times whnt my testing work has cost me for what It has been worth to me," Is the way a Tennessee dalryimm expresses his ap preciation of the benefits he gained ns n member of a cow-testing association which was organized by tho United States department of agriculture lu bin community. "Tho cow which has proved to be the host one In my herd was tho ono that I considered poorest A Good Start for a Cow.Testlng Association. before the tcstH were mnde. I priced one of my cows nt $125 before she was tested, hut now I price her at .$350." The tost shWed that tho nineteen-year-old cow which this dairyman had used for the foundation cow of his herd made 08 pounds of butterfut in November. The average production for tho herd during this month was over -10 pounds of butterfut. CONVENIENT ROOM FOR MILK Separate Apartment Should Be Pro vlded to Relieve Oftentimes Overcrowded Kitchen. (PrepareJ by tho United Status Depart ment of Agriculture.) Where even a few cows are kept, a 'separate room for handling milk should be provided tp relievo the often times overcrowded kitchen. Well houses frequently havo a room vrhlch, with tho addition of a concrete floor, shelves, nnd windows, makes a very convenient milk room. 1 World Celebrities Coming to Visit Uncle Sam WASHINGTON. More world celebrities will visit the United States during-, tho coming twelve months thnn In nil its previous history. Dr. Epltnclo Pessou, president of Hrazll, who arrived In Washington recently, Is the first of the long line of statesmen and roynl bers of royalty will come later. Gen eral Petaln has already expressed his Intention of visiting the United States, nnd an Invitation to do so will be extended to Marshal Foch. The first session of the League of Nations is to bo held In Washington In October nnd will bring to the capltnl Premiers Lloyd George, Cleraenceau nnd. practically all of the distinguished stutesmen who have taken part In the peuco negotiations In Paris. Visits of roynl personages and distinguished European statesmen to the United States in the past were few and far between. In the future they promise to be frequent. The great of the world have conceived n new Idea, of the Importance of the United Stntes since the world war. Moreover, since It Is diplomatic courtesy to repay the visit of n chief of state, the rulers of the couutrles visited by President Wilson will feel obligated, to visit the United States, oven if they should not be prompted to do so by personal interest. Navy Dress Uniform Knocked Into a Cocked Hat SECRETARY DANIELS has issued an order cutting down the wardrobes oC navul officers to a minimum. Gone are the special full-dress outfits which ate up a large portion of the ofllcers' pay. Cocked hats, epaulets nnd full-dres belts also are forbidden. The order reads : "As a result of the lessons lenrned during tho war, during which ofllcers of the navy were only required to wear the ordinary service uniform, as the result of which this uniform was found to meet the requirements for both formal and informal occasions, to effect economy and space on ship board and facilitate ease in traveling from one statior to another, a general order has been issued abolishing as pnrt of the naval officer's equipment the following articles of clothing: Spe cial full-dress coat; mess Jacket; full-dress trousers; mess trousers; a cocked: hat; eaulete and full-dress belts. "The following prescribed uniforms are abolished by the ordej: "Special full dress; -white special full dress;, full dress; white foil dress p dress ; evening full dress ; dinner dress and mess dress. "The action will result In a great saving to tho ofllcers of the service in the future, as they nre required to purchase nil nrtlctesof uniforms nt their own: expense. Tho only uniforms now authorized to bo worn' ure Undress, service dress, white service dress, and evening dress, but only the service dress can. be worn until the president's proclamation that the war has closed. Epaulets will not be worn with evening dress hereafter." The cocked hat of ancient and honorable memory Is now relegated to the museum. It never will be missed. Every midshipman graduated last month from Annapolis is in pocket: about $000 ns the result of this order. ideas of Living Expenses Seem- to Vary Widely AUTHORITIES of , the United Stntes government have decided that a young: woman', to live respectably In the District of Columbia, must have $15 a. week. Different states, establishing a minimum wage, have decided as a rulo- YOUR HOIlOK -I eAhT POSSIBLY LIVE OH $15,000 A YEAR. man. Her father wlljed her the In come from $150,000 until she Is twenty-one and then the residue of his estate,, umountlng to $1,250,000. Miss Carroll lives with her mother and attends tho Ogontz school of Philadelphia. In June, 1910, Surrogate Fowler permitted her mother to spend $12,500 a. year on the daughter, Instead of $7,500. Since that time her allowance has. been Increased to $15,000. A schedule of Miss Carroll's expenses shows: Rent, $2,000; clothing, Including sport coats, evening dresses, auto coats,. Jewelry, furs, toilet articles, munlcurlug, shampooing, $3,000; household ex penses, $4,000; Insurance, $850; automobile operation, $5,000; educntion an church, $2,000 ; summer cottage, railroad fares, hotel bills, dances and amuse ment pnrties, $11,000; physicians, opticians, dentists, drugs nnd medicines,. $1,000. Total, $20,850. Dr. Royal Meeker, commissioner of labor statistics, Investigated 848 famllles In Chicago In the winter of 1918-10, Their incomes ranged from, under $900 a yenr to more thnn $2,500 a year. Sixty-four per cent of these families save something; 28.2 per cent showed, a deficit, and G.O-per cent broke even. Demand for Captured Hun Cannon Exceeds Supply ISTRIBUTION of the German ennnon, machine guns and other war devices captured by Americans In the world war !s provided for by the Wudsworth resolution passed by the senate, which nentiy transfers to tho states the diffi cult problem presented by tho fact that tho requests for trophies so fur received from several thousand cities, towns, villages, counties, parks, schools, organizations, etc., etc., are consldernhly In excess of (lie supply. Under Seuntor Wudsworth's plan the secretary of war will apportion to the states and territories and the Dis trict of Columbln in the sumo propor tion as that borne by tho number of men serving from each state to tho total armed force of tho United States "all cannon, gun carriages, machine guns, mlnenwerfers, mortars, bomb throw ers, llamo throwers, gas projectors and other war devices captured from tho nrmed forces of Germany and allied nations," with the exception of those required for experimental purposes or actual use by the United States and for national museums, cemeteries and parks. Tho apportionment and distribution to towns and cities that have pre ferred requests will be niade by the governor of each state. Transportation charges to tho point of delivery will bo borne by tho federal government, $1,000,000 being made, available under the resolution for the purpose but not the costs iucldent to erection of the trophies in the va rious communMlea. personages whom the United States ler soon to entertain. The prince of Wales Is to vlslt thls country in August. He will be en tertained nt Newport, and later wilt come to Washington to be officially entertained by the president. King Albert and Queen Elizabeth of Belgium nnd Queeft Mnrie of Rou mnnia, possibly President Polncnlre or France nnd probably many other mem that $15 a week is about enough to- keep an American girl sufficiently well fed, dressed nnd housed. Yet In New York Miss Lorena. Carroll, nineteen, has petitioned the surrogato'scourt to Increase her an nual allowance from $15,000 to $20,000. She says the Increased cost of living; makes It impossible for her to keep up her social position on the $15,000. , Miss Carroll 1b the only daughter of Joseph D. Carroll, millionaire horse I