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TITE NORTTT PLATTE SEMI-WEEKLY TRIBUNE.
BTfYgii ring Voprf-- I BAKU: OIL CITY OF THE CASPIAN The recent outhrenk of a revolt In Jlusstu usalnwt the Bolshevik relino olces aiuoiij: other Interesting inten tions that of whether Haku, the fjrrat oil otty of Asln, now surrounded by ftolshevlk RfivcrninuiitH, will bo once inore thrown open to world commerce Thl city In the lieilrt of one of tho world's Krcntest petroleum HeldH, hns boon practically bottled up nlnce tho fall of tho ItUHftlnn empire. The city of Iluku, built In the form of tin umplilthenter on the south Hide of the Apsheron peninsula, which Jut far out Into the Caspian sen, 1h tho Tampleo of tho .Slav doiimlii. Two vast oil Holds, containing more thnn 9,700 wellB, make It the chief oil cen ter of Europe. During the World war, had tho Teutonic powcro succeeded In reaching It hetore the Itrlt IkIi forceH occupied It, the blow would have been oven mure senium to the allied caunc thai) was the seizure of the Itouniunl pn oil fleldu hy the Oermun army of occupation. According to n census the year he fore the outbreak of the war, Unku wan a city about the present size of I'rovldence, It. I., Columbus, Ohio, or Louisville, Ky, It was the chief city of the Russian province of tho Mime nnmo, hut In recent years the province lias formed a government of Its own undue the name of the Republic of Azerbuljun. Unku Is situated in tho inldst of an unattractive, treeless plain which stretches along the west ern shores of the Caspian. The Cas pian hi 84 feet below nca level, and Baku rises only .'10 feet nhovo tho groat inland sea, no that It Is more than CO feet below tho ocean lovel. Many centuries ago the Persian flro worshipers discovered that the nat ural eases Issuing from fissures In tho rock near Haku would burn, and there may be seen, u few mlloa from the city, the remains of ono of their ancient temples. Tho upper part of tho city, corre sponding to tho hack rows of an Htnphltheatei', Is the picturesque Tatar quarter, with Its many narrow lanes find oriental bazaars. A fifteenth-century palace of the khans Is In n very dilapidated condition, and hug been Bod for many years by the KussIuiih 0 a military magazine. Tho most (Characteristic structure in the town )s tho uasslvo Kls Kalo, or Maidens' (Tower, which rises to a height of 147 feet and which Is now used ns a light jiouso. It dates from tho Byzantine period. Four flftha of nil tho oil produced In tho Itusslnn empire comes from tho Baku fields. Tho hlgh-wiitcr-mark of production was renched In 1002 when tho output of tho district was nearly ton million tons of crudu petroleum. In 10O5, however, there wns n dis astrous lire which considerably cur tailed production for a time. Tho latest authentic figures on production are those for 1015 when a little more thnn suven million tons was produced. Much of tho output of the wells, which .vary In depth from f00 to 2.000 feet, was transported by pipe line to lliitum on tho Illack sen, but Haku Is also connected by rail with this seaport as well oh with Itostov-on-tho-Don. In addition to Its oil Interest, Haku had drydocks, flour mills, milphurlc dcld works and tobacco factories. It was tho chief entrepot for raw cotton, ilk, fruits, dried Huh, wines and rlco produced In l'ersla and the Transcuu casus territory, Tho town derives its name from tho nqualls (badkubc) which are frequent ly very violent on this part of tho Caspian coast. A ROMANCE OF BANANAS AND COFFEE When the American small hoy eats bis dally quota of bannnas, and when his father and mother sip tholr break fast) luncheon, or dinner coffee, they are making Important contributions to the prosperity of fellow Amorlcnns of whom they know very little tho residents of the five Central American ropublica which have lately reached a preliminary declston for tho forma tion of a sort of "United States of Csntral America." Central America Illustrates striking ly the effects of geographic factors on region's development. All tho five republics He on tho relatively narrow Isthmus between tho narrow ribbon Of Panama on the south and Mexico 00 the north. The Spanish settle xatatu made soon after tho discovery of America were nil on the Pacific aide of tho Isthmus, for the most part DO the plateaus and mountain slopea und In the mountntn valleys of that region, which temper an othcrwlso tropical climate. Practically tho en tire Atlantic side of tho Isthmus wan a low plain, covered with a dense Jungle. At the time of the throwing off of the Hpanlwh ynko In 1821, tho Centrat Amerlcun settlements were an effec tually cut off from tho United Stnte ns If they had been many thousands At inlias .uwny Instead of being only mt tin Curlbbeun sen. -With tho settlement of tho Pacific coast of the United States, the building of the Pnnanui railroad, and lator tho con struction of n truns-Mcxtcnn railway, tho Panama canal, and railways across Guatcmalu and Costa Itlcn, Central America has become easily accessible. Shortly heforo the construction of the Panama railroad, coffee was In troduced Into Central America from j the West Indies, and wns found to grow to perfection in the lnva soli on the slopeM of the volcanic mountains along the I'nclllc const of most of tho region. Coffee soon become nn export of prime Importance and bits brought much money Into Central America. The remainder of Central America's horticultural romance has ns Its mo tif, the banana. In order that tho grca't American hunger for that slen der golden fruit might be appeased, targe fruit growing and distributing corporations from tho United Stntes acquired extensive trnct of land In the Atlantic plain, reclaimed It from, tho Jungle, and planted great banana groves which produce millions of hunches of bananas yearly. Tho by-products of this development have been as valuable to Central America an the money that has tlowed directly to laborers and to the gov ernment. Important cities have sprung up along tho Atlantic coast, railroads have been built, and what Is probnhly most Important of nil. lines of fast, well-equipped steamers, carry ing both passengers and freight have been established between the Atlantic ports and those of tho United Stnten. In effect tho bnnana has shifted Cen tral America thousands of miles clos er to the outside world. BATTLEGROUND AND PLAYGROUND Tho Crimea was tho sccno of ono of tho latest nntl-Holshovlk military efforts from outside Hussla to win hack a part of that old empire. This expedition, under General Wrangel met disaster as had slmllnr forces launched against the Soviets farther north, and tho Crimea wus overrun by the HoIhIicvUcI. Tho Crlmeun peninsula In which this encounter took place Is a land which has aspects known to every school child. It Is the land of the Cim merians nhout whom Homer sang In tho "Odyssey" and from whom tho penin sula takes Its nnmo; tho land of tho Crimean wnr, tho slego of Sevastopol, and the "Charge of tho Light Brl glide"; the laud In which Florenco Nightingale first caused efficient, or dered mercy to have n part in war. Tho Crimea Is known as "Tho Llttlo Paradise" to the Tatars, last of the many races to overrun the peninsula beforo tho land fell under tho sway of the Muscovite. A traveler Jour neying from tho North Is likely to accept this' appellation, If at all, with n strong mental reservation as ho crosses tho nlmost dcsert-llko plains of northern Crimea ; but onco over tho mountains that rim tho southern shoro he will approve tho description with enthusiasm. There, nature has made a wonderful garden spot, tho Illvlern of Hussla, a combination of sen, moun tains and riotous verdure thnt really vied with its famed Italian counter part In tho days when Czarhood wob In HoWdr. i Though a part of what has como to ho looked upon as "cold Hussla," tho southern shore of the Crimea brought to tho old empire a touch of tho tropics. On tho mountain slopes and In the sheltered valleys grow grupes, tigs, olives, and all tho tender fruits; magnolias, bny, and myrtles; and a profusion of wild flowers and grasses. That tho delights of Us mild climate were discovered early Is testified by the ruins of Greek, Hyznnttne, and Italian architecture which uro to bo found among the mosques of tho Inter Tatars, tho palaces of tho Husslan Im perial family nnd nobility, and tho mngnlllcent modern hotels of tho picnwuro towns to which tho prosper ous classos of Hussla flocked before tho World, wur. Yalta, In those cure freo days, was Hussla's Nice, Now port, and Miami rolled Into ono; Its eafo and casino life was as hectic, gay, and expenslvo an that to ho found In any of tho world'H pre-war play grounds. Tho Crimea Is a penlnsulu that barely escuped being nu Island. It hangs from the mainland of South Hussla down into tho Ulack sea, like a gigantic watch fob shaped llko a flounder. It Is attached by tho nar row ribbon of the Isthmus of Pere kop, a strip of land only three-quarters of a mile wide und only a few feet above sea level. On one side Is tho Hluck sea and on tho other tho stagnant, shallow, malodorous waters of tho Hlvatch, or Putrid sea, n la goon of tho Sea of Azov. This Is tho only unbroken natural land connec tion between tho mnlnlnnd nnd the Crimea, but n fewjmlles to tho cost u narrow part of tho Putrid sea has been bridged by tho railroad which enters tho peninsula. The greatest width of the Crimea north and south Is 115 miles, and Its greatest length from "head" to "tall" Is 225 miles. It contains about 0,700 square miles, and Is thus approximate ly the slzo of tho stnto of Vormont or tho Islund of Sicily. Heforo tho World wnr lt population was 2,000,000. Tho Crimea was conquered by Cnth- arlno tho Great of Hussla In 1771, nnd remained n part of tho Husslan em plru until that political entity's col lapse In 1017. Tho bulk of tho popu latlon remains Tatar, though there is an admixture of both Greek and Itat Ian blood In tho nominally Tatar people. IN TURKEY REFORM SPRINGS ETERNAL Turkey bids lulr to "come hnck," In it limited seuso at least, us a re sult of the proposed revision of the Sevres treaty that dismembered tho Ottoman empire utter tho World wur. It will bo a chnnged Turkey, to be sure, hut chdiige Is not new In Uie country that inherited Mohammed's religious empire. Paradoxically, Tur key, though It has a tradition of na tional Inertia, also Is a land of kalei doscopic reform, and may bo suld to react to reforms more discriminat ingly thnn any other country in or out of Christendom. The Turks have adopted some reforms bodily und sol no partially, und have rejected others flatly even when tho prertlge of tho Cullph und Allah's ministers was be hind them. Turkey began its existence on a foundation of reform, the empire in heriting tho compreliunsivo reshaping of tho religious and social world in stituted by Mohummed. It "went dry" Just 020 yeurs beforo tho United States, for Its "eighteenth amend ment" was not uil amendment at all, but u part, so to speak, of the organic act when tho empire came Into exist ence in 1200. Even In the mntter of polygamy, looked at askance by tho western world, Mobumnied und the government which took up his mantel were re formers. Tho legal maximum number of wives was pluced at lour. Even the Jokes of coffee and tobac co prohibition that have gone tho rounds of the American vauduvlllo stnguienmo near being n reality In Turkey. Mohammedan scholars ful minated against tho steaming cup; und one suitun went so far as to pro hibit the uso of tobacco, fcurlng that It wus taking too Arm a hold on hia people. But tho populace refused to have the prophet's convennnt chauged and the bun was rulsed. Though the reported passing of tho fez Is looked upon, as a reform which to western eyes would remove some thing as distinctively Turkish us tho star and crescent, the Introduction of tho gaudy Hkull cup was Itself a re form effected less thnn n hundred yenrs ago; and stnunch old Moslems of thnt time wagged their heads In wnrnlng ns tho reckless reformers cast asldo their dignified turbans for tho now bauble. To tho Turkish Tories of those days tho fez traveled In com pany mitllclently dlsreputnblo to damn It utterly. It wns Introduced forcibly into tho army by tho Sultnn Mahmoud II in the early pnrt of tho nineteenth century along with tight European trousers and frock coats. Tho foz and turban types of head coverings have a definite reason for existence in Turkey, and It Is to bo doubted that thoy will bo discarded entirely, especially for tho brimmed hat and vlsorcd caps of Europeans. Mohammedan rules and customs call for covered heads at prayer; and they also requlro that at ono stage of pray er the votary shall touch his nose and forehead to tho ground, a feat thnt Is lmposslblo If he wears a hat with a protruding brim. PACIFIC ISLAND GARDEN SPOT With tho shifting of ownership that has taken place among the Islands of the Pacific und the growing Impor tance of that great body of water in International affairs, tho holdings of tho various nntlons in tho Pacific aro taking on now vnluo. Ono of the most Important of tho French Pacific pos sessions Is Tahiti, or the Society Is lands, with steamship connection to San Frauclsco and Now Zealand. They nro described In the following communication to tho National Geo graphic society from II. W. Smith: "Like tho Sninoans, the Society In lands are of volcanic origin, rising from tho low bed of tho ocenn, which lias depths near tho Islands of 1.G00 to 12,000 feet, while tho highest peak, In the center of tho Island of Tnhltl, reaches an altltudo of 7,1500 feetl "Nonr Papeete tho beautiful Fa tauua valley may bo .visited In an afternoon. For n good part of the way a cnrrlago road leads up tho val ley, offering changing vlstns. "Why, Indeed, should tho Tnhltlnn toll? There are great leaves of tho wl.d 'tare' growing by tho roadside; tho young lenvea nro delicious boiled, and tho curious stranger will find many other now delicacies ojt tho table tho alligator pear, th'o baked papya, tho Mantis crab, tho raw fish, as good as tho best oyster. "In Tahiti, as well "as In most of tho South Sen Islands, great numbers of coconuts nro grown. Tho meat, af ter belfTg dried Into copra, Is shipped In largo quantities to Europe. Wo were much Interested In tho different methods of gathering tho nuts In va rious Islands. In Tahiti the nntlvcn climb the trees with the help of a strip of green, fibrous bark torn off tho stein of a hibiscus troe. After knotting tho two ends togcthor, tho climber slips his feet hnlf through tho circle, and standing with his legs apart, so as to Btrotch the thong tight, ancends the tree In a sorlcs of leaps, with a foot pn each sldo of the trunk. "In Its fresh, green state the coco nut provides a most refreshing drink, but ns It grows older tho 'milk hard ens and forms tho white Inner rind with which wo nro all familiar. When dried this Is tho celebrated copra nnd Is commercially put to mnny different uses. In Tnhltl It is used for sauces and for coconut oil. Ono sauce, which was sorvod with fish, nt a very enjoy- ablo picnic, although compounded of ncrnped nut nnd sea-water, was pal atoblo." GETTING READY FOR A NEW WAR French General Declares Ger many Is Preparing for Another Conflict. Potts Designated by War Department for Instruction This Summer Three Grade Are Planned. Paris. Marshal Fuyolle, who com manded tho French group of armies nt tho buttle of. the Somme, and Inter cointnnndod French divisions on tho Italian front, declares thut Geruiuny Is earnestly preparing for n new war nnd that unless the allies took firm action nt once, never would carry out the Versailles treaty. "The Germans are pursuing military preparations In an underhand man ner," the French warrior declared, "and the allies must act with determi nation now, for Inter Germany will be bo strong thnt we will be untiblu to Im pose our will upon her. Approves Irion Relief Movement. Washington, D. C. President Hard ing hns placed tho stamp of approval on the Irish relief movement in tho United Stntes. In n letter to Morgan J. O'Hrlen, chairman of the executive committee of the Amerlcun Commit tee or the Relief of Ireland, President Harding declared he wishes the move ment "the fullest measure of success," nnd said the American people would "never he deaf to the call for relief In behalf of Hiifferlng humanity." ANNOUNCE TRAINING CAMPS. Poets Will Be Denominated as "Red," "White" and "Blue." Washington, D. O. Tentative plnns for conducting citizens military train ing camps next summer uro announced by the War department Instructions Is sued to the ulno corps area cnmniutid nrs. Preparations have been ordered for training approximately 1,200 candi dates In each corps area, allocations being announced for either ono or two camps In each. The number of candi dates to bo recruited for eacjli urea was predicated on sufficient funds being mnde available in the next urmy appropriation bill. Of tho throb grades of camps the department has provided, denominated "red," "white" nnd "blue," nnd vary ing ns to Alio amount of technical mil itary training to bo glveu, the first grade, It was said, will be emphasized in the program for tho coming sum mer. Many Miners Unemployed. Indlnnnpolls, Ind. Approximately 100,000 members of the United Mine Workers of America have not done n day's work since .Tunuury 1, It was stated at the final session of the exec utive board of tho union meeting ut headquarters here. Tho remainder of the minors aro working on un average of nbout three days n week It was said. These figures don't Include thosu un employed because of strikes In West Virglnln nnd Wnshlngton. Measures Taken to .Restore Order. Berlin. Order bus been restored in ITnmburg, nnd the communists lnivo been ejected from the shipyards which they hnd occupied. President Ebert, in agreement with the government of Prussln, has Issued an edict establish ing mensures to restore public order In the regions disturbed by the com munist uprising. President to See Newspaper Men. Wnshlngton President Harding lias announced ho would hold conferences with newspnper correspondents Tues day nnd Friday of each week, follow ing cnblpet meeting. The announce ment mnrks the formnl restoration of the prownr policy nt the White House. Farm Labor Said to be Plentiful. Washington. Farm lubor Is rela tively plentiful this year nccordlng to reports to the Department of Agricul ture. This situation, It wns declared, contrasts with a yenr ago when tho labor supply wns far below tho de mand. ' Cow Donations Cause Trouble. Scotlnnd, S. D. A pitched battle be tween 300 men, alleged to bo members of Americnn Legion posts of Hutchlu son nnd Bonne Ilmnmo counties, and nn equnl number of farmers, was nnr rowly averted at Kuylor, near here, when the nllegcd leglonnlres found thnt their guns numbered but thirty, while their opponents were urmed to tho mnn. Tho trouble started when farmer residents of the two counties stnrted collecting cows to be donated and shipped to farmers In Germany. Will Protest Gold Seizure. Berlin. Tho Helchsbnnk will stern ly opposo any attempt by the entente to seize Its gold reservo to apply on tho reparations demands. Any such move, tho bank's directorate Is quoted as saying, would not only bo Inimical to holders of German certificates, but n violation of tho treaty and In contra dlctton to tho practice observed by Germnny on French territory nnd tho French army on German soli, when deposits In stnte banks wcro treated ns prlvnto provorty. j lIsislative hews J The administration budget system Mil passed the committee of tho whole In the lower house. It puts Phil Bross, Bocrotury of finance nnd revenue, ut the head of all departments nnd Insti tutions, empowers lilin to examine ex penditures and check these expendi tures when ho finds their continuation will create it deficiency und gives him authority to force expenditures for the purposes set forth for them In appro priations voted by the legislature. Establishment of a bureau of crlni Inal Identification In tho state public welfuro department, to keep thumb prints and Itertlllon measurements of persons urresled or convicted of crime throughout tho state, to usslst local oftlciuls In recovering stolen property, nnd to furnish information when re quested by peace officers, has been functioned by tho representative as sembly. Steps toward acquiring the first stuto purk in Nebraska were taken In tho senate when' thut body advanced to third reading n bill to cancel the ugrlcultural lease on n section of school land south of Chndron on tho Valley Creek road. Senator James W. Good of Dawes explained that tho tract wus Ideal for pnrk purposes. A trout stream runs through tho lnnd. The Americnn Legion bill providing u fund of $2,000,000 out of the stuto treusury to be Invested In Liberty bonds nnd other securities the Income from which will be used in furnishing uld to disabled veterans of the world war und their dependents, went through the house on third reading by u vote of 1)0 to It. Becuuse the stnto reformatory bill has been amended to locate the new Institution "near and In connection with" the state ponltentlnry, enough house members withheld their support from it on final passage to knock out the emergency clause. The bill passed, however, without the clause. The movie censorship bill passed the house by a vote of 00 to 35 nfter some of the opponents hnd failed to make good their threat or promise that the measure never will become n law. The bill was held back from third reading for tho stnglng In the house of one lust bitter struggle. The lower house has adopted n re solution empowering the speaker to appoint a committee to meet a slm llnr committee from tho senate to es tablish the date of adjournment. This Is looked upon by the older members of the legislature to Indicate adjourn ment will como April 15. Indications that the assessed valua tion of nil property in the stnto would be lowered for 1021 are reported by those who attended the recent meeting of the stuto board of assessors. It Is believed that the 1021 valuations will average 15 per cent lower thnn tho 1020 assessment. The house hns refused to reapportion the state for congressmen, supreme judges, regents or district court Judges. If the constitution had not mnde It mandatory it probably would ajso have refused to reapportion the stnte for senators and representatives. The stnto rnllwny commission hns authorized tho cancellation of the rule requiring that all boxes, drums and palls containing goods presented to railroads should bear the name and nddress of the shipper nnd description of tho contents. The bill nuthorlzlng tho erection of a $300,000 state reformatory In con nection with tho state ponltentlnry passed the house by a vote of 53 to 13 after the emergency clause had been stricken. House Holl No. C13, which would provide Increases In salary for the state adjutant general and his assist ants, was defeuted In the lower houso by a vote of 47 to 34. The senate, at Its opening session Monday afternoon, refused to talk ad journment and washed its hands of even u sifting committee to speed up operations. The co-operative banking lnw has tho honor of being the first bill out of the sifting committee of the house, which shows that the farmers on tho committee havo not been Idle. Allegations of excessively low rent uls for school lands bobbed up again In the lower house when u bill calling for the sale of Isolated tracts of school land of less than 40 acres and town lots held us school land by the state wus under consideration in committee of the whole. Without n protest tho houso com mittee of tho wholo recommended for pussage the co-operative bnnk bill which has been the chief source of In terest to tho farmer members of tho legislature. Appointment of .7. E. Ilnrt, secre tary of tho state department of trade and commerce, ns receiver for the de funct Castctter bank of Blair, In augurated n policy that tho depart ment will follow In future hank fail ures. Hepresentntlve Nebraska farmers have gone on record as favoring the committee of 17b grain marketing plan ns outlined by speakers. The meeting was uttended by more tnnn ouu runn ers und only four negative votes were cust. Catarrh Can Do Cured Catarrh is a local dlseaso preatly Influ enced by constitutional conditions. It therefore requires constitutional .treat ment HALL'S CATAIimi MEDICINE la taken Internally and acts through the Blood on the Mucous Surfaces of the Brntem. HALL'S CA.TAKHH MEDICINE) destroys the foundation of tho disease, elves tho patient strength by Improving the general health and assists nature in doing Its work. All Druggists. Circulars freo. F. J. Cheney & Co., Toledo, Ohio. Shoes thnt exuetly fit n girl nre n curiosity. ASPIRIN Name "Bayer" on Genuine Beware I Unless you see tho bsjb "Bayer" on package or on tablets you are not getting genuine Aspirin pre scribed by physicians for twenty-ono years and proved safe by millions. Take Aspirin only as told in the Bayer pnekngo for Colds, Headache, Neural gia, Rheumatism, Earache, Toothache, Lumbago, and for Pain. Handy tin boxes of twelve Bayer Tablets of As pirin cost few cents. Druggists also sell larger packages. Aspirin Is the trade mark of Bayer Manufacture of Monoacctlcacidestor of Sallcyllcacld. Adv. To be thoroughly aristocratic a sultcaso should look well traveled. Do you Suffer from Headaches? Mapleton, Kans. "I havo boon using Dr. Pierce's medicines for' over thirty years and can truly say thoy aro tho best med icines I havo ever used. About thirty years ago I had sick-head aches so that half of my time I was unable to do any thing. A neighbor advised me to tako Dr. Pierce's Goldon Medical Discovery. I took six bottles and have never been troubled with It since." MRS. H. C. HUGHES. Sold by druggists for tho past fifty years, and has never contained a drop of alcohoL It can now be bad In tablet form also. Send to Dr. Plorco's Invalids' Hotel in Buffalo, N. Y.t for a ton-cent trial package. CIGARETTE No cigarette has the same delicious flavor as Lucky Strike. Because Lucky Strike is the toasted cigarette. DuirFairy Sodas packed intin Jo keep the dainty frethnessin CRACKERS AND CHEESE always acceptable for lunches and are especially good when tho crnckexH nre Iten's Fairy Sodas. Jntt try rratlnr wmi entm chee on Ittn's Fairy Soda Crackcra, sprinkling a little paprika or cayenne, or adding: a llttl prepared muotard. and then heating; untU the cheese Just melts. A can of Fairy Sodas In the pantry help olre the dally food queatlon In a satisfac tory and economical way. Ask your rooer for I-TEN'S FAIRT SODAS and be sure you CH the cenulns. 4 I How To Start AStoreOf Your Own Large wholesale house will furnish location and show you how to start a business that develops quick sales and good profits right from the start. A little monpv crw n lnn ...... this new kmd of a store. For partic ulars address .T. T") Mf til rcciivi 426 W. Randolph Si. Ckieairo. nt iIstrikeJ OMAHA, NO. 14-1921.