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VOL. XLII. WINNSBORO, 8. C., WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 9, 1885. NO. 6. ^? At the Station. Lamp at.*- *smp how the lights go by trooping. Stretchh * in-hind the trees, dreamily yon(1c; Throujrl branches ad rip with the shower 1 he ii*i> ?iuuis aucl gleams on tlic puddles. Piuint'-.w. shrilly, piercingly whistles 'J he e)????.c hard by. Coid and gray are tho heavens Up above, the autumn morning Ghostlike glimmers around me. ft'lathe- cr.d whence move the people hurrying ?Into tlnrk csiTlau-cs. muffled and silent? To what sorrows unknown art- they rushing? j Long- tortures of hopes that will tarry? r You too ob fair one, are dreamily holding Your ti<fr?et for the guard's sharp cllp\ pin if? Ah, so clips Time, ever relentless, Joys, memories, and years that arc golden. Far-stroi^-bJnjf the dark train stands, and the workmen Black-capped, up and down keep moving like shadows; . In his hand bears each one a lantern, | And each one a hammer of iron. And the Von they strike sends a hollow resounding Mcm-nfi>T; and out of the heart an echo Mournfully answers?a sudden Dull paag of regret that is weary. ^ Now the hurrying slam of the doors grows insulting Anil loud, and scornful the rapidly sounding Summons to start and delay not? The rain dasbes hard on the windows. Pulling, shuddering, panting, the monster Now feeis !i2e stlriu its limbs of iron, And opens its eyes, and startles The dim far space with a challenge. L Tlx u on moves the evil thing, horribly trailing 7i? heating it* \vino-s_ bears from I ?!ie -My K)ve?and her face ami her farewell Are lost to me now in the darkness. 0 sweet facc Gushed with the palest of rosesi V starlike eyes so pcacclu!: 0 forehead Pure, shining:, and gvntle. with tresses L Curling so softly around it! r The air with a passionate life was a-tremble. And summer was glad when she smiled to greet me; ^ The young- sun of June bent earthward f> And kissed her soft cheek in rapture. Full 'neath the nut-brown hair be kissed her? But though his beauty and splendor might circtc Her gentle prtsmce?far brighter 1 he glory my vhoughts set arOUnd her. There in the rain, in the dreary darkness I turn me, and with them would mingle my being; I stagger; then touch myself grimly? Not yet as n ghost am I moving. A \rhnt n -f?Hlnrr r\f Iporoc -no-rr Icy. ami silent, and sad on ray spirit! I feel that forever around me The earth has grown aii one November. Better to bo without srn-e of existence? Better this gloom and this shadow of darkness. Would I, ah! would I were sleeping A dull sleep that iasted forever. ?Macmillan's Magazine. ^ A PAIR OF LOVERS. Sweet little Nettie Fay bad two lovevs. A very delightful condition of affairs, but a state of tilings which made Nettie a great deal of trouble; and as for the men, they rendered each other, as well as the girl of their hearts, very raiserable. So it wasn't so very nice after all. It had been years since Nettie had ^ been assigned by their friends to War ren i^ormer, nnu sue expecteu 10 mar* ry him, for Nettie was of a gentle, yielding nature; but Lor step-father's son, whom she had never seen, Arthur Stevening, came to quiet Bevingdean, . and fell so straightway and unmistakably in love with Nettie, as to alter greatly the situation, for Nettie did L give him encouragement One day a party of young people had gone up to the cliff which overlooked the harbor, to sec the great man of war the ^ultaa, come in, and Nettie had takeh Arthur's arm, and laughingly climbed the hill with the best of them, though such a little thing. And being a bright, magi Oil sight? the white-capped, eri?p,dancing waves, the long, gleaming decks; the small, active thronging ligures of the seamen; 1 ?that Ktid tiie splendid air was worth m climbing ihe aseeut for. they all agreed. And then this impromptu basketparty spread their lunch upon a rock among the crisp green moss, and discussed cold chicken and Italian cream, up among the clouds as securely as if > sunshine and safety lasted forever. Arthur Stevening had gone half-way r ' down the cliff with his gun, and was banging away at the flying birds, when a sudden gust of cold air, and the darkening of the sun, reminded him mat no nau ioretoia a storm at suurise. He was not used to the locality, and ^ was all unprepared for the suddenness P with which the weather changed. A mist spread over the landscape, k the air grew humid, ti:ere was a disr" tant growl of thunder, and the next ' moment a close flash of lightning. It was followed by more vivid ones. Shouldering his gun, he turned to retrace his steps. He had aScended a ^ few yards when he heard the distant ? voices of the descending party. Some thing in their tones?a cry of alarm or entreaty?made him hasten his foot steps, when, suaoeniv rouna me curve of a rock came the fiying figure of a g^ It was Nettie, who, bora with a terror of lightning, was running at full * speed down the mountain, her hat hanging by its blue ribbons-down hSr back} her sweet eyes wide with fright, her gold hair blown over her face, a wild-rose color in the dimpled cheeks, stung by tho sharp, salt air. b Arthur sprang forward and caught |L her in his arms, and retreated with ner under the shelter of an overhanging rock. The drenched and frightened party rushed by him like a meteor, and he made no attempt to delay them. He could hardly trust his head to keep his fACTC* iAl fcllW UiiUViiU- WqUV, Yet, through it all. he could feel Nettie's heart beating faintly against his breast "Poor little darling!" he murmured, seeing that she was quite senseless. She remained so until the storm be? gan to abate. V She caught her breath, at last; and uttered a choking little cry. "Nettie, wake up! The storm is almost over. Nettie, don't you know where you are?" shakiDgher a little. She opened her eyes, and then slipped to her feet, shaking and clinging - to him. Her broken and incoherent exclamation gave him some insight-in, .O . . ? wKw?h oil hor nfhor ItVS \tUfJ J^V'UUMV^1 WMVk friends^woroaware of?her terror of lightning-^and the loveliness of her white clieeksand-the sweetness of the tearful eves, xcade the task- of-reassur. ing her not distastefuL._Jncfeed, before he knew it, he -had -kissed the pretty-lips,, and brought the burning blushes to the young-face. "Nettie, dear little Nettie. I couldn't help it. You see I love you. so. Tell me that-you don't eare for that other fellow!" tk At that momeftt-there was a< hurried ^ " /M*' 4r?l 1 nef AAf? kfi_ buzjj auu mail utucj. ?;ivn oiwuvt KW fore them. To say that Mr. Warren Dormer war t astonished, is but feebly to state the " case. He stood looking at his sweetheart iu the arms of another man in simply round-eyed wonder. He had been absent from Bevingdean for the last three weeks, and though So had been introduced to Arthur htevening before his departure, he had never dreamed of him as a rival?or of anybody else lor that matter. Tor two years he had considered Nettie securely his. He had a nice farm and handsome country house to saake Nettie mistress of, and?there could be no doubt of that?he honestly loved her. "I?I came for vou, Nettie," he said, in a rather smothered voice. "They said you were up the cliff, and the storm " The poor fellow's voice faltered and broke. Nettie had hastily disengaged herself, breathless and frightened. "When?when did you ccme home, Warren?" she asked, instinctively trying to avoid a scene. But she was not quite succcssfuh since Arthur Stevenin<j still kept pos session of her hand, and though evidently a little startled, looked from her to Warren Dormer unflinchingly. The painful silence that followed was broken by his voice. "It may as well come out now as any i time. You and I can hardly pretend to be friends since wo are rivals, Mr. Dormer." "No," returned tho other, in the same smothered voice, moving uneasily, and not looking at Nettie, who, not having the least idea what she ought to do under such circumstances, began to crv. "l*ou understand that I love Mis3 Fay, the same as you do, I suppose, and she must choose between us now,1' went on Arthur. "I?oh, I?I cannot now!" sobbed /v fliAn if TTOfl XlCbllC, i;ULUC3diil? iiiUiU IUUU 1 w nao pleasant for one of her hearers to hear, since her words implied that a choice was not only possible, hut imminent "The storm is over now, and I must go home." And gathering her skirts from her little feet, she literally ran away. The only thing they could learn of Nettie for the next few days was that she had caught cold from her drenching in the storm, and could not leave the house. The next was that Nettie whisked herself out of sight of her two admirers to spend a fortnight with her aunt isaruara, in tne next town. Arthur did not know what interview she might have had with Warren Dormer. but he was really not much afraid of "that other fellow"?not so much as he would have been had he known Warren Dormer. Another week passed. At the end of that time, Nettia Fay was in receipt of two letters?one from Arthur, one from Warren Dormer. With sorrow and misgiving she pondered over these jetters; due .wetue was sincerity lisen, and at length wrote to both, explaining exactly the state of her feelings. The task was a hard one, and her hand shook so as she folded the sheets, that she let the portfolio upon wh'eh they lay fall to the floor. She picked them up harriedlv, placed them as quickly as- possible in envelopes, superscribed, and sent them to the post. When she reached home a fortnight later there was a lawn party, and her mother hurried her to her -room; and Nettie came down from her chamber. ai last, in a loveiy suk costume. JLno girl had lost flesh and color, but had never looked sweeter. And there was Arthur Stevcning. He was going to and fro with campchairs and cups of tea for the ladies. He would come to her side soou; but he passed, at last, with only a pale,' constrained look, and barely a civil word. The next moment, Warren Dormer took the chair at her side. "I thought you would come home to-day, Nettie." One glance at his cheerful facc bewildered her. Warren bent towards her, and affecting to look at her bracelet. whisnered: "I received your letter." Nellie bent her head silently in response. ' :J- - ** - " The silvery chat and the xnusic around her seemed to make her head reel. How strange she felt! The glanco from Arthur chilled her heart Her eyes dwelt in bewilderment on Warren's Hushed face. He looked act-..,. ually happy. ^. Warren," called Mrs. Fay, "wMj Z you go to the house and ask Lily :for my shawl?" l When Warren Dormer had gone'"' away, Nettie rose and, walking down the lawn, stood looking in a rather forlorn way at the tennis-players?really not seeing them at all. Suddenly there was a voice at her side. "I think, Nettie, you might have ( noTar? mn fho r>iir> r\f Irnnwin <r thot T was an object of pain and dread'to you, or very much the same thing:." * As Nettie lifted her blue eyes in pained surprise, Arthur Stevening ?vas gazing very gravely down upon her. She could not imagine he could Ivok so stern. The color quite died out of ^her cheek. She <pve a broken murmur?what she.said.she did not know. "Forgotten what you said!" ho ex- * claimed, as if repeating her words. "I cannot forget so easily. And, then, I have them in black and white, you know," with a painful smile, as he passed on in response to a merry call ?for Arthur was a favorite with the ladies. Nettie could have thrown herself down on the grass, like a child, and cried in sorrow and despair. Was this captious treatment all the reward she was to get for confessing the truth so bravely? Her father's displeasure, her mother's disappointment. Aunt Barbara scolding, she had prepared herself to receive; but this was too much; tho hot tears welled to her eyes. There were other gentlemen in the* party, who thought Nettie pretty and attractive; but she listened to everybody in an absent-minded wsv. and at I last the festive afternoon was over. "May I come up at eight this evening, Nettie?" asked Warren Dormer at parting. He looked at her in a cheerful, confident way, which bewildered her. "He hopes to make mo change my mind," she thought "Certainly," she said with visible reluctance. She was not quite sure, as she glanced at Arthur's grave, averted face at the supper-table, that she would not take "W arren after all, out of pure forlornness?it was so disheartening to miss the radient smile, the tenderness she had unconsciously anticipated. \ But -when her old lover's straw-colored beard brushed her cheek, she shivered. "Please don't Warren?I told you!" she exclaimed. "Yes?that you loved me best." b that r lpve him bestr' criecT Nettie, hysterically. "I can't help it? I do!" " 6 Poor Warren's ejes looked more like blue porcelain than ever as he stared at her. "You told mo " he be^an. s "Oh what did I tell you?" cried Nettie desperately, as she tore the letter he presented from his hand. She glanced over the sheet and turned red. t *jL?x put tne .tellers 111 wrung v envelopes," she faltered. "Then this was intended for Ar- ^ thur?" asked Dormer, stiffening. t Nellie nodded. In vain ho called her fickle, a co- t quette, a flirt. She only cried until he went away. Then she flung herself, c face downward, upon the sofa, and the j excitement and fatigue lulled her into r drowsiness at last t She went to sleep, thinking this a very forlorn world, and woke up to find ? it a very bright one, for Arthur Steven- t ing was smiling over her. j"Dear little Nettie!" he cried. "I v know all; I ?ot tho wrong letter." ? "You did! ' she answered. Need we say how happy they,were, c how soon they were married, and what t a long honeymoon their wedded life f was, all through Nettie having had the = courage to choose rightly between her t Pair of Lovers?" Selected Recipes. . J Mrs. Allen gives the Prairie Farmer ] her plan of serving eggs on toast. She j: says, I often serve eggs on toast, first ^ toasting some slices of dry bread very a brown. Then dip each slice quickly *r in and out of boiling water and place \ on a platter, spreading evenly with a little butter. After the toast is pre- , pared I poach the eggs and put one on i each slice. This is a good way to use ? 1?f up tkuj uk cau kju. ^ Mrs. Woolson writes as follows about I graham gems, which are very nice for i supper. They are made more quickly a than biscuit I have been trying a c new recipe lately, and lind it excellent, a Put into two cupsfnl of graham flour I one heaping teaspoonful of baking a powder and a half teaspoonful of salt, e Into one pint of milk stir ooe table- d spoonful of melted butter, measured 7 after it is melted; then stir the milk in- f to the flour. Mix smooth, pour in gem r pans and bake fifteen minutes in quick i oven. . s The Lancaster Farmer has this re- a cipe for potato soup: Take a quart of c milk, six large potatoes, one stalk of c celery; pare potatoes and boil thirty t minutes, turn off the water and mash 1; fine and light; add the boiling milk c and the butter, and pepper and salt to a taste; rub through a struiuer and $ serve immediately. A cupful of whip- t ped cream, added when in the tureen, t is a great improvement This soup ^ must not bo allowed to stand, even if c kept hot Served as soon as ready it a is excellent s Muffins.?One quart of warm milk, a piece of butter about the size of an ? egg, four eggs, a teaspoonful of salt, 1 one cup of yeast, flour enough to make v a stiff batter, beat with a large spoon; 1 put it to rise for an hour; liil the rings ^ half full, bake twenty minutes. x Waffles.?Four eggs to a quart of f milk, a quarter pound of butter, a f little salt, flour to make a batter not 0 very thick; heat and butter the irons well; lill them and bake them quickly. ^ If for tea, grate on a little nutmeg and ^ sugar; if for breakfast only cutter a them. A Simple Soup.?Skim off the fat g from mutton or chicken, pul it in a c soup-pot with two or three carrots, c turnips and onions, a cup of rice, the g bones and bits of cold meat, pepper, t salt, and a few potatoes. Boil it four t hours, then take out the bones, and t send it to the table. t Sour Milk Biscuit.?One quart of t flour, a pint of sour milk, ono tea- t spoonful of soda, mixed into the milk t until it froths; stir it into the flour \ cold; mix it quick and bate in a quick t oven. i < c Rapid Growth. \ American humor delights in exaggeration. The Yankee has such a v pride in the bigness of his country and v ia.tho rapidity of its progress, that he enjoys-astonishing his hearers with 0 tales.-v&ieh gftftmm-. just enough truth F to make ihe magnified sketch funny. There^s-alomir or rather a city, in h General DakotarOfliy four years old. a Jnst.rfour-. years -ago there seas one 1 house, a miserable shanty; standin g on a the^pot whero is now & lour-siQry ho- P tel. : -; * * There are five large hotels, six 3 churches, sixty saloons, .skating rinks, ^ a system of water works, clectric | J lights, ---gas, school-houses, banks, P wholesale business houses of all kinds, h enterprise, energy, enthusiasm, push, s selfehness and mon^-making in this four-year-old fiercules. Yesterday, -1 nothan?}r4o-day,everything. n To illustrate, by a grotesque exag- s <reration, the marvelous growth of the c Northwest, the following sketch is e amusing. An engineer on the Chicago J and Milwaukee Road, which has push- a ed its way into the heart of Southern v Dakota, is supposed to tell the story. 5 One day, 1 was driving my engine ^ * -? ri oyer tne prairie at trie rate 01 iony miles an hour, without a house in r sight and supposing tho nearest town c to be thirty miles distant. But as I glanced ahead, I was astonished to see that I was approaching a large city. I rubbed my eyes, thinking it was a mir- 1 age. s 4,4Jim,'says I to the fireman, 'what's 0 this place?' y " 'Blamed if 1 know!' says Jim, star- u ing out of the cab. 'I declare if there ^ aint a new town growed up here since ^ we went over tho line yesterday!1 ^ " 'I believe you're right, Jim. Ring Xi the bell or we shall run ovor some- E bod v.' v "So I slowed up and we pulled into s a big depot, where mor'u five hundred a people were waitin' to see tho first 0 train come into the place. The con- s ductor learned the name of the town, ' c put it down ou the schedule and we ? went on. "'Jim, says I, as we pulled out, j 'keep yonr eyes open for new towns. ^ First thing you know, we'll be runnin' c by some strange place!' c " 'That's so!' says Jim. 'An' hadn't ^ we better git one of the brakemen to F watch out on the rear platform of the 11 last car for towns that spring up after 0 the engine gits by?' 3 ? - b "I would like to go on your paper," the graduate said, sitting down and ? looking the editor firmly in the eye. , "And so you shall," the journalist re- ? plied, gladly; "you are the man I have 1 been looking for, lo, these six weeks." ? And with nervous haste he filled out a J note for $122. "There," he said, "put ? your name l ight there, just underline, and we'll go out to-morrow morning and flow in the coupons at tho naper- e mill" - ; ? _ t - FOR THi: FARMER. iorne Timely Sucjestion* for Kaisers of Horses, Cattle and Sheep as to Pastures. Ihying One of the Most D.ingrerous l>isaabilities of the Horse?How to Hin&iguUh llutteriue. WHAT A PASTUKE SHOULD BE. In most parts of the world the pasure is the main reliance of persons vho keep cattle and sheep, as well a3 oung horses. With many these anin.als nnlv n.iv their war when thev are urned out to grass. They do not gain ufficiently during the winter to pay he cost of the food they e:it and the :are they require. Few farmers proluce milk during the winter at prolit. few dairy farmers expect to make noney except during the season when he feed in the pastures is good. The >asture is tho sanitarium for all kinds ?f farm animals that arc out of condiion. A horse that has been losing lesh all winter is expected "to pick ip" as soon as it is turned into the >asture. The expectations are gener11t fooliTn/! Animolo fr.fiftfc Tin.VP. Vfi Hi.J igaiiU^U. ^ A.4-1 icntly dropped young will recover heir strength after they have been in a ;ood pasture a few weeks. In this limatc lambs are very likely to die if hey comc before the grass starts in the pring. It seems to be necessary for uaking milk, which is their first food, ^ambs born in April and May generaly live and do well. The pasture, if it s a good one, combines everything hat is essential for securing health and . steady gain in weight. It is the nam source of wealth to the average :armcr. Still the avernge farmer neglects his >asture more than "he does any other >ortion of his place. He devotes the loorest land to the production of grass hat is to be eaten in its green state, lo takes little or no pains to improve t. He allows the best grasses to dis.ppear, and sows no seed with a view if replacing tnem. ne atiows weeus .nd bushes to spring up and multiply, le gives no attention to anything .bout it except the fence. He often upresses surprise that his pasture loes not carry as much stock as it did rhen ho iirst inclosed it. That its ceding capacity has declined should be to marvel to him. He has not exerted limself to keep up the fertility of the oil, to introduce new forage plants, md to prevent the disappearance of >ld ones. The dung dropped by cattle luring the day has remained to enrich he land, but it has generally accumuated in the places where the animals ongregate when they are not feeding, ,nd it has never been scattered as it hould have been. The drippings of ho cattle at night, when they are in he shed near the barn, have been lanled into cultivated fields. A deline in productiveness might reason,bly be expected under such circumtances. A large growth of grass and clover an not be expected from land that is a a poor mechanical condition or riiich is lacking in the elements of fcrility. This is not expected in a mcaiow, and should not be in a pasture. ..and that. will not producc a geoct wath of mown grass the 1st of July, E stock is kept off from it, will not aford good pasture during any month ?f the year. A pasture should produce ,s much grass as a field that is mown or the purpose of securing the winter ced for cattle. The plants should be .s vigorou ; anil in mucn greater variey. A tolerable extensive pasluro hould,contain red, white, and Swedish :lover. It should also contain tho grasses usually grown in meadows and cveral others that :H-e not prolitablo o raise fur hay chielly on account of he difficulty iu cutting and curing hem. A ?root jrrass for hay is one like imothv, whiea matures at a definite ime. Timothy is a good pasture grass, mt it can not be dep uded on during he entire season. Some grasses aro panted that alibrd food earlier than imothy, and some that will afford food nueh later. The greater the variety if grass and clover the more constant vifl be the supply of food. .Animals in a pasture need to drink as fell as to cat- They do not require a ariety of beverages as they do of oods, but they require an abundance f water, and it is essential that it be >ure and fresh. Mineral substances, ike lime, are not ol>jectional in drinkag water for stock, but vegetable and nimal impurities are highly injurious, t is certainly advisable to have water ccessiblc to stock in more than on^ ilace if the pasture is a large one. lany animals will sufferjfrom thirst on . very warm day in summer before they rill travel half a mile to obtain water. :o insure comfort, shade should be rovided in every pasture. Trees should e planted in clusters in several places, o that animals of different kinds and ges can have retreats by themselves, 'here arc several varieties of trees that aake a very rapid growth on prairie oils, and they should be planted in lusters in every new pasture- It is asy to protect them while they are oung by the use of barbed wire. In ffording protection from the sun rhile the trees arc growing temporary heds can be erected at a trilling cost, itrong posts can be placed at the corers. Supports for tho frame of the oof can be made of saplings and tho overing made of straw or wild grass. SIIYIXG HORSES. One of the most dangerous disabiliies of the horse, especially if it be a addle-horse, is the act of shying, too ften produced by punishing the green oung horse for "getting up" at unised sights. The habit may at length tecome a dangerous vice. Any horse s liable to shy. Instead of being punshed for it, he should be led to familnw'ra Vtimsolf nrith aichf-.q and sounds umuvti TTAWIA ? tear to him, by the only senses he can ise. These are the senses of touch, ight, and hearing. A horse terrified ,t the sound of artillery, brass bands, >r other noises, if made to stand as till as possible while these sounds are ontinued, soon loses the senses of fear ,nd curiosity is excited. Beating only Qcreases the fright Most horses will amp the first time a sheet of paper is ilown under their feet. Whipping will ause them to become frantic at a reurrence, more from the fear of the ash than the paper itself. The better dan is to let them see the paper until ustiuuL prompts them to approach the bject. A horse never gets frightened ,t any object once he is used to it. If ie can be made to approach a locomoive and place his nose against it, howver long it may take, the locomotive ieing at rest, lie win at lengin wisn to io so, and will thereafter regard it with ndifference. Who has not seen the hild "shy around" some suspicious obect, and at length approach it, if lone. It is the same with tho young Lorse. Shying in the horse, however, is oftn the result of near-sightedness. If uspected, a critical examination should >e made, for if tho disability lies in the formation of the eye the an: nal is not fit for saddle use, nor use in single harness. . Driven double, however, he soon conies to rely on his mate, and the disability .is not serious. Above all, a horse inclined in the least to shy should never be intrusted to a lady unless she be a thoroughly accomplished horsewoman.' DISTINGUISH BUTTEIUNE. The following practical measure is given by John Horsley in the Chemical Sews: This method enables anyone to put it into practice. Have ready two * 1 3 ?1 snau out wiaomoumcu glass tusu.tubes, about four inches high, with feet attached. Into one put a piece of buttcrine or oleo-margarine (about the size of a hazel-nut), and cork this tube; next take one in each hand at the bottom; in ten minutes the buttcrinc melts into a clear oily fluid by the mere heat of the blood (98 degrees F.) Purcbutte,:* takes twice as long to melt as butte-ine, and even then is not so clear aj^y^s buttcrine, which is a noteworthy difference between them; this is the physical test. For the chemical test, after the tubes have stood to cool for a few minutes pour on ether to about one-third of the tube and cork well. Agitate the tubes?one in each hand?clasping them well. The butterine readily dissolves into a clear liauor. which the addition thereto of "A , twenty or thirty drops of spirit of wine < does not disturb or precipitate; but a ] similar experiment with pure butter ; produces a voluminous white precipi- < tate. Hereby we can easily distinguish i one from the other. Even butter < adulterated with a portion of oleo- I margarine or butterine may be de- ] tccted by a precipitate being formed * o m t The Natural Resources of Ireland. ! The Anthracite coal-lields of Lein- ( ster extend over a great portion of the counties of Kilkenny, Queen's county and Carlow, and are estimated to con-, ( tain G3,000,000 tons. (This estimate has ( reference only to one four-foot layer; , fV.ni.n m nrn lovr>r? n ri H prn on th untouched.) . The Tipperary coal-fields are 20 mile long and "in parts 6 miles wide. The ; Munster coal-fields, the largest in the 3 British Empire, occupy a large portion j of tho counties of Clare, Limerick, , Cork and Kerry. The Bituminous , coal-fields of Tyronne cover 7,000 < acres (Irish). Anahono coal district contains 320 acres, Antrim has a small . coal district, also Monahan and Mulvagh Bay. The Counaught coal-fields ; extend over a large portion of the J counties of Roscommon, Sligo, "Leitrim and Cavan, covering an area of 114, 000 acres (Irish). To these immense coal-fields, add 2,830,000 acres of Bog ' (Peat), which has 44 per cent tho economic value of coal, which shews Ireland to be well provided with fuel. The water power of Ireland equals 1,152,150 horse power, capable of working night and day, the year round, and this power can be more than doubled by building basins, reservoirs, ctc., that would economize the rain-fall to be used in dry seasons. Nearly all the lakes of Ireland could be converted reservoirs to be utilized as n~i-tnrin cr niirtmsos Iron, exists in large quantities in Tyrone, Kilkenny, on the shores of Lough Allen, Fermanah, Cavan, Queen's county, Clare, Roscommon and Leitrim; coppcr exists in Wicklow and Walerford. The lead mines of Wicklow, Watcrford, Dublin and Clare, Cork, Kerry, Tippcrary and north of Dublin are very extensive. Gold and silver mines exist in Wicklow and Cork; antimony in Clare and Armagh; magnesia and its sulphate exist in vast \ quantities; alum and slato in Claro and Kerry; pipe-clay, white, and lire clay. Fullers' earth, pipe and tile-clay in , every part of Ireland; 60J different kinds of stone and marble and slate. ; It would seem from this partial enu- J meration of the resources that nature , has supplied the island with more than | an jiverage quantity of raw material, adu to which a rich soil, a climate j neither hot in summer nor colli in winter, with harbors anil commercial advantages equal, if not superior, to any country of her size in the world, and the wonder is th:it any power of man , or demon could creat so much misery, where God lias extended his blessings ] in such abundance. . , < ? Ampersand. It is a mountain. It is a lake. It is I a stream. The mountain stauds in the heart of the Adirondack country, j just near enough to the thoroughfare of tr.ivnl for thousands of DOOIllc to SCO 1 every year, and just far enough away ' from the beaten track to be unvisited except by a few of the wise ones who ] love to digress. Behind the mountain 1 is the lake, which no lazy man has ever < seen. Out of the lake flows the stream, < winding down a long untrodden forest i valley, until at length it joins the Stony Creek waters ana empties into the | Raquette river. Which of the three j Ampersands hr.s t ho prior claim to the i name I cnn;;ut tell. Philosophically i speaking, liie mountain ought to be regarded as the father of the family, < because it was undoubtedly there be- ' fore the others existed. And the lake ] was probably the next on the ground, ? becausc the stream is its child. But j in an IS HOI SlilUWV just. m ma uuiucuclature; and I conjecture that the little river, the last born of the throe, was the first to be called Ampersand, and then ?ave its name to its parent and grandparent. It is such a crooked stream, so bent and curved and twisted upon itself, so fond of turning around unexpected corners and sweeping away in great circles from its direct course, that its first explorers christened it after the eccentric supernumerary of the alphabet which appears in the old spelling-books as &. But in spite of this apparent subor- i umaaofl to tue siruuiu iu wc uimwi u> } a name, tho mountain clearly asserts | its natural superiority. It stands up j boldly, and dominates not onlyit3 own 1 lake, but at least three others. Tho ] Lower Saranac, Round Lake, and Lone- ( some Pond are all stretched at its, foot and acknowledge its lordship. When the cloud is on its brow they are dark. When the sunlight strikes it, they smile. Wherever you may go over tho ] waters of these lakes you shall see ' Ampersand looking down at you and | saying, quietly, "This is my domain." ] ?Henry J. Van Dyke, Jr., in Harper' j Magazine for July. < In the Bernese Obcrland a parrot | one day made bis escape and perched ' on the rain trough of a farm house in the neighborhood. The farmer, who had probably never been out of his native village, brought a ladder to capture the strange animal. When he had reached the top and was reaching out ' his hand, the parrot called out: "What 5 do you want? The astonished peas- ' ant at once took off his cap and said: 1 1 T a! C i. t "Un, i beg your paraon, i mougnt you ; were a bird V?McUhQmWL ~ THE MULTICAULIS MANIA. The year 1S26 marked the origin of Llie Moras multicaulis mania, which raged as a fever from 1830 until it culminated and collapsed in 1839. Congress had referred an inquiry on silk;u!ture, in 1825, to the Committee on Agriculture, which, in 1826, reported in favor of Its promotion, stating jn the report that the imports of silk goods in 1825 was nearly*double the exports Df bread-stuffs?a fact scarcely credible aow. The same year Gideon B, Smith, >t Baltimore, planted there what is claimed to have been the first Morus multicaulis tree in America. The Secretary of the Treasury, Richard Rush, was directed to provide a manual on silk culture, and the famous "Rush r,^f>Ar" wan npfiordinflv issued in 1828. together with several other treatises, ind circulated broadcast In 1830 au irticle by a Dr. Pascalis, on the ilorus multicaulis, in the American Journal of i-cience, directly started the mulberry | [ever. The Massachusetts Legislature, , in 1831, provided for a manual of silkjulturc, which was made by a manu- ; facturer of Dedham, Mr. Cobb, and most 3f the States began to offer bounties and premiums on trees, cocoons, and reeled silk?commonly ten cents a pound on locoons and fifty on silk. A report to Congress in 1830 proposed a grant of 540,000 to one M. D'ilomergue for the jstablishment of a normal school of [ilature at Philadelphia, where sixty j w-tsvn llOTTrt m-O t It? f/Yll O in. I ? UiUU UU(U *? I struction for two years, and for traveling about the country to teach silk- ' growing to farmers; and this "silk bill," though defeated in 1832, and re- ! ported against as unconstitutional in 1835, would not down till 1837, when still another committee reported as a substitute a schemc to lease public lands without rent for the cultivation Df the mulberry-trcc or the sugar-beet. The whole country now went wild, rhe fever sccmoJ ouiy to get fresh fuel 3f excitement from the panic of 1837. Orchards of the multicaulis were planted in every State; farmers every where set their wives and children to feeding worms; multitudinous books, public documents, periodicals on silkculture, constituted the bulk of the reading of the day; stock companies for raising and manufacturing silk sprang up like puff-balls; silk conventions were held, and a United States Silk Society was organized. A thrifty nurseryman on Long Island gave help to the excitement by a canny plan. After selling a considerable supply of trees to New England dealers, ho started off one night by the rroviaence do:ii, aau wuu greiu pretense of eagerness made the pounds of all bis customers, excitingly offering Gfty cents apiece for trees. Of course be didn't get them, but he presently was able to sell all he had for a dollar instead of fifty cents apiece. In Burlington, New Jersey, over 300,000 trees were raised and sold; in December, 1838, offerings at $1 per tree were refused at Boston sales, and 55 was sometimes got for trees one season old. It was satisfactorily proved?again on paper?that au acre of trees was good lo:- $1000 worth of silk, but the price ot trees had bo relation to figures, even the. most rosecolored. One farmer soid $6000 worth of trees from three-quarters of an acre. In a single week in Pennsylvania $300,000 worth were sold. In 1839 the bubble burst, and Lho hitfrs wpi-fl hittiin. A.mon? them .was the speculative Long Islander. He had caught the disease by which iio had profited, and had sent an agent to France with $80,000 to buy a million more trees. Some speculators endeavored to get even with fate by shipping z cargo from the East to Indiana by way of New Orleans in an unseaworthy ship heavily insured, but the goods unfortunately reached their destination. Multitudes of men wero ruined by tho crash. But Americans have a faculty of falling on their feet, and some of the unhappy mulberry-growers of the thirties became the successful manu Eacturcrs of later days.?From "A Silk Dress," in Harper's Mug uzine for July. Ancient Spoons. "Fingers were made before forks," the saying runs, and it seems quite probable that spoons were, too. Being the simplest, the spoon Is apparently the oldest arlilicial appliance for human feeding. When Arnold's soldiers spent their dismal winter in prison at Quebec, early in the Revolutionary War, they were allowed the use of no metal utensil, and were obliged to eat svith their fingers, until one of them, ...I. l??,} ?"..rt/J o l?nifn WJ1U iilkU (;uuuit CU 44 AUUV, whittled out a wooden spoon. This was bailed with delight, and borrowed by the whole mess by turns, till linally the ingenious maker was induced to jxercise his skill for the benelit of his comrades; and from that time he had no lack of employment One of our exciu.ngos, remarking on the widespread use of the spoon, and its remote antiquity, gives some curidus facts touching this handy implement: The form which we use at the present day?a small oral bowl, provided with a shank and flattened handle?is not that which has been universally idopted. If we look into the manners ind customs of some of the people loss jivilized than we?the Kabylcs, for ixample,?wc shall find that they use a round wooden spoon. Romans also used a round spoon, arhich was made of copper. We might ae led, from the latter fact, to infer ;hat the primitive form of this utensil tvas round, and that the oval shape is i comparatively modern invention. But such is not the case, for M. Chantree, in making some excavations jn the borders of Lake Paladin, the waters of which had been partially -rvflP 4s\n r> A O r\f preservation, wooden spoons which in shape were entirely like those in use at :he present day, tho only difference beng in the form of iho handle, which -vas no wider than tho shank. The Neolithic people used oval spoons made )f baked clay. Flowers on the Table. Set flowers on your table, a whole aosegay if you can get it, or but two )r three, or a single flower?a rose, a I pink, a daisy?and you have something I ;hat reminds you of God's creation, O tri f 1* fVin rt/tafa ;uu ^iico ;uu v* aiua ? **>&* vuw :h3t have done it most honor, llowjrs on the morning table are especially suited to them. They look like the iappy awakening of the creation; they Dring the perfume of the breath of na:ure into the room; they seem the very representative and embodiment of jvery smile of your home, the graces >f good morrow; proofs that some in:ellectual beauties are in ourselves and hose about us, some Aurora (if we are so happy as to have such a companion) lelping to strew our lives with sweetless, or in ourselves some masculine vilderness not unworthy to possess ?uch a companioo or unworthy to^gain ner. J I BISMARCK. His Manner of Speaking and Mode of Shoving Anger. He is no elegant orator, rather the contrary, but he can lead a debate like no one else. Only a few days ago he gpoke seven times in one afternoon, each time with more energy and spirit, ! proving that his health is indeed reI stored. Several members had already spoken and the House was still empty, j W UUU ?3UUU.^UiJF ujumvvio mvm all the doors, and the- benches began to fill. A rumor had been circulated that Bismarck would appearand shortly afterwards a narrow door near the President's chair opened, and the tall figure entered. Suddenly soft bells are heard in all parts of the House. The electric bells in the reading room, in the committee rooms, and in the journalists' rooms are sounded to announce the arrival of the Chancellor, who has shown that he will speak presently, for, with one of his pencils, more than a foot long, he has noted down something on the loose quarto sheets before him, with letters not less than an inch deep, and this is a safe sign that he intends speaking. The President bows to him, and Prince Bismarck rises to "take the ? ? ? ' ' ' ^AvA fNon wuru. ilC Id l J.1LJ ij ajuwiv tunix gM feet high; over his powerful chest and broad shoulders rises a strangelyrounded, well-shaped head of enormous dimensions, and with no hair upon it, so that it looks like a dome of polished ivory. Thick white brows hang over his eyes like two icicles. These brows give his face a dark and frowning expression, and the look which glistened from his eyes is cold and somewhat cruel?at least in Parliament. His mustache is also thick and gray, and conceals the mouth entirely.. The whole face is covcrcd with folds and wrinkles, broad rings surround his eyes, and even his temples are covcrcd with small wrinkles. When he begins to speak the colori 01 His lace cnanges irom paie iu reu, and gradually assumes a light faroize shade, which gives his powerful sLull the appearance of a polished metal. It, is a surpriso to hear Bismarck speuk' for the first time. The soft, almost weak voice, is all out of proportion with his gigantic frame. It sometimes becomes so soft that we fear that it will die out altogether, and when he has spokeu for awhile it grows hoarse.; The Chancellor sometimes speaks fast,.' sometimes very slowly, but never in a| loud tone. He has no pathos what-i ever. Some 01 ins most remarsaDxe words, which in print look as if they had been spoken with full force, as if they must have had the effect of a sadden thunderbolt on the audience, arc in reality uttered in an ordinary tone of well-bred conversation. Personal attacks upon his enemies are spoken by Bismarck with ironical politeness, and in an obliging tone, as if they concealed the kindest sentiments. But if his anger cannot be] heard, it can be seen; his face gradual-! ly grows red, and the veins on his neck swell in an alarming manner. When' angry he usually grasps the collar of his"uniform, and seems to catch for' breath. His brows arc lowered still, more, so that his eyes are almost in-; visible. His voice grows a shade loud-. r?r ami n slitrht metallic rinor in it-' The sentences drop from his lips in' rapid succession. He throws back his head, and gives his face a hard, stony expression. \ But it is dillicult to discern when his anger is real and when it is' artificial. The Chancellor has been seen trembling wilh rage, and more like tho elements let loose than like anything else. Once, when he thought that the word "Fie!"had been said by one of the Opposition party he had one of his attacks, which^ would have silenced the House bad every one been speaking at onco. With trembling nostrils, with his teeth firmly set, with eyes that emitted fire, and clenched hands, he jumped from his place to the side where the word had sounded. If apologies and explana-. tion had not been offered, who knows how this scene inijjht have ended? But except upon such rare occasions Bismarck the orator is always a wellbred man. He docs not bawl nor shout any part of his speeches, but while giving them their full share of pointed sarcasm he always maintains the form of a political conversation between gentlemen. He has a method of his own for waging war with his opponents. He regards his opponent's speech as a ball of wool, the last sentence spoken being the end which he takes in hand first, and with which he begins to unwind the whole speech as he would unwind the ball of wool. But it is easy to see that while his tongue is speaking his spirit is far in advance of it. He hesitates in his speech, then suddenly recalls himself and puts forth a number of clear thoughts, which 'it is easy to see occurred to him at the moment?Berlin Letter to London Paper. ^ m A correspondent writes from Baltimore: "The residence of Ross Winans, the defendant in the divorce suit recently brought in New York, is one of tho tinest iu America and the costliest iu Baltimore. The family homestead on West Baltimore street, built by old Thomas AVinans, the founder of the family name, is still a handsome place, fenced in by a thirtecn-foot-high brick wall. When the place was erected it was surrounded by light railing, through which the numerous statues in the grounds could be seen. The neighbors iu the vicinitj*, through ignorance or jealousy, complained to tho city councii that the nude statues were objectionable. Old Thomas in a rage hired all the idle bricklayers in Baltimore and erected the mason wall around the whole square. The adjacent owners afterwards petitioned Mr. Winans to reiuove it, but he refused. Water can be boiled in a piece of paper. Take a piece of paper and fold it up as school boys do, into a square box without a lid. Hang this up to a walking stick by four threads, and support the stick on hooks or other convenient props. Then a lamp or taper must be placed under this dainty caldioa. In a few moments the water will boil. ? - ^ That special qualities are essential to the success of magazines is shown by the fact that the name of able men who failed to meet these requirements r.hnrlps F. Hoffman. X. P. Willis, Park Benjamin, William E. Burton, Washington Irving,the Duyckinks, Thomas Dunn English, James R. Gilmore, and George K. Graham. A mile below Port Jervis the States of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania join their boundaries. On a rock in the Delaware River a person may place one finger in Orange county, "New York, another in Sussex county, New Jersey, and a third in Pike county, Pennsylvania, at the same time. _ _ . SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY. Weather-vanes illuminated by electricity, so as to be visible at night, have been suggested. A case has been reported in which an extraordinary outbreak of measles and pneumonia among the children in a public institution was caused by sewergas. Mr. Lennox Browne, an English physiologist, iinds that drinking and smoking affect the vocal organs, statistics furnished by no less than S80 professional vocalists having shown him that a singer should avoid all stimulants. A peculiar black paper of Siam and Burmah, made from the bark of certain trees, is used very much as are slates in Enrone and America. The writing upon it may be rubbed out by the application of betel leaves, just as slato writing is erased by means of a sponge. An electrician asserts that in bodies ? in which life is not extinct the temperature rises upon the application of an electric current, but never in the case of actual death. This fact supplies a test for use in cases where life is suspected to remain in persons apparently dead. "The sorrowful tree," flourishing only at uigut, is a singular vegetable of the island of Goa, near Bombay. Half an hour after sunset the tree is full of sweet-smelling flowers, although ova tn h/? eppn mirinc Hnv: no w "V G v? ?they close up or drop off with the appearance of the sun. The latest report of the Eussian Geographical Society makes the Lena delta extend nearly half a degree fariLwr north than on the best maps. Tho northern cape of Danube (Dounay) Island is placed in 78 degrees, 55 minutes north latitude, while on the Vega map it is 73 degrees 27 minutes. It appears that an alloy of copper, platinum and tin has been extensively used in Great Britain for jewelry with the object of deceiving pawnbrokers. The fraud has been very successful, as the compound resists the usual acid test for gold. The alloy has even been used for counterfeiting English coins. Several Spanish doctors have been practicing "vaccination" with cholera vims. It is reported that so much faith is placed in these experiments by people of all classes that 300 individuals were inoculated in Valencia in a single afternoon. A commission from Madrid has been sent to report on the result From experiments made in Germany by Professor E. Wollny, it appears that the air is considerably cooler over a field under crop than over a fallow field, and that the temperature fluctuates less in the former case than in the latter. The maximum of air temperature travels with the course of the sun, from eastern slopes in the morning to the southern at noon and to the western in the evening. The coal fields of China proper, ac- ^ cording to a paper read before the Philanthropic Society of Glasgow by Mr. A Williamson, have a total area of i 400,000 square miles. Both the Shansi and Heenan coal fields are greater than that of the aggregate of the prinmnal nrndnmnc ennntriea of ? r 0 ? Europe, and in other districts of north China the coal-fields are said to be seven times as large as all those of Great Britain. The coal is of various kinds, and iron ores are in all parts found in close proximity to the coaL A German agricultural chemist, Prof. Hcinrich, concludes that plants are best nourished when the plant-food in soil or water reaches a certain concentration, not the absolute quantity of plantfood but its concentration determining the fertility of a soil. Deep tillage without a simultaneously increased application of manure is hurtful, since the plant-food is thus diluted and the nutrition of the crop rendered more diffiftnlf Teflon tillflfro Ancniws l.eiorhfc cned concentration of plant-food6 increases, the harvest. Golden Thoughts. i Energy insures success in business. ' The great use of books is to rouse us to thought. ? * ? Happiness, like youth and health, is rarely appreciated until it is lost The future destiny of the child is always the work of the mother.?Napoleon. The sunshine of life is made up of very little beams, that are bright all the time. Show not yourself glad at the misfortune of another, though he were your enemy. Those who excel in strength are not mcst likely to show contempt for weakness. Good will, like a good name, is got by many actions, and lost by one.? Francis Jeffrey. Wherein you reprove another be unblamable yourself, for example is more prevalent than precept. Let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion.?Washington. Strict punctuality is, perhaps, the cheapest virtue which can give force to an otherwise utterly insignificant character.?J. F. Boyes. "Smiles are more than sunshine, Love is more than gold; Patient hearts and toiiing hands Bring joy and wealth untold." The great need of to-day is to appreciate how little we know, how much there is to be learned, and the selection of a right ideal or motive; a motive that will lead us in the right way, however small. A Veteran Correspondent. Maj. Ben: Perley Poore was among the gentlemen presented to President Cleveland recently. Maj. Poore, when he shook hands with the president, remarked that this was the seventeenth president with whom he had shaken hands. He has met them all except four. He met Monroe when a small boy in New York, and, later, when the major came to Washington, he very frequntly saw John Quincy Adams. He remembers Adams especially well, T 1- .4.4 4.1. _ 1 2 .J Dccaube unci; tue lajicg o* # a corner-stone of a public building. The day was hot and the president removed his coat. Young Poore had the pleasure of boiding this coat President Cleveland expressed great pleasure in meeting the veteran correspond*ent. He said it was very unusual to meet anyone in Washington who had lived there for any length of time. Poore has a very good memoiy of all the presidents from the time of John Quincy Adams. Jackson was the president, he savs, who inaugurated the practice of receiving office-seekers at the white house. Before him none of the small place-seekers were perpermittcd to sec the president It is probable that President Cleveland will in time succeed in restoring the old condition of things, and banish the ofiice-seckers as a class from the white house. - ..