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TTTTC NORTTT PLATTE SEMT-WRRKLY TRTBTTNTJ. v
jB mmt of InttWf ,Biirrou offjjJiwmiy B WILL ALAND ISLANDS BE COME A BALTIC FIUME? Caught In tho swirl of the minor Hurries (hat disturb Europe arc the remote Aland Islands, whore Swedes and Finns clnshcd In n manner sug gestive of the dispute, between Jugo slavs and tho Italians nlong the Adri atic, according to newspaper dis patches. For more than 200 years the Aland Islands, which are situated like a cork In the wide mouth of the Gulf of Rothnlu, have been a sort of Alsace Lorraine question between the Swedes and the Russians. After having passed back and forth several times, they were finally ceded to Kussla In 1R0O. During the reign of Nleholus I they iwere strongly fortified, a move most distasteful to Sweden, because the Islands occupy a strong strategic posl- 'Hon with respect to Stockholm, the Swedish capital, which Is less than ,100 miles to the southwest from Ho marsuud, the chief fortification of the Islands. These fortifications were short- lived. In 1854. during the Crimean war, a Frnneo-Hritlsli fleet, under Sir Charles Napier and Haraguay d'HIl Hers, destroyed the works, and after that time the Islands were left un fortified, In accordance with an Inter national agreement. Tho Aland group, which Is separated from I ho Swedish mainland by Aland bay (Aland Ilanf) nnd from the Finn ish mainland by Slclftet sound, Is composed of some J100 Islands and rocky Islets, the total area of which Is not more than WO square miles. The largest Island, Aland, a name sig nifying "land of streams," Is almost as .large ns all the others combined, hnv jlng ati area of 247 square miles, about l twice the size of Martha's Vineyard. Cattle raising and fishing are the j chief occupations of tho 12.r,000 people (who live on tho Islands. Some cereals (barley and oats) are gi;own on the I thin soil, and there are a few forests I of birch, spruce and fir. Finnish troops recently were re (ported marching through the streets I of Marlehamm. This attractive little j bathing resort Is the chief town of the Islnnds, having a population of 11,400. In times of peace a dully j steamer servlco Is maintained between , this port and Abo, the oldest and i historically the most Interesting city i In Finland. The voyage from Abo to :Mnrlehainm tnkes about 10 hours. It was In tho water adjacent to the Aland Islands that Peter the Great's i navy won Its first Important victory, defeating the Swedes In 1717. Only about 1)0 of the .'100 Islands are llnTuihitod, and the flsherfnlk, in the .main, arc of Swedish descent. Sweden's desire to bold the Islands l arises In part from the fact that they l control tho entrance to tho Gulf .of j Hothnla, through which most of that (kingdom's Internal trade Is carried on. j LONDONDERRY: "MAIDEN CITY OF IRELAND" I Dcrry, or Londonderry, In Ulster, I known In song and legend as the I "Maiden City of Ireland," has the j charm of the cheery, busy town and Is 'truly characterized by the stirring inarching song which these Irish sing , on their days of. celebration: fwhere Foyle his swelling waters roll northwanl to the main, I Here, Qucn of Erin's daughters, fair Derry fixed her reign; I A holy temple crowned hor, and com- morce graced hor street; ,A rampart wall was round her, tho river nt her feet." Theso four linos briefly tell Lou Idonderry's story. Along the two-mile njiiays of tho river Irishmen Jolly each (other as they load nnd unload the for olgn, colonial nnd coasting trade of llho docking vessels. For the Foyle I Mi wide and deep, and large tonnage1 Al.lps Hying tho lings of France, Aus trulla, Hrazll, tho United States, and Jndln bring their wares to her port 'Husy looms In tho city make linen, land then' laughing, twlnkly-eyed Irish Igtrls make tho linen Into shirts before lt loaves Londonderry. The salmon Jflshery on tho Foyle, Is Important and tho' town has timber mills, grain mills, nnd Bhlpynrds. nut uerry nas lor mo traveler a iclmrm greater than Its hustle and up- nnd-dolng atmosphere the story of a .past replete with romance, devotion . 'to principle, nnd the exhibition of .Indomitable spirit. Coluuibu. the greatest of tho Irish saints after Pat .rick nnd Hrlgld, In (MO looked on the ionic-clad hills and coveted them. Hero jhu founded his abbey, known ns Dnlre Columbkillc, or Columba's Oak drove, 'within the shadow of the great fort on a neighboring bill, the stronghold of tho lord of Tyrone, In order that his sanctunry might buvo the protec Hon of tho fort. Hut in vain did he ireckon his chnncos against tho Danes and Snxons who, time and again, ipushcd tholr bout 8 against bis shores. JDcsplto their plundering and burnings, (the settlement, of which ho had made the nucleus, grow nnd maintained Its (Independence until 1009. Merry was tr.Mi glvn to (he "r- poratlon of London, which tacked on the prefix London. Three years later the Irish society, to which Ionilon- derry and much of' the surrountling rountry had been given, pledged Itself to endow Derry within walls, nnd these walls, wide enough for a coach and four, lire excellently preserved today, pcrhnps to the Inconvenience of the Inhabitants, but certainly In accordance with their sentiments nnd wishes. Any one who expressed n desire that they be (aken down would be trealetl as a traitor. Long ago they grew too small to encompass all the Inlmbltiints of the hustling port. but thev stand like a stiff belt around the waistline of the hill on which the city Is built. The most Incon venient thing about them Is tnat, though they are more than n mile In circumference, there are only seven gales leading through them. Hecause (he walls defended the city In the siege begun by James II, n busy man must make quite a Jaunt nut of his way to find u passageway through them. but. true to Irish sentiment, he does It without a murmur. On one of the bastions of the wall an old gun, affectionately known as "Roaring Meg," points her nose over the city. Here, too, on the hill In the center of n crowded old graveyard stands the qunlnt. squat cathedral with Its queer pinnacled tower. It Is called after St. Columha, although It Is not on the site of the old abbey built by the saint fourteen centuries ago. On a high, Inaccessible hill In the distance, looms, the stronghold of the lords of Tyrone. It Is said thai St. Patrick came to the fort to baptize Owen, who first set himself up to rule over the province of Tyrone, and St. Columha visited It before his exile. Here, too, captive Danes who hnd threatened the peace of the city were dragged In triumph. Though every trace of the old cas tle has been obliterated, the massive stone wall fourteen feet thick nnd eighteen feet high, resembling the han diwork of a cyclone, has stood out grimly against the centuries. A small Iron gntf hangs across a two-foot door way, the only entrance to Its huge amphitheater-like Interior, which re veals further devices designed for the protection of tho Inmates. OLD LETTERS REVEAL LOST CHAPTER IN WORLD HISTORY H Lnvn preserved tho secrets of Ro man civilization in rompeu; lomns protected the records of ancient Egypt's culture; nnd now thero Is pros pect that some long neglected letters may reveal one of the most fascinat ing chapters hi the historic trull of the Jewish people, and Incidentally show that Africa loomed larger In the mid dle ages than modern historians have eallzedi Hitherto Africa has figured not at all In medieval history. It still was a "dark continent" when Stnnley and Livingstone penetrated It less than a century ago. Yet, In view of a remark able documentary discovery made by Charles de la Ronclere, llbrnrlnn of the national library In France, It would seem Jews or the fifteenth cen tury had trading posts In northwest iVfrlca, and carried on a vast com merce witn tne natives irom uio Sa hara to the Atlantic and from Algeria to the Niger. Antonln Malfante. a Genoese citizen, traversed this redon and wrote his descriptive letters, In 1447. from Tim buktu and Tount. Timbuktu was the Chicago of the west African plnlns; nnd Touat tho center of the camel caravan tralllc that exchanged the wheat and barley of Egypt for the powdered gold of Timbuktu and the precious salt from Tcghnzza. All the places visited by Malfante were so wen Known io me .lews or bis time that they were listed In n Catalnn atlas prepared three-quarters of a century enrller for Charles V, according to M. Ronclere. Hut short Iv after Malfante's visit the Jews were driven out of Spnln, and since the Jews were tho only ones In Europe who knew of the Nigeria country and apparently permitted no Christian to enter there oxopt Mnlfunto the Jew' lab knowledge was lost In Europe. Not until Dr. Gerhnrd Rohlfs began his j explorations In Algeria and Morocco In 1S00 did the rest of the world again form n contact with the extensive re gions of Malfante's travels. Landing at a point west of Algiers, Malfante worked his way south to Touat, which Rohlfs believed himself to hnvo been tho first European to vis it. Yet Malfnnte dated his first letter from thero four centuries earlier. Touat was nn oasis, containing from IrtO to 200 villages, which together formed a vast commercial center. Each had a chief. Travelers became the guests of these chiefs and Mal fante reported their protection su perior to that In states like Tlemcen and Tunis. One of theso towns was Turnout. "nw n decayed village, whose people still recall the Jewish epoch. Arabian Invaders earlier had routed the Jews, who were musters of the Sahara and whose empire extended south to the Nlgor. Tametlt, Malfante wrote, sheltered both Jews and Mo hammedans, who lived In harmony. Tho native negroes valued copper highly. Malfante stated, and used It for money. Profiteering, apparently. Is not a modern vice. Malfante. com plained, "Tho people here do not want to transact .any business If thoy do pot mako n commission of 100 per cent." And tholr business was on n Iflg scale, nt that. Half n million head of cattle, to mention but one Item, were brought to market In tho carnvan season. Pushing on to Timbuktu, Malfante's host was the brother of a captain of lescrt Industry, n man of grent wealth and possessed of trade Information concerning all of north Africa. From him Malfante lenrned of such flourish ing places ns Teghazza, famous for Its suit mines nnd unique for Its archi tecture. The houses were made of rock salt. Malfante noted Hint It nev er mined there, or the houses would hnvo melted nwny. GUNNING-FOR PROFITEERS AN ANCIENT PRACTICE Profiteering In foods and high wage demands by Inbor are far from being ultrn-modora problems. i Ancient Egypt flogged Its profiteers In the market places ami meillevn" England passed maximum wage laws according to a communication by Ralph A. Graves to the National Geo graphic society, which says: "Following the devastation of the Hlack Death In England In i;i48-1340 cultivation of the fields was utterly 'nposslble and there were not even nough able-bodied laborers to gather the crops which had matured. Cattle roamed through the corn unmolested nnd the harvest rotted whore It stood. "Out of the situation which resulted from the Impoverishment of the labor resources of the kingdom grew the first grent clash In England between capital and labor. The peasants be came masters of tho situation. In some Instances they demnnded double wages, and whereas formerly land-owners bail paid one-twelfth of every qunrter of wheat as the harvesting wage they were now forced to pay one-eight. "Parliament hurriedly passed dras tic laws In an effort to meet the new condition. Statutes provided that 'every man or woman, bond or free able In body and within the age of threescore years, not having his own whereof he may live, nor land of his own about which he may occupy him self, and not serving any other, shall be bound to serve the employer who shall require him to do so. provided that the lords of any bondsman or land-servant shall be preferred before others for his servlco; that such serv ants shall take only the wages which were custoninrlly given In 1347 (the year prior to the first appearance of the plague). "The first ordlnnnce In English his tory, designed to curb the greed of the middleman, was passed nearly a century enrller (In 12H8) when there was a bountiful harvest, but destruc tive rains caused the heavy crops to rot In the fields. "Hut England did not originate food control measures. A low Nile In 007 A. D. resulted In n famine the follow ing year, which swept away 000,000 people In the vicinity of the city of Fustat. G'awhar, a Mohnmmednn Jo seph, founded a now city (the Cairo of today) a short distance from the stricken 'town nnd rhimcdlately organ ized relief measures. "The Caliph Mo'lzz lent every osslst nnce to his llcutennnt, sending ninny ships laden with grain; but price of bread still remained high nnd G'awhar, being n food controller who hnd no patience with persuasive methods, or dered his soldiers to seize all the mill ers and grain dealers and Hog them In the public market place. The ad ministrator then established centrnl grain depots and corn was sold throughout the two years of the famlno under the eyes of a government In spector." , -to Girl Olympic Winners Receive Decorations When tho American Olympic team was received by Mayor Hylan of New York, the victorious athletes were dec orated by him. He In seen here pinning the medal on Margaret YVoodbrldgc. Camp of the Retreating Russian Soviet Troops View of a camp of the Russian Red army where the troops were able to get a little rest during Uielr retreat before the Poles. Playground Is Presented to Prague MINSK: AN INCUBATOR OF BOLSHEVISM One of the least Interesting among Russian cities In Its physical aspects, Minsk has nn economic history that helps In understanding how bolshcvlsm sprend so readily nmong the Russian people. The Industrial history of Minsk, where tho Poles and the bolsheviks mot to discuss pence terms, Is espe cially significant In view of present conditions In Russia. It was one of tho centers where ldens long germi nated which blossomed forth so sud denly into bolshevlsm under the hot house Influences of war distress. There, In the early nineties of the Inst century, a group of dllettnntes formed a Working Man's union, later mnro accurately termed tho Union for Struggle. Promulgation of lltcrnture, smuggled Into the country or printed In secret, was a major activity of this group In Minsk. Few worklngmen he longed to It. In the course of five years theso groups, working in aioscow, bt. re- tersburg nnd Minsk, had accumulated a number of followers, few of whom agreed. They gave wide publicity to tho doctrines of Mnrx, mixed Indls crhnlnntely with every variety of rad icalism, native and Imported. With such u diversity of nlms little wns accomplished, and It was with the hope of formulating n definite pro gram that the union ror struggle anil a committee of tho .Towish bund held their notable convention nt Minsk In 1808. From thnt meeting arose tho Social Democrutlc Working Men's party. Minsk Is built upon tho Svlslotck river, nearly r00 miles southwest of Moscow by rnll, nnd has a population of 105,000. fully half of whom nro Jews. It was tho capital of tho old Russian government of Minsk, which Included some of the least fertile and loiist developed regions of tho fallen empire. The annual fair, hold In March, fur nished the chief event In the town's life. Its trade, mnlnly In com, lum ber nnd lenthor, gained perceptibly V!ien It became tho Intersection point Of the railway from Moscow to War t'aw and thnt from Llbau to Kharkov. Formerly It maintained a municipal pawnshop. OFF FOR A LITTLE JAUNT President Mnsaryk of Czccho-Slova kin at Prague, accepting a playground given by the young Men's nnd Young Women's Chrlstlnn associations, on bo- "half of the city of Prague. The Young Women's Chrlstlnn association pres ident who mndo the presentation Is shaking hnnda with President Masaryu. White House Stables May Be Revived 1 Milton Welnsteln and Seymour Grauer, assistant scoutmasters of tho Boy Scouts of America, leaving the city hull. New York, for n hike neross the country to Son Frnnclsco nnd re turn. The boys will follow the south ern route and walk all the way. They expect to work en route to pay their expepses. MADE WAY TO HIGH PLACE The once famous White House stables, which havo fallen from their high estate In theso days of gasoline. Where at times have been sheltered tho ponies and riding horses of the Roosevelt family and tho shining, beautiful bays of President McKInley. are now six big high-powered automobiles and one electric coupe. Not a single horse Is now credited to the property list or pay roll of tho White House. However, older residents who fondly recall tho duya when tho horse camo Into prominence ns n part of tho White Houso at tractions are hoping thnt with the coming of a new administration horses will bo Included with other chnnges necessarily entailed. They have been told thnt both Senator Harding and Governor Cox are lovers of horses, and In all likelihood will seo to It that there aro several on hand for use. CONDENSATIONS The west coast of Lower California abounds In pearl oysters. One central station In Germany Is supplying electricity for light and power for ICO villages. The Alps mountains hnrbor more tbnn 1.000 glnclers. The lily of tho valley does not be long to the Illy family. Japanese wives of tho mlddlo and lower clnsses frequently blncken their teeth to plense a Jealous husband. Spectacular Rise of Horse-Boy to Po sition ot Mexican Minister of Foreign Affairs. Less than IB years ago a ragged lit tle chap asked for a Job of horse-boy with a group of American travelers in Mexico. He wore n ragged pair of trousers, was bare of foot, and almost bare of body, as his cotton shirt was little more than u rag. He got tho Job. and tho next three months spent his time currying and caring for tho travelers' mounts. He told them his nnmo wns "Candldo." or "Tho Sim ple." The same horse boy is today Candl do Agullar, minister of foreign affairs for Mexico, nnd son-in-law of the for mer president Cnrmnza. Investigation showed thnt the horseboy had gather ed a little band about blm several years ago. and that as It Increased In size It becanio the ruling force In Vera Cruz. Cnrranzn took the young lead er to Mexico City, wliero he became commundant of tho capital troops, a general, and then on up to his present high olllce. He had learned to read and wrlto on the way up also how to mako love, for his marriage with Carranza's daughter came soon after his arrival In Mexico City. Outclassed. "Tho man you Introduced me to ua an ugly look I didn't like." , " "Then you Just ought to pee hl,t wife," '