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The News and Herald.
WINNSBORO, S. C. P. 31. DEES Editor and Publisher Entered in the post office at Winns boro, S. C., as second class mail mat ter. CO-OPERATION FOR SELLING. Clemson College, Aug.- Exten sion Circular 29, "Co-operation for Selling," has been issued for use in promoting the campaigns now being put on in this state for co-operative marketing. The circular is a four page publication and contains "an outline of the principles of of co operative marketing," showing brief ly the problem, what constitutes marketing, general principles, the crop contract pooling, etc. Below is a brief summary of the circular, which m'ay be had upon ap plication: 1. The farmer needs and is en titled to a larger share of the con sumers dollar. 2. Co-operative marketing is a business organization of farmers, by farmers, for farmers. 3. The purpose of co.operative marketing is to substitute the mer chandising of'products for the dump ing of products by (a)stabilizing the market. (b) lowering the cost of handling and distribution, (c) sell ing skillfully to best advantage. 4. A co-operative marketing as sociation is a non-stock, non-profit organization, based cn commodity, is legal and permanent. 5. The contract is a binding, mu tual agreement to sell through the association's expert selling force. 6. Pooling the product results in better grading, better financing, less competition and therefore better prices. 7. It can be done in South Caro lina, for it is being done successful -lsewhere. 8. Someebody else can't do it for You. If you are interested in your business salvation you want co ve marketing. If you want tive marketing the only way t what you want. The cotton crop continues to de terioate, not only in Georgia and the Carolinas, but also in Oklahoma, Texas and other states. If this de-. terioration continues, the fir"l yield will fall far short of the govern ment's estimate of 8,203,000 bales. It is reported that a private bureau's estimate of the crop condition at this tune is 57 per cent, of normal, in dicating a yield of 7,400,000 bales, or nearly a million bales less than the government's first estimate. But the course of the market will -probably be governed by three fac te rs: Whether or not the Federal Reserve Banks will assist farmers I.-to market their cotton over a pe riod of several months instead of be ing compelled to sell as fast as pick ed; whether Or not the demand will besufficient to force prices up, or whether or not the weather and boll weevil conditions continue so unfa vorable that the yield will be even smaller than present conditions in dicate. It is unlikely that cotton grading from strict low middling to ordinary w11 decline much, if any, from the present level. On the other hand, -there is a good chance for these grades to advance, -because differ ences in price between lower grades are still too wide. If the 1921 crop is picked as fast as it opens there will be few low grades, and this will result in a narrowing of differences. which means that the owners of such cotton will profit materally. Japan was one of the first coun tries to experience a financial crisis following the world war, It is in teresting to know that this country has recently bought heavily of cot ton in the South, and everyone hopes that other Far-East nd Europeant countries will soon be able to en ter Our markets. -If they are, no doubt American mills will follow 1f: suit, and we will be another step Snearer normal conditions. FOR SALE. .Library of entertainment in 12 vol umes. "A thousand hours of enjoyment with the world's best writers" Reasonable terms. Apply News anid Herald. VALUE OF SLMMER LEGUME CROPS. Clemson College, Aug.-An aver age winter cover crop of bur clover, hairy vetch with rye or oats, or a crop of crimson clover plowed un der next spring, will add to every acre forty-five to fifty pounds of ni trogen will save about the same amount from leaching out in the drainage water. This amount of ni trogen added and saved is equal to 500 pounds of nitrate of soda per acre, will give results for three years following, and is the most profitable form of fertilizer we can buy, ac cording to Extension Service agro nomists Nitrogen is the most expensive element in commercial fertilizer and is the one most deficient element in our soils. In fact it is the limiting element in crop production and must be suipplied to increase crop yields. Over $26,000,000 left this state in 1920 for commercial nitrogen aiono. and up to the present time in 1921, ovcr $10,000.000 has been spent foi the same element. And yet there is enough nitrogen in one square mile of air to do the whole world 50 years for crop prouction, 35.000 tons of it in the air above every acre, just waiting to be converted into avail able form for corn and cotton if we will pull it down and use it. God has provided a simple, easy way of pulling it down by means of a great variety of beans, peas and clovers, which we can grow in South Carolina and which we can use from January first to December thirty first and never miss a cash crop. A summer legume, such as cow peas, for plowing under once in three years will never build up our depleted soils in South Carolina. We have long, warm winters with heavy rainfall, and winter cover crops are absolutely necessary for soil im provement. It is not so much the plant food that we use in this state that is making our fertilizer bill so high, but it is what we lose during the winter from our bore soils that hurts. We lose more than we use. Winter cover crops will help save it. Prevents Soil Erosion. Winter cover crops will also help prevent soil erosion. It is always the finest soil particles, the most' soluble plant food, the very cream of our soils, that are swept off down our gullies into our creecs and riv rs. As a naiion we ane having an anecessary loss from ero NOW-aTgne of 40M, ons ofr surfaee sol,--a grbater amount than was removed in digging th Panama Canal. Conservatively,this is equal to $100,000,000 worth of fertility. This loss is enormous in the Pied mont section ofSouth Carolina, and cover crops will help to prevent it. Increase Organic Matter. Another thing very deficient in our 'South Carolina soils and which lies at the foundation of soil fertil ity is organic matter. We cannot have a rich productive soil unless it contains large amounts of actively decomposing vegetable tisse to help make the mineral plant food5 avail able in the soil, to serve as a food for the millions of micro-organisms which inhabit the soil and work for us day and night, to loosen up the texture of a clay soil, or bind to gether the large grains of, a sandy soil and to increase the available internal surface of the soils over which the roots of crops can spread and grow. Vetch and crimson clover seed can be delivered to any county in South Carolina for from eight to ten cents per pound,-the cheapest they have been since 1914. Two dollars put into seeds for winter cover crops will increase the yields of carn and cotton next year from 20 to 40 per cent, and will be worth an average of $20.00 to $25.00 on every acre in this state for the next year and the vears to come. NOTICE. Notice is hereby given that orig inal certificate number one hundred and forty (140) of the Fairfield Ag ricultural Society, dated March 18, 1920, issued to R. H, Phillips has been lost or destroyed and that the undersigned will apply to said so ciety for a new certificate on the 26th day of August, 1921. R. H. PHILLIPS. AN UNUSUAL OFFER. An entirely new set of Stoddard's Essays for sale cheap. Easy terms. Apply to News and Herald. Rub-My-Tism is a great pain killer. Relieves pain and soreness. Rheuma'dsm. Neuralgia. Sprains. etc. The Story of Our States By JONATHAN BRACE XXI.-ILLINOIS A-s KAS "KIA, the oldest town in Illinois, is on 0 the site of an Indian village and it was here that Father Marqg:ette, after his first discovery of the Illinois river, established a Jesuit mission In f 1675. Four years later La Salle, the French explorer, passed through the Great Lakes, landed at the Chicago river and pushed on to the Illinois river, which he + named after the Indian tribes living in that region. Here he 4 built a fort and sent his boat back to Montreal for further sup plies. When his vessel did not return he started home on foot and sicceeded in finding his way to Montreal through a thousand miles of tangled wilderness. He gathered together another expe dition and returned to the fort, which he had left in charge of his companion Tonty. The fort he found in ruins. but finally suc ceeded in locating and rescuing Tonty, who had been driven out by the Iroquois Indians. This riverway to the Mississip pi became one of the leading averaues of communication be tween the French In the North and Louisiana. French settlers soon located here and estab lished the most friendly rela tions with the Indians. In fact, though the Illinois country was ceded by France to England in 1763, the sentiment of the Idi ans and French together was so hostile that it was several years before the territory could be oc cupied. During the Revolution it was George Rogers Clark and his ex pedition into the territory north I of the Ohio which captured Kas kaskia and drove the English from this province. Various states claimed rights to parts of this territory, but these wore finally ceded to the federal gov ernment and in 1787 it was formed into the Northwest Ter ritory. This tract extended from Pennsylvania to the Mississippi and was eventually divided into Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michi gan. in 1818 Illinois was admitted as the twenty-first state with an * area of 56,665 square miles. The state is one of the most level in * the country and is often called the Prairie State. Politically Illinois is the most important state in the Union next to New York and Pennsylvania as it has f president. (@ by McClure Newspaper syndicate.) SThe Story of IOur States I By JONATHAN BRACE IXXII.-ALABAMA THE discov ~~ lery of Alab ama is Scredited to De 0 * Soto in 1540. The English ~ a Ise laid I claim to this territory and included it in the grant to North Carolina. But it was the French who first set tIed here erecting in 1702 Fort !St Louis on Mobile Bay and ,founding the townlof Mobile nine yer ater. Mobile was for *many years the capital of Louisi Iana. France in 1763 ceded the territory east of the Mississippi Sto England and the northern part of the present State of Alabama Swas joined to the Illinois terri ttory. The southern portion was Iknown as West Florida. Serious Sconflict with the Indians was +kept up for many years. In fact, $even as late as 1812, there was *an uprising of the Creeks which resulted in terrible atrocities and y massacres. During the Revolution West *Florida remained loyal to Eng land, but was seized by Spain *only to be turned over to the *United States in 1813. This Mo bile section was then added to *the northern district and the *State of Alabama was formed and became the twenty-second Istate of the Union in 1819. IThe meaning of the name Ala Ibama is variously interpreted. * It was the name of an Indian tribe which inhabited this ter ritory at the time of De Soto's first visit. After this tribe the Sriver was named and the state I was called Alabama after the river. The Indian word was sup posed to mean "Here we rest," and these words are used on the state's coat of arms, but this in terpretation is doubtful and its real meaning is uncertain. Ala Ibama is sometime-s called the i Plantalnon State. Its area is 51, I 998 square miles. (@b'; M[cClUre Newspaper syndicate.) Advertising in The News ai Heral gets results. Attentien. Boys and Girls. Wouldn't you boys like to have a ice baseball outfit? Wouldn't you girls like to have a nice tennis outfit or an Eastman kodak? Mr. Wesley D. Chitty is soon coming to your Lown to offer you these things or any other nice thing you may desire and for just a few hours pleasant work. And fun! Oh, gee! Just lots of it, and some pleasant sur prise. Go to the post-office and send me a postal, Chester, S. C., so I'll know to look you up in a few days when I reach trere. A RELIC OF BYGONE DAYS. (Second article donated by Mrs. G. B McMaster.) It is an old-fashione:1 house that stands ivy-twined, way back from the road in a grove of oaks. There is a rock wall leading from the gate to the house, on each side of which grow large trees of crepe myrtle. The flower beds of this garden arp bordered with boxwood. under which in early spring come myriad flower faces of crocus, hyacinths and snow drops. In one corner of the yard is a large tree of mimosa. This old house has no porch. There are stone steps leading into a wide hall with rooms on each side. On the right is the parlor. Over the mant'i is a pictjre in plaster Paris with the U. S. eagle and the fami ly cat of arms; a picture of Thomas Jefferson and one of Georfye Wash ington, around which vines are twined. There were only thirteen states when this house was built, s'o 'n this picture there are only thirteen stars. The mantel and wainscoting are beautifully carved. The Brus sels carpet, the claw-foot mahogany sofa, straight chairs and antique ornaments make this old' room a picture when once seen never to be forgotten. There is a grand-father's clock, which stood in the halls and ticks the time away. From the back of this beautiful old home slopes the garden of four terraces to the bank of the creek. 'his is a very historic old place, for here the first cotton gin was made by Hogger Homes, the pattern of which Eli Whitney later stole. In one corner of the yard an old log smoje house stands, from which Tarleton and Sherman both stole ba con. From the upstairs window. Cornwaisggazed over the land and called it "Fairfield", from which the county gets its name. During the floated from this old Confed e home. It stands today :a proud relic iof the past. The place referred to above wsas at one time the home of the father of Mrs. Geo. B. McMaster. FARM DEMONSTRATION NOTES. Come to the big dairy meeting. Let's make Fairfield county a dairy county and beat the boll weevil. Mr. Schmolke of the dairy division of Clemson College, and who is an ex pert on the marketing of dairy pro-: ducts, will be here on next Tuesday, the 23rd of August, to talk to us about the building of a creamery at Chester or Winnsboro. The meet ing will be in the court house at 11:30 o'clock and every farmer and business man in the county should be present at this meeting. All th'ose who are going to plant alfalfa this fall should see the county agent at once in reference to getting lime ordered, as 33 tons is a mini Imum car load and hardly any farm er would want that amount. Re Imember that alfalfa planted at the Iproper time, which is about the last of September or the first of Octo ber, is very important. Don't make the mistake and plant your alfalfa Stoo late, like many farmers do ev ,ery year. Mr. S. F. Castles, of Rockton, made 187 bushels of wheat on nine acres of land, without the use of any commercia.l fertilizer, cotton seed or stable manure. This should be encouraging to those who are think ing of planting some wheat this fall. Mr. Farmer don't give your chick ens away, for it is possible that the county agent and home demonstra tion agent can help you dispose of 'them. The Valley Falls Woolen Company, of Valley Falls,, R. I., offers the following proposition to those who have wool for sale. They will take the wool in the grease and re turn the finished bed blanket, all bound and ready for the bed, or suiting cloth ready for the tailor. They make a straight manufactur ing charge of $1.00 per pound on bed blankets, figured on the finished -weight of the blanket, gndr $1.15 dper finished yard of cloth. Write them if you are interested_ ENGINEER C( LANDSCAPE ENGIN] GRADING SEWERAGE WATERWORKS 0 W. F. KEEHA: Have your Car washe It pays to have an au and oiled up at a gai sionally. Ask us only costs $1.00. We also 'polish you $1.00. H. W. Hana Cash Gro< We carry a full stock of selected groceries. Also fresh meats which are . he most sanitary manner. Delivery in town or n W. B. Porter's 4 e Put it to Power TI While th3 Fordson Tracto in plenty to drag plows a through the heaviest soi] enough, smafl enough ax controlled that it can hand m iany tasks cabout the far save you time, money and In fact the Fordson will do I job, both draw-bar and belt, ly and at less cost than it with any other form of pov Imonth the whole year 'rout3 dependable Fordson will i paying investment, becaus bilitns, its economy and ef We will gladly explain and to you the many Fordson: ing, time-aving features, or phone. FAIRFIELD MO'T .COMN )NTRACTOR IERING DRAINAGE )NCRETE od to washed rage oCca why? It r car for han :ery fresh, well a full line of mndled in a Phone 151 nill village Grocery anyk r has power nd harrows , it islight id so easily i1y be put to m, that wiRl work. every power more quick can be done rer. So every d the always prove itself a e of its cape ficiency. demonstrate money-mnak Call, write