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51 fSocrty, WJahiiigion, DC., fa DtM' AFGHANISTAN ONCE MORE FEARS BEAR'S PAW The collapse of czurdom In Russia was hailed with ncclalm In Afghani stan as freeing her fnmj nn Influence that often hns been embarrassing. But tlie menace of the benr'fl paw Is re newed with the threatened Incursions of the Bolshevlkl, To the stranger the Afghan dlsplnyw a sort of specious and deceptive ori ental courtesy. In fact, a nntlonal proverb Is that "The man who shuw his door to n stranger Is no Afghan." But the stranger nlso would do well to know n saying current among the Hindoos: "God shield you from ven geance of the elephant, the cobra and the Afghan." For many strangers have found that, upon provocation, to which the Afghnn ts extremely sensi tive, his disposition Is vengeful, cruel and crafty. Ills deslro for pillage, theft and deception also Is apt to get the best of him. Your Afghan Is a swarthy, swag gering, proudi hut withal prepossess ing sort of man, every Inch the war rior while ho keeps his turban on, but giving n faint suggestion of n be wlgged Jurist of old English days when ho removes It to disclose a head shaven from forehead to crown, with curly ringlets falling about his shoul ders from the unshaven portions. Occasionally tho men nro fair, as are most of the women, whose hair In two plnlts with colored tassels at the end, conceivably might call to mind an American musical comedy chorus , prepared to sing "School Days," were It not for their flowing oriental robes. Afghan women, like Turkish women, nro secluded, hut they are consider ably moro adventurous than their Turkish sisters, hctico scandnl Is not Infrequent oven In a land whero a man may have as many wives as he ,can support. By Ilahlbullnh's father, Abdur Rah man, nlso were enacted measures of national defenso singularly In keeping with occidental schemes for conscrip tion, lie made the boast that he could throw n hundred thousand men Into action in a weolr to defond one of his provinces. nrH said his entire domain could ralso a million lighting men to defend her soil. Sior did ho stop at the prediction. Ho worked out a system by which each man In every eight would alternnto In taking mlltury Instruction. One hnd to be very young, or very decrepit, to es- capo tho amir's drnt, for the service ages were from sixteen to seventy. 80 far as barring private munition makers Is concerned. Abdur Rahman, long boforu Ills death in 1001, might have subscribed to tho principle, dis cussed during tho peace conference at Paris, for ho hud his own factories nt bin capital, Kabul. There are said to have been produced a dozen or more rifles and thousands of car tridges a day, and several guns a week. ONCE EXILEDFAMILY of BRAZIL NOW HONORED ThO visit of Secretary of State Colby to Mo do Janeiro, and recent press dispatches stating that Presi dent Pcssoa of Brazil has signed a de cree- revoking the edict which banished former Emperor Dom Pedro ,11 and all bis relatives, arouse Interest In the history of these "United Stntes of South America." llarrlct Chalmers Adams, writing to tho Nntlonul Geographic Society, says: 'There Is a movement under way to build n national pantheon. In Illo do Janeiro and bring to It, nt the time of the 102'J centenary, the remains of Brazil's historical porsonages, Includ Ing Joao VI. Pedro I, Pedro II nnd his consort. To this the Portuguese government will probably consent, nnd it Is to bo hoped that Princess Isabel, too, will ngree. Dom Pedro II should return with honor to tho land of his birth. The dlfllculty hitherto lay In tho fact that neither tho princess nor her sons wcro permitted to enter tho Republic of Brazil and could no long or visit the family tomb. "Dom Pedro II died In Porls In 1801. Princess lsahol, who married the French Comto d'Iflu, ntlll lives In France. In 100S her elder son re nounccd his claim to the throne of Brazil In favor of his brother Dom Luiz, whose- little son, horn In 1000, Is Pedro III. "When in Lisbon I visited the Pan theon, whero the rulers of Portugal lie. Exiled from bis country, Dom Pedro 11 also found a resting placo In the land or ins rororntiters. 1 was most unfavorably Improsesd with this Pantheon. It altogether lacks tho beauty and dignity of tho royul man solemn of the Escorlul In Spain. For v tho pnytricnt of n small fee. tho custo dlnn permits you to climb a ladder 11 ml gaze nt tho embalmed body of tho last emperor of Brazil. This seems most unilttlng. "Dom Pedro II Is Brazil's biggest mime. He It wns who led bis country hito tho brotherhood of groat nntlonB. With him wisdom and kindliness were pre-eminent. Every Inch on em peror, ho yet was accessible to the hilitiWest of his Hunjects. "There Is much In the city where he lived for so many years still eloely associated with bis rule, which ended only the other day, as wo count his tory 1880. In tho cont-of-arms of the house of Bragnnzn, still to be seen on tunny of the buildings; In such street names as Murqucz de Sao Vicente, Baron de Petropolls, Vlscomlu dc Mnraugunpo, and In the titled Bra zilians one still meets In the country, wo ronllze that not many years ago Hlo do Janeiro was the abode of roy alty. "Closely associated with Imperial rule In Its decline was the emperor's daughter, Donn Isabel. While princess regent, during one of hor father's vis Its to Europe In search of health, she signed the most vital decree ever Is sued In the country. 1 saw the orig inal document In the Hull of Archives, and the pen, set with diamonds and emeralds, with which tho princess signed It, the decree of May 1!, 1888. which liberated 1,500.000 slaves. "Tho decree of 1888. which freed all slaves, was Immensely unpopular with many of the country's lending men, who clnlmed the princess regent hnd been unduly Influenced by her cler ical advisers. This was one of the reasons for the fnll of the empire. although that event may be largely attributed to discontent nil over the country, owing to the centralization of power In the capital." DO FISHES TALK? Do fishes talk? Becent speculation nbout a monkey language gives rise to this even more startling theory, hinted nt by Dr. Alex ander Graham Bell.. In n communica tion to tho National Geographic so ciety. "Talk," of course. Is used In the senw of communication ; n meaning which Is not extreme since we dally speak of "talking" over the telephono, tho Instrument of Doctor Bell's Inven tion, though the "voice" that Is heard Is not that of the speaker, but a me- chnnlcnl reproduction of his utterance. "Did you ever put your bead under water and chuck two stones together to see what tho sound Is like?" Doctor Bell writes. "If you have never done thut, try It, nnd you'll get a new sen sation. I did It once, and It sounded as If a man were hummerlng for all bo wns worth at my very enr.v "I then took two tiny little pebbles nnd tapped them together quite lightly under water, and It sounded llko a man knocking at tho door. It was rather startling to hear such n loud noise from such a slight cause. "Reflecting upon various experi ments, the thought occurred to me: If two little stones tapped together can ho heard under wnter, why, every tiny lobster thnt snnps his claws must mako nn audible click. I wonder If thero are creatures In the water that signal to ono another by sound. "Well, I hnd occasion to try It once. Bathing In tho Grand river In Ontario n great many years ago, I put my head very gently under water and listened, add. sure enough, 'tick, tick,' came a sound like a grasshopper's chirrup. and a little while after that a chirrup on tho other side. Thero were crea tures under the wnter that were call ing to one nnother. "I don't know whether nil fish make wounds or not, but thero are somo fish thut certainly do. The drumflsh on our const drums away In tho water so loudly that you can hcni' him while you uro walking on the shore. "It Is nlso a significant fact that all fish have ears. Why should they have ears If thero Is nothing for them to hear? "Of this we may he certain thnt thero is n whole world of sound be neath tho waves waiting to bo ex plored. "Three-quarters of tho earths sur- faco Is under wnter nnd Has not yet been explored, nt least to any great degree." RATS: ACOSTLY PEST As carriers of the dread bubonic plngue rats aro a menace, but thut la only one form of tholr costly and dangerous depredntlons. "Rats nre practically omnivorous. and their depredntlons cover a wldo range," writes Edward W, Nelson In a communication to the National Geo graphic society. "They dig up newly planted grain, destroy It while growing, nnd also when In the shock, stack, crib, gran nry, mitt, elevator, warenouse, wnnrr, and ship's hold, as well as In the bin nnd feed trough. Thoy eat fruits, vegetables and mcnts In tho market, destroying nt tho sumo timo by pollu Hon fur more than Is consumed. "They destroy enormous numbers of eggs and poultry, as well as the eggs and young of song nnd gamo birds. In addition, thoy Itivndo store and ware houses and destroy grocorlos of every description, as well as furs, laces, silks, carpets and lenther goods. "They cnuso many disastrous fires by gnawing 'mutches, by gnawing through lead pipe near gas meters, or by cutting the Insulation from eloc trie wires In carder to secure material for nests and by gathering oll-sonked rags and other Inflammable material In their nests; flood houses by gnaw Ing through lead wnter pipes; ruin ar tificial ponds nnd embankments by burrowing, and dnmngo foundations floors, doors nnd furnishings of dwell lugs. "As dlsenso carriers they nlso cause enormous commercial losses, espec- clally through the introduction of bu bonle plague and the resulting suspen slon of commerce. With tho Introduc tion of plnguo thoy become directly responsible for business disaster a well nn for an appalling mortality, "Much of tho greater part of losses from these pests Is In foodstuffs, which, ns already Indicated, nre de stroyed at every stage from the time the seed Is planted until they are ready for human consumption, - "Investigation some ypnrs ngo Indi cated that the direct annual toiscs sus tained In the United Stntes wero about $200,000,000. with n great addi tional sum In Indirect losses, Including the effect on the public health and commerce from tho diseases carried by rats, and the necessary expendi tures In combating them. Assuming, roughly speaking, that as estimated tho rnt population In the United Stntes Is no.000.000 for the cltlos and 150,000. 000 for the rural districts. It will re quire tho destruction of property by each rnt of only a little more than one-fourth of a cent n day to make tho nggregnte sum cstlmuted ns de stroyed by these pests yearly In this country." CRIMEA: THE RIVIERA OF RUSSIA A proposal that Great Britain nnd tho United States shall co-operate In caring for tho Russian refugees from the Crimen again directs world sym pathy to a land which has already known suffering. Hanging down Into the Black sen like n butcher's cleaver, with Its handle pointed east and the near corner of ' the blade joined to tho mnlnlnud of Russln, the Crimen, whero It wns first planned to exile the abdicating czar, Is about us uenr to being nn Island ns a peninsula well can be, even though n very narrow strait Is tho only wn ter thnt lies between It nnd a second connection with tho mainland. On the one side, to the west, lies tho Perekop Gulf, nnd to the east, shut out from the Black sea by the handle of the cleaver, Is tho Sea of Azov. With nn area matching that of New Hampshire, n population equal to thnt of New Hampshire and Vermont t6 gether, nnd a climate that borrows good features from Florida and south ern California, and bad ones from many places, the Crimea Is one of. tho most fascinating bits of territory between Portugal and Cochin China. Its population Is a congress of races. Its Industries range from the grow ing of subtropical fruits and the hous ing of Russln's elite ns they flee from the cold, to the herding of sheep and the growing of grains. It Is a place of many-sided activities. As the men of wealth of America have their winter homes In Florida nnd those of western Europo have theirs along the RIvlcrn, the people of Russia have their country seats in the Crimea. And beautiful, places they nre, for In Russia tho rich are very rich. Tho height of tlie social season Is from tho middle of August to the first of November. Tho peninsula Is occupied by 855,000 people, according to the last census, mostly Turkish-speaking Tartars, with a scattering of Russians, Greeks, Ger mans and Jows. Cleanliness nnd mo rality are said to be proverbial traits of the Crimean Tnrtnrs, who have been undergoing tho Influence of Russlfl cation for several generations. They have tnken up vino culture, fruit grow ing, and kindred occupations with a zeal seldom equaled east of tho Aegean. Tho novels of "Tolstoy give a graph ic picture of the Crimean wnr from tho Russian viewpoint depicting tho miseries, of the march, the anguish of the life In the casemates, and tho nerve-destroying ordeal of manning tho lines under shellflre, there to nwult the night attack that might or might not come. It wns In this war that Florenco Nlghtlngnlo rendered service as a nurse thnt made hor namo a synonym of ministering angel on tho world's battlefields. Then men knew nothing of the cnuso of cholera and' such diseases, nnd tho soldiers died llko flics. It Is cstlmnted thnt 50.000 British soldiers lie burled In the cemetery out side of Sebnstopol. Before tho pres ent war this vast city of tho dead was watched over by u German who could speak no English, but who wns proud of his prlvllcgo of guarding the ashes of those who fell at Balakluva and Inkermnn.. When Stephen Grnlmtn visited the cometery tho old keeper told blra they hnd .'15 varieties of oleander In tlie cemetery. Manuscripts Strangely Recovered. Somo vnluublo munuscrlpts went down In n torpedoed ship during the wnr. How they wero recovered has been told by tho Rev. J. Alston nt Sur blton, Englnitd. Preaching nt St. Mat thew's church on behalf of tho British nnd Foreign Bible society, ho said the late Archdeacon Dennis, n missionary In South Nigeria, spent sovVrnl years In compiling a dictionary and gram mar of the Iho language, comprising six distinct dlnlects, to enable tho Bible to be printed nnd circulated among tho nntlvo tribes. When on his way to England his vessel was tor pedoed, nnd ho lost his life. Some months later his manuscripts wero found In n crovlco of the rocks on the Welsh coast, whero thoy had been Washed up by tho sea. They are now awaiting publication, Hurrah for Cow. Father had returned from a polit ical convention nnd presented each of his three youngsters with a badge hearing a likeness of a candidate nnd his name. Tho two older children wero able to rend, so ran out of the house cheering for tho tunn whose name appeared on their badge. Mau rlco was too young to read, but seeing the seal of Indiana on his badge (which Is u buffalo bounding over the plain) ho shouted, "Hurrah for tlila darn cow 1" Funeral of The fifteen English officers who were murdered In Dublin on "Red Sunday," were burled with full military ors In London, while thousands lined the curbs ns the cortege passed. The photograph Bhows the procession Honors in L.onuon, wnup tiiousanus lined passing the cenotaph In Whttehull, erected to the memory of tho British soldiers who died In the war. Silver nnd bronze medals were awarded In the public schools of New specimens of bulb plants In the school contest In which 2,500 children took mudo tho awards after a tour of the city's schools. Group of Blue 4 More drastic prohibition laws nnd tho strict observance of the Sabbath, nro two of tho reform topics discussed by the bluo law crusaders attending tho twenty-sixth nnnlversnry of the International reform bureau In Washing ton. Those In the picture nre, from left to right (top row), Stnte Representa tive Thomus II. Harrison of Georgia; Bishop .7. W. Hamilton of Washington, D. C. ; Dr. Mitchell Carroll, and Father Eugcno A. llnnnnn, rector of St. Mark's church, Washington; (bottom row), Representutlve W. D. Upshaw, Georgia ; Mrs. Ella Boole, recent New York senatorial candidate, and Dr. Wilbur F. Crafts, superintendent of tho bureau. Burning of Liverpool Warehouses Tho first plcturo to reach tills country of tho fires which practically de stroyed 18 cotton warehouses and many other buildings In Liverpool, England. The Hit- tbought to have been the work of Sinn Foln Incendiaries. British Officers Killed in Dublin the curbs ns School Children Raise Prize Bulb Plants Law Crusaders York to students who raised the fines, part. The mayor's committee of women CROSSED OCEAN ALONE John W. Carter, three, who trav eled alone on the liner lluverford from Liverpool to Philadelphia, to return to his father, Prof. John S. Carter of Old Forge, Pa., whom he had not seen for 18 months. The boy's mother wns taken 111 in Englnnd nnd sent little John home alone. Instend of being seasick, he proved his ublllty as a sailor by "eating a dinner nt almost every table In the dining saloon, so thnt none of his friends would feel slighted," the stewardess reported. MAY BE MADE A MARSHAL General I.yautey. win., according to reports from Paris, will be made a marshal of Franco as a reward' for his work in bringing about tho pad Hcatlon of Morocco. General Lyautoyi has been commander of the French forces In Morocco for several yenra.